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Two HuriDRED Years 


J^. Jl . vJT. I 


S0fittg iax t^t propagation ai i\it Gospel 

in jforeign |parts, 







" God is working His purpose oui, as year soooeeds to year : 
God is working His purpose oat, and the time is drawing near — 
Nearer and nearer draws the time, the time that shall sorely be, 
When the earth shall be filled with the glory of God, as the waters cover the sea. 

All we can do is nothing worth, nnless God blesses the deed, 

Vainly we hope for the harvest, till God gives life to the seed ; 

Yet nearer and nearer draws the time, the time that shall surely be, 

When the earth shall be filled with the glory of God, as the waters cover tlie sea." 


" Lift up lUHP thine eyea^ and look . . . northward^ atul southward^ ami eastward 
awl westward. . . . Ariae^ walk through tfie lan/1." — Gen. xiii. 14-17. 

VOL. I. 


^ublis^eb at % Socittg's <6&u, 

[AU rights t«r^p«f,1[ 


Y X 

tibc Society's Seal. 

(5s** poj/e 6.) 

,1 cguuil 

e niH)ri 

.ruble Hoci 
lis baud, ii 

and the maji at the bow bolding ut upen B 

in nKTul Brvbiteclure whicb (elU nt ■ ^luice the story oF its a|;e. Sut il is Ibe legend, 

utinclirsly sppUed to the Sooietj. For S.P.G. is vemftable uid tenemted the wmU i.ver 
becKniie it biui ftlwuyB liatened For ajid heanl Ibe oil, ' Come nver aud helpUB'; ocruas 
seu, pftthlSBS natil the Miuion-ehip made a oake in them, glowmg with other thui thf- 
phoaphoresoent light o{ ordtnitry nakee ; through wildemesBea, tmcklesH until they werr 
trodden by the leet of men shod witli the prepiirfttion of the Gospel ot Peace ; and over 
oontinuuls whrMe primiev»l (oregts the miiBiouttry blamd «ith the Sign of the Crogti."— 
BiBhop Dowjp, of Albftiij. U.S.A.; 



AM) To 



^^^fieir sounti ts gone out into all lands: 
and tf^tir ioor&s into ti)c rntis of tjbt toorlD/* 


Tb« Sociely's Chnrtet ul J701 iituuod Arobbiehop TeniBoa us the &ni I'rceident, and 
Birered tlie Society to cliooBe, un the third Friday in Febraar;, " oue President " for the 
ensning. The Jljvhbishop of Ciinterbui}' vbb alwiiys elected anDDally until, br the 
" ■ '■ 1, 1882, the Archbishop became cs o^cio Preudent. 

[ JklirUBBnOF[SliaNBII. 

Tlie iK>rlri>ita in Ih* Socivly's [xisseaBion bava lieen reproduced in ibe above form ihroQ 
le boonlT o( tbe Ute Rev. Bivmer Belcher (one of the Society's VIoe-proBidenW) M>d« 



The Society on entering on the two hundredth year of its existence- 
recognised ^with devout and humble thankfuhiess to Almighty Gocfi 
the measure of success vouchsafed to its labours in planting the 
Church in the British Colonies and in evangelising the heathen. 
In giving expression to this feeling at the opening meetmg* of 
the Bicentenary, the Marquis of Salisbury (a Vice-President of the 
Society) described the occasion as a great one : ''a standpoint iu 
the history not only of our Church, but of our nation/* That the 
Society should have lasted during these two centuries and "grown 
constantly in authority and power shows not only that God is with ns 
and has honoured us with a special call/' but that there is " a great 
field of duty open '* to us which we are " now summoned to possess.*' 

To '* make disciples of all the nations *' was the great command* 
and with this end in view the Society has adopted what Bishop G. A.. 
Selwyn termed " the surer way of spreading the Gospel to the utter- 
most parts of the earth/' by building up the Colonial Churches ab 
Missionary centres. But though its primar}' aim has been to save our 
Csllow-Christians from lapsing into Pagans, the work of converting 
Pagans into Christians has gone on simultaneously from the first. 

It seems fitting at a time when there has been so much rejoicing 
over the expansion of the Empire, that the spiritual side of the Imperial 
shield should be presented, showing what has been done towards 
the building of that Empire ''on the best and surest foundations/' 
and to ensure that the people may so pass through things temporal 
as to finaUy lose not the things eternal. One of the leaders:!- 
of the American Church recently asserted in St. Paul's Cathedral 

* Held in Exeter Hall on June 19, IIKK). 

t Bishop Dudley of Kentucky (sec "The First Week of the Bicentenary." p. 14). 


that ^'Greater Britain had been hardly a possibility save for the 
development of the Missionary spirit in the Church of England, 
largely through the operations of this Society." 

And (as so well expressed by the venerable Primate of Ireland), that 
'Hhe expansion of the Empire is not a mere vain boast," but that it 
*' means the expansion of the knowledge of Christ," and is due, '' under 
God, in great measure to the Society," is evident from the view here 

It wiU be seen that in the various Colonies and Dependencies 
of Great Britain there are branches of the Mother Church, minister- 
ing to both colonists and natives — races so numerous and varied that 
the mere acquisition of their names is no light task. Much of this 
must have been made manifest during the recent tour of His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Cornwall (now the Prince of Wales) aroimd the 

But while the Society's first duty ^is to the peoples within the 
Empire, its work of "propagating the Gospel in foreign parts" has 
extended to regions beyond Greater Britain, so that our own kith and 
kin, wanderers from home, are enabled to sing the Lord's song in 
strange lands, while at the same time Chinese, Manchus, Japanese, 
Coreans, and the dwellers in Madagascar, and in the Hawaiian 
Islands, and in Central America: and Ba Bonga and Ba Tonga, 
and Ba Putyu and Basuto, and Kaffirs and Zulus, and Swazis and 
Susus are also enabled to hear in their own tongues the wonderful 
works of God. 

This does not exhaust the list, but it will serve as an illustration ; 
and a full view both of the ** field" and the " harvest " is given on 
pages xxxviii-xli. It is there shown that the Society's field of labour 
in the past two himdred years has embraced every one of our Colonies 
excepting the Falkland Islands, besides India and the foreign regions 
named, and that of the ninety-seven Colonial, Indian, and Missionary 
Bishoprics of the Enghsh Church, all but fifteen contain Missions 
which were planted or supported by the Society (pp. xxxviii- ix). Many 
of the Churches thus planted are not only self-supporting but are also 
taking their part in the evangelisation of the world. For example, to- 
day there is " not an acre " of the territory of the great Republic on the 
continent of America that is not under the jurisdiction of some Bishop 
of the American Church. " From the Atlantic to the Pacific, from 
the furthest frozen North to .the fiower- bordered shores of the Mexican 
Gulf, stand the sons of the Church, the disciples of the Missionaries of 
this Society, to bear the one witness which they did bear." * In foreign 

* Bifihop Dudley. 


parts also — in West Africa, China, Japan, Hayti, Mexico, and Brazil, 
as well as in Cuba and Porto Bico — the American Church is bearing 
witness for Christ ; and it has recently taken over the spiritual care 
of the Hawaiian Islands, and is preparing to send a Bishop to the 
Philippines.* Dean Lefroy says there is hardly anything in the 
history of religion that can compare with this for power and for 
progress, and Bishop Dudley bids us *' be of good cheer ! for despite 
the lukewarm indifference of two hundred years ago, the result of the 
Society's labours in America is a marvel/' 

The races and tribes ministered to in the various fields of the 
Society in the same period exceed 180 in number, while the 
languages and dialects used by the Missionaries number more than 
115 {see p. xli). 

The first '* Historical Account " of the Society consisted of a 
summary of its work in North America from 1702 to 1728, by the 
Rev. Dr. Humphreys, the Secretajry, and was published in 1729 
(856 pages). 

After an interval of ninety years there appeared ** Propaganda," 
consisting principally of extracts from the Society's anniversary 
sermons, arranged under appropriate heads. This book of some 200 
pages deserves honourable mention from the fact that it was compiled 
and published in 1819 by the Bev. Josiah Pratt, Secretary of *' the 
Church Missionary Society," with the object of furnishing the Clergy 
with " such statements and reasonings as might enable them to plead 
the cause " of the S.P.G. in connection with the King's Letter which 
was being issued on behalf of Bishop's CoUege, Calcutta. The 
compiler (*^a Member of the Society") is said to have concealed his 
identity *^for fear it might hinder the circulation of the book." In 
any case grateful acknowledgment is due to him for his generous 
efforts to revive and extend interest in a sister Society. Already, in 
the "Missionary Register" (started by him in 1818), he had urged 
the S.P.G. to make its work better known. " Justice " (he said) " is 
not done to those patient and successful exertions by which it long 
reproached the supineness of others.'* 

(It is characteristic of the cordial relations between the two 
Societies at headquarters that at the time when the older institution 
was preparing to celebrate its Bicentenary, another Secretary of 

* The sending of a Bishop to the Philippines is the outcome of a petition of 
Church Clabs in America to the General Convention of the American Chux<iVi ^\Vcv 
a promise of support. 


the G.M.S. should have ecnne forward to advocate the claims of the 
S.P.O. Such proofs of sympathy should never be forgotten, and it 
will be gratifying to the gifted historian of the G.M.S. (Mr. Eugene 
Stock) to know that his sketch of the history of the S.P.O. and brief 
account of " its world-wide operations *' in the Church Missionary 
Intelligencer of May, 1900, proved of immense service in promoting 
the cause of the Society.) 

In 1828 the compilation of a history of the Society was entrusted 
to the Kev. John Wenham, while acting as *' Assistant to the Secretary 
of the Society,*' but in the following year Mr. Wenham took up a 
Missionary appointment in Canada, and the only trace of his literary 
labours is an incomplete proof of 818 pages. The publication stage 
does not appear to have been ever reached, and the attempt is not even 
mentioned by the Rev. Ernest Hawkins (Secretary of the Society from 
1848 to 1865), in his '* Historical Notices of the Church of England in the 
North American Colonies, previous to the Independence of the United 
States." This valuable book of 467 pages, published in 1845 by Fellowes 
(Ludgate Street, London), contained an account of the Society's 
work in the (now) " United States " and in Newfoundland and Nova 
Scotia in the eighteenth century. 

In subsequent years brief accounts of some Missions and Dioceses 
were published by the Society itself from time to time ; but the mine 
of material for a complete and authentic history of the Society's 
work remained to a great extent unexplored — even the mere number 
of the Missionaries employed in tbe past being unknown, to say 
nothing of their names, which were in most cases forgotten. 

The increasing number of requests made to the Society for the evi- 
dence, which only its records can supply, of early Church life, especially 
in North America, suggested in 1885 the idea of printing, verbatim cf 
literatim J the Society's MS. Journals for the years 1701-1800. 

Valuable as such a publication would have been, it would only 
have supplied in a more convenient form a i)ortion of the materials for 
a history of the first century, and as the estimated price — six guineas 
for the set of five large quarto volumes — proved prohibitive, the scheme 
was abandoned. 

The present writer then undertook the compilation of an authentic 
** chronicle of the Society's work in all parts of the world for the period 
1701 to 1892," which was pubHshed in 1898 under the title of " A 
Classified Digest " of the Society's Records (996 pages). In this book 
a narrative form was adopted, every field in which the Society had 
laboured coming under review in its turn, and copious references to 
^Iie authontiea on which each statement rested being given at the 


end of the chapters.* After passing through seven editions the book 
has been carefully revised and nearly 500 pagfes added, so as to 

give a complete account of the Society from its foundation to 

the present time. The additional pages represent a summary of 
15,000 pages of new matter. To ensure accuracy the local authorities 
have been consulted, and the aid received from the foreign Bishops 
and other Missionaries in correcting the proof-sheets, adds greatly to 
the value of the book, which is further enriched by many new 
illustrations, including portraits of the Bev. Dr. Bray, General 
Codrington, the Rev. John Wesley, Bishop Gray, and Dr. Machray, 
the first Colonial Archbishop. 

It will be noticed that in every instance the narrative has been 
continued, without a break, by the insertion of supplementary pages 
connecting with the old sheets, the references to the authorities 
being transferred to the end of the book. By this plan the incon- 
venience which would be caused to the reader by a separate supplement 
has been avoided, as well as the great cost which the alteration of the 
old stereotyped paging and cross references would have involved. It 
was not possible to connect the Missionary Boll in the same way, and 
the necessary additions in this instance are therefore given in a second 
part. One point in connection with the Boll deserves special notice 
here, viz., the loyalty of the Society's Missionaries to the Church 
of England. Of the 4,267 employed in the two hundred years, only 
four cases of secession to other Christian bodies are recorded in 
the Roll, while the accessions in the same period number over 100. 
Of the three who joined the Church of Rome, one had been selected 
and ordained by Bishop Broughton of Sydney, another (a native of 
Madagascar) ** returned " to the Romanists, ** whom he had left as a 
boy ** ; and one, and one only, was sent out by the Society, This is a 
sufficient answer to the attacks which have been made from time to 
time on the Societv, and should serve to reassure those whose confi- 
dence has been shaken by unfounded charges. It should be remembered 
that the Society has never been, and never can be, a party institution. 
As it represents the Church of England, no candidates are excluded 
from ite service whom the Church would admit, and none admitted 
whom the Church would exclude. 

The day may come when the Society will benefit pecuniarily from 

this position, instead of suffering as in past years. At present (as 

Archbishop Temple shows), though the Society '' has opportunities 

* The MS. letters and Reports of the Missionaries and others, and the printed 
Beporta and magazines of the Society, were consalted as well as the Journals — the 
records generally, in fact— bat no nse was made of Wenham'g proof, or, save in a 
few instanoea, of Humphreys* and Hawkins' accounts. 


given to no other set of men/' and is " presided over by all the Bishops 
of the Ohuroh/' and '' falls in with the ordinary working of the Church 
in all its regulations," and "may be said in a very real sense to 
represent the Church abroad/' it is ''not supported at all in pro- 
portion to that position which it has claimed from the beginning, and 
which has been accorded to it by all the leaders of the Church." 

The strength and importance of the Society's claims rest not alone 
on the achievements of the past : there is that " great field of duty 
open " to which Lord Salisbury referred when he urged the Society to 
remember that the world, however slowly, *' is travelling to the point 
where the government of all races will be done, not by organised force, 
but by regulated and advancing public opinion ; that you have in 
your hands one of the most powerful and one of the most sacred levers 
that ever acted upon opinion, and that it will be dependent not only 
on the zeal but also on the wisdom and Christian prudence with 
which you work that instrument, that the great results which we all 
pray for will be achieved." * 

How far these qualities have characterised the operations of the 
Society may well be left to the reader, but it may be added that 
'* an Apostolical Zeal, tempered with Prudence, Humility, Meekness, 
and Patience/' was laid down in 1706 as one of the qualifications 
required for the Missionary office, and the Missionaries were also 
instructed to '' take special care to give no Offence to the Civil Govern- 
ment, by intermeddling in Affairs not relating to their own Calling 
and Function." The faithful observance of this ''instruction" has 
contributed much to the success of the Mission cause, though it has 
not always secured the Missionaries from molestation, persecution, 
and death. As this touches the indemnity question, it is well to 
state here that in the late troubles in China, when three of its Mis- 
sionaries were murdered, the Society not only declined to claim, but 
actually refused to accept, compensation for the loss of life or of 
property, sustained by or in connection with its Missions. 

It remains to say that this book to some extent may be regarded 
as an endeavour to respond to the charge of the President of the 
Society to its officers in 1899 to " try to do the work which it is 
necessary to do at home — the work of stirring to the very depths the 
hearts of Christians, and making them understand why it is that the 
task" [of preaching the Gospel everywhere] "has been undertaken, 
and why it is that so long as the Church exists so long are we bound 
to persevere in pushing the great call on the attention of all who can 
be reached in any way." 

* Speech at the opening meeting of the Society's Bicentenary. 


Another charge of his Grace on the same occasion, and having a 
wider application, is here reproduced : ji^jL "TLu^-M^ 

" I charge all the members of the Society wherever they may be to 
be missionaries for the work which has to be done, and so to second 
the labours of the missionaries abroad and make them feel t hat th e 
whole heart of the Church of E ngland is at their b ack, and that with 
all her strength the Church of England means to take up the task and 
to carry it to its effective end. I beg all the members not to think 
that they have done enough if they attend meetings . . . ; not to think 
that they have done enough when they contribute of their money to 
the work of this Society, but to take in, as part of the work that they 
have to do, the conversion, not of the heathen, but of the Church of \ 
England herself, tojmderstand what the Lord is asking her to do.'* 

May this solemn charge meet with such a response as will enable 
the Society to do all that the Church abroad is asking it to do for the 
extension of Christ's Kingdom on earth ! As Bishop Corfe says : — 

" The S.P.Ci. stands upon the highest of all possible levels. It 
recognises its duty both to Englishmen and to persons who are not 
Englishmen, and declares in the most emphatic way that Jesus 
Christ is an universal Saviour, and hung on the Cross not only for 
Englishmen, wherever they may be found, but also for the whole 

C. F. P. 
ChristvuiH 1901. 


given to no other set of men/' and is " presided over by all the Bishops 
of the Ohuroh/' and " falls in with the ordinary working of the Church 
in all its regulations," and ''may be said in a very real sense to 
represent the Church abroad/' it is '* not supported at all in pro- 
portion to that position which it has claimed from the beginning, and 
which has been accorded to it by all the leaders of the Church." 

The strength and importance of the Society's claims rest not alone 
on the achievements of the past : there is that *' great field of duty 
open " to which Lord Salisbury referred when he urged the Society to 
remember that the world, however slowly, " is travelling to the point 
where the government of all races will be done, not by organised force, 
but by regulated and advancing public opinion ; that you have in 
your hands one of the most powerful and one of the most sacred levers 
that ever acted upon opinion, and that it will be dependent not only 
on the zeal but also on the wisdom and Christian prudence with 
which you work that instrument, that the great results which we all 
pray for will be achieved." * 

How far these qualities have characterised the operations of the 
Society may well be left to the reader, but it may be added that 
'* an Apostolical Zeal, tempered with Prudence, Humility, Meekness, 
and Patience/' was laid down in 1706 as one of the qualifications 
required for the Missionary office, and the Missionaries were also 
instructed to *' take special care to give no Offence to the Civil Govern- 
ment, by intermeddling in Affairs not relating to their own Calling 
and Function." The faithful observance of this ''instruction" has 
contributed much to the success of the Mission cause, though it has 
not always secured the Missionaries from molestation, persecution, 
and death. As this touches the indemnity question, it is well to 
state here that in the late troubles in China, when three of its Mis- 
sionaries were murdered, the Society not only declined to claim, but 
actually refused to accept, compensation for the loss of life or of 
property, sustained by or in connection with its Missions. 

It remains to say that this book to some extent may be regarded 
as an endeavour to respond to the charge of the President of the 
Society to its officers in 1899 to " try to do the work which it is 
necessary to do at home — the work of stirring to the very depths the 
hearts of Christians, and making them understand why it is that the 
task" [of preaching the Gospel everywhere] *'has been undertaken, 
and why it is that so long as the Church exists so long are we bound 
to persevere in pushing the great call on the attention of all who can 
be reached in any way." 

* Speech at the opening meeting of the Society's Bicentenary. 


Another charge of his Grace on the same occasion, and having a 
^vider application, is here reproduced : JHjL ^TLu^-M^ 

** I charge all the members of the Society wherever they may be to 
be missionaries for the work which has to be done, and so to second 
the labours of the missionaries abroad and make them feel that Jthe 
whole heart of the Church of England is at their back, and that with 
all her strength the Church of England means to take up the task and 
to carry it to its effective end. I beg all the members not to think 
that they have done enough if they attend meetings . . . ; not to think 
that they have done enough when they contribute of their money to 
the work of this Society, but to take in, as part of the work that they 
have to do, the conversion, not of the heathen, but of the Church of \ 
England herself, t o unders tand what the Lord is asking her to do/ * 

May this solemn charge meet with such a response as will enable 
the Society to do all that the Church abroad is asking it to do for the 
extension of Christ's Kingdom on earth ! As Bishop Corfe says : — 

" The S.P.G. stands upon the highest of all possible levels. It 
recognises its duty both to Englishmen and to persons who are not 
Englishmen, and declares in the most emphatic way that Jesus 
Christ is an universal Saviour, and hung on the Cross not only for 
Englishmen, wherever they may be found, but also for the whole 

C. F. P. 
Christvuis IDOl. 


given to no other set of men/' and is " presided over by all the Bishops 
of the Ohuroh," and *' falls in with the ordinary working of the Church 
in all its regulations," and "may be said in a very real sense to 
represent the Church abroad/' it is '* not supported at all in pro- 
portion to that position which it has claimed from the beginning, and 
which has been accorded to it by all the leaders of the Church." 

The strength and importance of the Society's claims rest not alone 
on the achievements of the past : there is that " great field of duty 
open " to which Lord Salisbury referred when he urged the Society to 
remember that the world, however slowly, " is travelling to the point 
where the government of all races will be done, not by organised force, 
but by regulated and advancing public opinion ; that you have in 
your hands one of the most powerful and one of the most sacred levers 
that ever acted upon opinion, and that it will be dependent not only 
on the zeal but also on the wisdom and Christian prudence with 
which you work that instrument, that the great results which we all 
pray for will be achieved." * 

How far these qualities have characterised the operations of the 
Society may well be left to the reader, but it may be added that 
'* an Apostolical Zeal, tempered with Prudence, Humility, Meekness, 
and Patience/' was laid down in 1706 as one of the qualifications 
required for the Missionary office, and the Missionaries were also 
instructed to ** take special care to give no OflPence to the Civil Govern- 
ment, by intermeddling in Affairs not relating to their own Calling 
and Function." The faithful observance of this 'instruction" has 
contributed much to the success of the Mission cause, though it has 
not always secured the Missionaries from molestation, persecution, 
and death. As this touches the indemnity question, it is well to 
^ state here that in the late troubles in China, when three of its Mis- 
sionaries were murdered, the Society not only declined to claim, but 
actually refused to accept, compensation for the loss of life or of 
property, sustained by or in connection with its Missions. 

It remains to say that this book to some extent may be regarded 
as an endeavour to respond to the charge of the President of the 
Society to its officers in 1899 to ** try to do the work which it is 
necessary to do at home — the work of stirring to the very depths the 
hearts of Christians, and making them understand why it is that the 
task" [of preaching the Gospel everywhere] ''has been undertaken, 
and why it is that so long as the Church exists so long are we bound 
to persevere in pushing the great call on the attention of all who can 
be reached in any way." 

* Speech at the opening meeting of the Society's Bicentenary. 


Another charge of his Grace on the same occasion, and having a 
wider application, is here reproduced : JHjL "TLu^>i^ 

" I charge all the members of the Society wherever they may be to 
be missionaries for the work which has to be done, and so to second 
the labours of the missionaries abroad and make them feel that the 
whole heart of the Church of England is at their b ack, and that with 
all her strength the Church of England means to take up the task and 
to carry it to its effective end. I beg all the members not to think 
that they have done enough if they attend meetings . . . ; not to think 
that they have done enough when they contribute of their money to 
the work of this Society, but to take in, as part of the work that they 
have to do, the conversion, not of the heathen, but of the Church of \ 
England herself, t o_understand wha t the Lord is asking her to do." 

May this solemn charge meet with such a response as will enable 
the Society to do all that the Church abroad is asking it to do for the 
extension of Christ's Kingdom on earth ! As Bishop Corfe says : — 

" The S.P.G. stands upon the highest of all possible levels. It 
recognises its duty both to Englishmen and to persons who are not 
Englishmen, and declares in the most emphatic way that Jesus 
Christ is an universal Saviour, and hung on the Cross not only for 
Englishmen, wherever they may be found, but also for the whole 

C. F. P. 
Christvuis 1901. 



[This lint is dravn up for the cofivenience o/ rentiers, especiilly tJwse ivJio 
are des-irous of advocating the claims of the Society^ hut it must not 
he regarded OjS a co nplete epitome. Further references will he found in 
the index (pp. 1390-1429).] 

'The unique position accorded to the Society by its establishment — the 
. joint action of the Church and of the State— as the Church's own instromeut* 
for effecting her extension into foreign parts (pp. 4, 6, 982-5). 

The maintenance and strengthening of that position, the whole Episcopate 
being now ex officio at the head of the Society's administration, and every 
Incorporated Member represented on its executive by his freely-elected 
• Diocesan Representatives (pp. 940-2). 

The extent to which the Society has obeyed the command to go into 
*' all the world " and preach the Gospel to '* every creature " (pp. xxxviii-xli). 
- [Bishop Samuel Wilberforce likened the Society to an *' Angel of Mercy " 
*' coming down into the troubled waters of an ungodly colonization, making 
one and another whole as they stepped into them," and he did not think 
it "too much" to say that "to its past labours America and our many 
Colonies owe their Christianity." The full force of this testimony is ex- 
emplified in the early history of North America and Australia.l 

* The S.P.G. wishes to act, not as a Society, but as the handmaid of the one 
Chri3tian Society, gathering together m one the many members that each may do 
ins or her part.— Bishop Samuel Wilberforc^ (of Oxford). 

*' We have in connection with'^lRs^Society, not a dead organisation, but a 
band of soldiers and servants of Christ, each occupying his allotted post in those 
harmonious relations of authority and willing obedience such as were ever seen 
in the ' willing armies ' of our Gk>d. This Society is the accredited organ of the 
'whole Episcopacy of our branch of the Church Catholic; it has all along 
addressed itself peculiarly to those duties which lie upon us as a Nation, those 
relating to our Colonies and dependencies ; it has ever gladly submitted itself tc 
our Bishops abroad, and placed its Missionaries at their disposal ; it has in 
connection with it, in east and west and north, seminaries for the education of 
Native Missionaries. I would speak freely though kindly as to other institutions ; 
but I would say, that however little this Society may in some places be known , 
because it has preferred to do rather than to speak of its doings, it is at present 

Society holds '* a defined relation to tne uhurch of England 
tively representing her both in its work abroad, and also in its claims upon all 
Church members for their contributions towards Missionary enterprise."- Bishop 
CJoPLEKTON (of Colombo). 

See aUo the Society's action, and the definition of its position, on the transfer 
vof the S.P.C.K. Lutheran Missions to it in India in 1825 (p. 503). 



(The Older Colonies, now " the United States.") 

Note the condition in which the Society found the older Colonies -some of 
the settlers being among ** the most ignorant and wicked people in the world/' 
either living without any religion, or *' like wild Indians," or ** worse than the 
heathen " (pp. 9, 12, 18, 15, 16. 20, 28, 33, 41, 52, 54, 57) ; others, in danger 
of becoming so, crying to the Society, " Come over and help us " (see the 
Salem appeal, pp. 58-4, also 10, 11, 23, 84) ; others, distracted with fanatical 
preachers and a variety of strange doctrine (pp. 37, 41, 45, 68). [" In the 
darkness of colonial isolation, when no man seemed to care for their souls, 
they trusted in Thee, and Thou didst raise up this Society to be their helper 
and guardian " (Bishop Dudley).] 

The peculiar trials and hindrajices encountered by the Missionaries : — 

(a) on the voyage from England (pp. 12, 81-2, 35) ; 

(6) in their Missions • -from the ravages of Indians (pp. 17, 18, 
21-2, 86, 88), and from the opposition of " sectaries," whose persecu- 
tion of Churchmen contributed to the conformity of many Dissenters 
and their teachers to the Church which showed " a more excellent 
way " (pp. 15, 21, 24, 87-8, 41-7, 5161). 

The disadvantageous position of the Church for want of a Bishop, and 
the sacrifices which had to be made by American Candidates for the ministry 
(pp. 24, 85, 748-50, 840-1). 

The Mission of John Wesley to Georgia (pp. 26-8). 

The work among the natives — begim (in 1708) and carried on in the 
face of much opposition from the settlers, and yet resulting in the conversion 
of ** great multitudes " of Negroes and Indians in less than forty years (pp. 8, 
12, 16-16, 22, 46-8, 88 9, 55, 68-74). 

Note the baptism of a Yammonsee Prince in London in 1715 (pp. 16, 
17), and the interview of Indian Sachems with the Society in 1710 (p. ^9), 
and the loyalty of the Mohawks to England, even to the point of exile and 
death (pp. 78-4). 

The Society's care of French and German refugees from Europe* (pp. 19, 

The assistance rendered to the Church by Colonial Governors (61-2). 

The heroic devotion to duty shown by the Missionaries, who, in spite 
of all disadvantages and hindrances, succeed in planting the Church in the 
land (pp. 8, 14, 15, 18, 28-4, 85-6, 89, 54, 62-74). 

The loyalty and sufferings of the clergy durinsf the Revolution (see 
the curious use of Cromwell's picture as a means of punishment, p. 49) 
(pp. 76-8, and 19, 25, 29, 89,40, 48-51, 55-6, 74-5). 

The withdrawal of the Society from " the United States " (p. 79), the 
consecration of the first American Bishop (p. 79), the fruit of the seed (sown 
in tears), and the tmdying gratitude of the American Church (pp. 79 87), 
which acknowledges that " whatever this Church has been in the past, is 
now, or will be in the future, is largely due, under God, to the long-continued 
nursing care and protection of the venerable Society " (p. 85). 

(The present British North America.) 

Christian colonisation in Nova Scotia in 1749 (pp. 108-9). 
The Society's response to the call for Ministrations for the various 
nationalities in Canada in the eighteenth century : — 

* See also p. xxx. 


(a) British loyalist refaeees (pp. 114-5, 126, 189, 142). 

(b) French, German and Swiss communities (pp. 111-2, 142-8). 

(c) Seffcoes (pp. 116-7, 133-4). 

{(t) Mohawk Indians {see next page). 

Deplorable effects of schism in a new country (p. 149). 
The Chiirch a barrier against fanaticism (pp. 118, 148), and a centre of 
unity (pp. 151-2). 

The first English church and the first organ in Canada (pp. 142, 144). 
The introduction of the system of National Education into Canada by the 
Society (pp. 119, 180, 146), and the establishment of Colleges for the training 
of an indigenous ministry (pp. 119, 130, 145, 779, 841). 

The foundation of the Colonial Episcopate (pp. 117-8), and the labours of 
Bishops C. Inglis (pp. 117-8), J. Inglis (pp. 119-20), C. J. Stuart (pp. 144-5, 
157), Feild (pp. 96-7, 100), McLean (pp. ISOd, c,/), Ridley (p. 191a). 

First visit of an English Bishop to Canada (p. 148), and to Newfound- 
land (pp. 94-5). 

Labours of the clergy (" not unworthy of the primitive ages ") (pp. 146-7, 
160) ; their scr\'ices during pestilence (pp. 150, 157) ; Milner the church 
builder (p. 131) ; Mr. Colley's jubilee (p. lOla) ; Mr. Temple (p. 99) ; Mr. 
Rule (p. 99) ; Labrador Missionaries (pp. 97-8, 1016). 

"The trivial round, the common task," in Newfoundland (101a), and in 
Algoma Diocese (p. 176a). 

The good effected in Bermuda (pp. 104-6), and the rapid progress of a 
manumitted slave (p. 105). 

The reformation effected among white men (pp. 101, 147-50, 184-5). 

Fruitful work among gold miners at Essington (pp. 189-90) and Glenora 
(" How is it we cannot get away from the old Church ? ") (p. 1916). 

Lay help and lay ministrations (pp. 95, 99, 101a -6). (Prince William 
Henry (William IV.) (p. 92) ; Mrs. Ridley (p. 191c).) 

Lay Baptism (pp. 98-9, 148). 

Affection shown for the Church in Newfoundland (pp. 88-91, 94, 99- 
1016), and in Labrador (p. 152, footmite), and New Brunswick (pp. 134-5), 
and N.W. Canada (p. 180^). 

Missionary meetings in Newfoundland (p. 1016). Relief of distress 
caused by the fire and bank failures in St. John's, Newfoundland (p. 1016). 

Growth of the Church in Manitoba and N.W. Canada (pp. 179-1806). The 
Riel Rebellion and Mr. McKay's gallantry (pp. 180^-/). 

Immigrations into N.W. Canada and mixture of races (p. 180^). Re- 
markable spirit of self-support in Manitoba and N.W. Canada (180a, ^, /). 

A model cathedral establishment (p. 1806). 

Mission to the Danes in New Bnmswick (p. 134). 

Confiscation of the Clergy Reserves ; Self-support eUcited at the time 
by the Society's aid (pp. 150, 161-3). 

Quebec's relinquishment of the Society's help (p. 152). 

Consolidation of the Church in Canada (pp. 176, 180c). The first Colonial 
Archbishop, and his great work (pp. 1806-c; portrait, p. 1766). 

Canadian Mission to Japan (p. 175). 

Loyalty the fruit of Church principles (pp. 148, 158, 160). First Imperial 
Church Parade in Canada (p. 152). [In connection with this we are reminded 
that though the Church of England can claim only some thirteen per cent, 
of the population of Canada, yet about sixty per cent, of the Canadian 
Volunteers for South Africa in 1899-1900 were members of the Church of 
England, a large proportion coming from Manitoba and the North-West. 
** Whatever strengthens the Church of England materially strengthens the 
British sympathy and connection " (Archbishop Machray).] 


Indian Missions in : — 

(1) Quebec and Ontario Provinces (pp. 186-40, 160, 153-4, 165- 
74). The loyal Mohawks' care of the Communion service given by 
Queen Anne (p. 166). Wonderful change wrought by Missions 
(pp. 171, 174, 176). Bev. A. and Mrs. Jamieson's services during 
epidemic (p. 178). Pagan Indians wait thirty years for " the English 
Black Coat " (174). 

(2) Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (pp. 112-8, 125-6). 

(8) North West Canada (Indians and hidf -breeds) (pp. 180^', m,fi). 
Attachment to the Church (p. 180^). 

(4) British Columbia (pp. 181-8, 191a-/) ; demoralisation 
caused by whites (pp. 183-6). Indians* cry for "light" (p. 191^/); 
Chiefs speech (pp. 187-8). Missions the miracle of the century (p. 
191c). '* Men whose histories were written in blood and sorceries" 
become disciples of Christ (pp. 187-8). Bescue of a Tahltan lad 
(p. 191a). 

The last of the Boeothick (p. 94). 
Chinese Missions (pp. 189, 191dr-e), 
Statistical Summary (pp. 192-8). 


Early efforts on behalf of the coloured population (pp. 194-5) ; the 
opposition to the same (pp. 196, 218, 220) ; the Society's exercise of its Trustee- 
ship of the Codrington Estates " a noble exception " to the general neglect and 
prepared the way for freedom (pp. 196, and 198, 197-208). 

The evangelisation of the freed slaves (pp. 194-6, 208-6, 229-80). 

How the day of emancipation was observed in Barbados (p. 208), and in 
Jamaica (p. 281). 

Codrington College — its foundation and work (pp. 198-9, 205a, 782) ; its 
closing averted by the help of the West Indian Committee (p. 205a) ; (view 
of College, p. 782) ; portrait of General Codrington (p. 200a). 

Present condition of the Codrington Estates (pp. 206a-6). 

The first Medical Missionary of the Society (p. 199). 

The tyranny of vestries (p. 196). 

Mr. Macmahon's escape in the slave insurrection (p. 2006). 

Consecration and reception of the first Bishop in Barbados (pp. 2006, 

Spanish cruelty in the West Indies and the benefits of British nile 
(pp. 228,288). 

Devoted attachment of the coloured population to the Church (pp. 214, 
216c, 224, 2896). Church building extraordinary (pp. 218, 280). 

Labours of Bishop Jackson — [the St. John of the West Indies] (pp. 216a 6), 
and of the Clergy in Antigua Diocese (pp. 2156-o). 

Hurricanes, and funds for relief of distress (pp. 198, 200, 208, 205-7, 214, 
2150). The church in which Nelson was married (p. 215c). 

The delays and dangers of travelling in days of old (p. 222). 

Missionary character of the work in the Bahamas, and progress during 
the episcopate of Bishops Venables, Cramer- Roberts and Churton (pp. 226-76). 

Mission to the Mosquitos m 1747-85 (pp. 284-6). 

First English Church in Nicaragua (p. 287). 

Colon (Panama) during the rebellion of 1885 (pp. 240-1). 



British Guiana as a Mission -field — ^the evangelisation of 

(a) the Negroes (pp. 242-8) ; 

(b) the Aboriginal Indians ($ee Mr. Brett's labours and great 
ingatherings) (pp. 248-251c) ; 

(r) Chinese (pp. 249-50, 251c) ; 

id) East Indians (pp. 249-50, 2old) ; 

practically accomplished in the first three instances. 
Success of the Coolie work in Trinidad (pp. 208-9a). 
Mission to West Africa (p. 205). 

First consecration of a Bishop in the West Indies (pp. 205a, 289a). 
The first Archbishop of the West Indies (p. 233). 
Statistical Summary (pp. 252-8), 


Thompson's Mission to West Africa in 1752, the ordination of a native 
in 1765 and his fifty years' ser\ice (pp. 255-8). The Pongas Mission (its 
welcome by Chief Wilkinson, p. 268) and the results of its work (pp. 260-76). 

(South Africa.) 

The Society's field : Capetown to the Zambesi (p. 254) ; beginning of work 
in 1820, and need of a Bishop (pp. 269-78). Consecration of Bishop Gray 
(p. 278) ; his first Visitation and Confirmations (pp. 275-6) ; interview with 
Kaffir chiefs (p. 276); toilsome journeys (pp. 281-2, 298); his death and 
review of his work (pp. 298-4) ; portrait (p. 295). 

The Society the mainstay of the whole Colonial Church (p. 274). 
Colonists* alrtachment to the Church in spite of neglect (pp. 277, 288-9). 
Communion after 84 years (p. 289). 

Mission to Mahommedans in Capetown (pp. 277-9, 295-6, 2966). 

Mission to Natives in Capetown Diocese (pp. 281, 286-7, 291-2, 295) ; 
the Church's strength among the coloured people (p. 296) ; progress almost 
startling (pp. 296a-6). Malay Mission (pp. 277-9, 295-6, 2966). 

Exclusion of natives from the Dutch Church (pp. 278, 281, 828, 851, 
858c). The first free and open church at the Cape, and in which a Kaffir 
communicated (p. 279). 

Kaffir War of 1851 : Day of humiliation and prayer, and observance 
of the Society's third Jubilee (p. 283). 

The Church (in 1855) doing more than any other religious bodv in South 
Africa (p. 287). " The Communion of Saints " (pp. 287-8). " A marvellous 
alteration for the better*' (p. 298). Progress during Archbishop Jones* 
episcopate (pp. 295, 2966 -c). 

Native Missions in Grahamstown Diocese (pp. 279-80, 297, 805). Murder 
of Rev. J. Willson (p. 801). Government support of Missions as a safeguard 
against rebellion (pp. 298-9). Keiskamma Hoek and industrial training 
(pp. 802-3, 3046). A polyglot Mission (p. 804c). Great and rapid growth 
of Kaffir Missions (pp. 804, 804a). Kaffirs* musical capacity (pp. 808, B16j), 
and Kaffir offerings in ohiuroh (pp. 8046-c). Ghrahamstown Cathedral 
(p. HOid) ; Railway Mission (804(7). Ethiopian movement and the Order of 
Ethiopia (804c-/, 305). 

Kaffraria and Kaffirs (p. 806). Archdeacon Waters* Mission (pp. 807-10, 
318, 816). The cattle killing delusion (pp. 807-8). Visit of Prince Alfred in 


1860 (p. 806). Witohoraft and its horrors (pp. 806, 809-11, 816^-o, q). 
Mission to Ghriquas (pp. 811-12, 816o-r, 817). Bishop Callaway's work and 
death (pp. 812-16). Bishop Key's labours among the Pondomisi (pp. 810- 
11) ; growth of work (pp. 816, 816a) ; his review of native Missions (pp. 
816a-c) ; his work and death (pp. S16d-e). Massacre of native teachers and 
other Christians (p. 811). Labours of Mr. Dodd (pp. 810-11). Loyalty of 
Kaflar Christians (p. 818). Native mmistry (pp. 815, 816a, 816e). (" A 
body of faithful, efficient, and excellent men.") First native pric^st (p. 815). 
The Fingoes as the missionary race of Africa (p. 816t). Bev. P. K. Masiza's 
work (pp. SlGi-k) ; his Easter services (p. 31^') ; his visit to the Holy Land 
(p. 816^). Missions in Pondoland, where murder and horrible atrocities 
were of "almost daily occurrence" (pp. 316^-o) Dr. Sutton's medical 
work (pp. 816n-o). Native Church Conferences (p. 816t^). Work among 
lepers (p. 816/). St. John's College (816^-70 ; native evangelists (p. 816/). 
The rinderpest year and its influence on the naming of children (p. dl6g). 

Kimberley as a Mission field (pp. 818a-&). 

Work among liberated slaves and Zulu exiles (pp. 821-2) ; in St. Helena 
(pp. 820-1). The storv of Tristan d'Acunha (pp. 822-4). 

Progress in Basutoland (pp. 826-7a). Bishop Hicks' death (p. 827c). 

Bishop Gray's visit to Natal (p. 828). Consecration of Bishop Macrorie 
(p. 882). Springvale Mission (pp. 882-8, 884i-/). Coolie Missions in Natal 
(pp. 884, 8d4e). 

Zulu cruelty (pp. 885, 888). Bishop Colenso's visit to Panda (pp. 885-7). 
Borke's Drift and Isandhlwana (p. 840). The Tinnevell v of South Africa 
(pp. 841&-«, M5b), No crime among native Christians in Zululand (pp. 841a, c). 
Dinizuiti desire for teachers (p. 841/). 

Pioneering in Tongaland (pp. 844-56). Delagoa Bay, &c., demoralisation 
of natives (p. 846). Evangelistic efforts (pp. 846ar-/). Testimony to 
American Christians (p. 846/). 

Bishop Gray's visit to the Orange River district (pp. 847-8). Barolong 
at Thaba 'Nchu (pp. 852-8a). 

The Transvaal as a Mission field (pp. S57-Sa-j). White and black 
heathenism at Johannesburg (p. 858^). Wonderful spread of the Gospel by 
native converts (pp. 858c-/, 858^^, t), A native chief's example (p. 858i-;;). 
The glory and excellence of the prospect before the Church (p. 858/). 

The Boer Invasion and War : Clergy relief fund (p. 296ti) ; Siege of 
Kimberley (pp. 8186, 319), and of Leidysmith (p. 884^), and Mafekiug 
(pp. 861c-(i). Expulsion of Bishop and Clergy from Transvaal and sentence 
on Mr. Jones (p. S6Sj) ; Wakkerstroom (p. 858i), Potchefstroom (p. 36Sc-d), 
Bloemfontein (pp. 858a-6), Mashonaland (p. S66o-p), Zululand (pp. 841^/ e, 
842), Enhlonhlweni (pp. 884/i-t), and Dundee (p. 884t) during the war. 
Death of General Symons and Mr. Bailey (p. 884t) ; Ministrations of Clergy 
to troops, and sick and wounded and refugees (pp. S34d-gf 846/), in par- 
ticular at Umtali (p. 866;) and Delagoa Bay (p. 846/) ; capture of Mr. Leary 
(pp. 862|^, 866p). Services of Dr. Booth and Indian stretcher bearers at 
battle of Colenso (p. 884e). Loyalty of Eaflirs (p. 804«), and of Basutos 
(p. 827eQ, and Zulus (p. 841e). Bishop Key (p. 816(2) and Bishop Carter 
(p. 841e) on the war — the latter's experiences (pp. S&Sk-l), 

Bechuanaland (p. 859) ; Canon Bevan's labours (p. d61a) ; Mafeking 
(p. 8416). 

Matabeland : Cruelty of the '' noble savage " (pp. 862-862c, e, 864, 
8666, d, m) ; ** killing Mashona is to them no more than killing sheep is to 
an Englishman" (p. 866m). The expedition against Lobengula: Bishop 
Knight-Brace's services (pp. 862a-c) ; Bulawayo Mission (pp. 3626, d^e). 

Mashonaland : Bishop Knight-Bruce, pioneer and founder (pp. 868-4, 
8666) ; first service at Fort Salisbury (pp. 864-5). Universal «^<i<ie^\.«w\iftfe ^1 


Church teaching (pp. 866, 8666,/) ; work of the pioneers (866a-c,/). First 
church in MashonsJand (p. 866/) ; Mashona language (pp. 866&-c). Bishop 
• Gaul's work (p. 866c). Illustration of the ignorance of first principles of 
free Church life and organisation (p. 366^). Defects of education in 
England (pp. S(56d-€). Native rebellion (p. 'd66d). England's responsibilities 
to native races (p. 366^). Steadfastness of Native Zulu Christians (p. 3663^) ; 
the martyrdom of Bernard (p. 866/t). The story of Unitali : baptism of 
the first two Mashona converts (p. 866t) ; *' How is there an English church 
here ? " ; the same church a miniature kaleidoscope of Greater Britain 
(p. 366/) ; Medical and Industrial work (p. 866Z). 

Paramoimt importance of Missions to Colonists (pp. ^90, 362e2, 366i). 
Conversion of the whites a necessary step to conversion of natives 
(p. 866^. White heathenism (pp. 800, 846^). What heathenism really is 
(pp. 866^, m, o, and 316/-o). Effects of Christianity and heathenism con- 
trasted (pp. 862e-/, 366^, and 816^). 

Laymen's testimony to Missions (pp. 296<^, 816o). No other way of 
raising the natives (pp. 341a, e). Lord Milner's testimony to the Society 
(p. 296rO. 

Grant of £30,000 from the Bicentenary Fund (p. 296d}, 

Mauritius : Coolie work (pp. 371-3a). 

Madagascar : The opposition to the sending of a Bishop (p. 877). Pro- 
gress during Bishop Kestell-Comish's episcopate (p. 880). The French 
occupation and the anti-Hova movement (pp.880, 880a-6, d^, g). Formation 
of a Brotherhood (p. 880e/). The Training College (p. 880c -c). French recogni- 
tion of Mr. Gregory's services (p. 880c). Progress at Bamainandro (pp.880c-/). 
Cruelty of the Malagasy (p. 880^). The Coast Missions (pp. 880.^-/). A 
brave and faithful Christian (p. 880/i). Persecution of converts (p. d80y). 
Murder of Catechist Abel (380;). Medical work (pp. 380^, Ic), 

English Church at Assouan (p. 381). 

Statistical Summary (pp. 882-5). 


Ungodly colonisation in its worst form, in New South Wales (pp. 886, 
390-4, 396), Norfolk Island (pp. 386,390-1), Tasmania (pp. 428-31 -note 
the convict's letter, p. 430), Victoria (pp. 405-6) ; and Queensland (pp. 410, 
414^, 415). 

The Society's efforts to save the convicts from a state more pitiful than 
that of the heathen (pp. 387-9, 392-7, 402, 429, 432, 771), and others from 
lapsing into heathenism (pp. 403, 411, 417, 421, 4276) ; the seed thus sown 
** increased a hundredfold" (pp. 4()2, 433). 

Laboiu-s of Johnson (pp. 386-8) ; of Bishops Broughton (pp. 390-3, 397, 
399) (protest against claims of Church of Rome, p. 395), Tyrrell (pp. 400-1), 
and Stanton (p. 414) ; and of S.viige, the travelling Missionary (p. 899). 
Testimony to the clergy, past and present (pp. 396, 4276). Ministrations to 
gold miners in Victoria (p. 407) and W. Austraha (p. 4276). Bishop Biley's 
charge of a diocese over a million square miles in area (pp. 427a-c). 

The importance of Christian colonisation further illustrated (p. 4146) ; its 
recognition in S. Australia (pp. 415-8), in Victoria (pp. 404-5) ; and in W. 
Australia (pp. 424-5, 428) ; first church at Perth (pp. 424-5). . Bishop Mont- 
gomery's testimony (p. 483). The need in the bush districts (pp. 4146>c). Six 


clergy for a district as large as the German Empire (p. 414c). Commmiity 
Mission at Longreaoh (p. 414c). Bishopric of Carpentaria (pp. 415, 424). 

Church growth (pp. 396-7, 414, 414a). Moore College (pp. 4146 -c). 
Foundation and extension of the Episcopate (pp. 892, 895, 897-8, 400). What 
the Federal Commonwealth owes to Church organisation (p. 886). 

Tasmania's example in self-help (pp. 482-8). 

Australasian Board of Missions (pp. 898, 409, 445, 451, 464) ; its jubilee 
(p. 408). Mission work among natives in Australia : (a) Aborigines (pp. 898, 
409, 418-4, 414d, 417-9, 425-7a), Dr. Hale and Poonindie (pp. 419-20), Atro- 
cities of bush settlers (p. 418) ; (b) South Sea Islanders (pp. 412, 414a), a 
Judge's testimony (p. 414a); (c) Chinese (pp. 898, 409, 412, 428); (d) 
Japanese (p. 414(^. New Guinea Mission (pp. 468-5). 

Statistical Summary (pp. 466-7). 


Christian colonisation in N.Z. (pp. 484-5). Canterbury Association 
(p. 489). The Church foremost in the field (p. 486). Advantages of the en- 
dowment system over annual grants (p. 485). St. John's College, *' the 
key and pivot *' of Bishop G. A. Selwyn's operations (pp. 486, 488). Value 
of industrial training (pp. 488-9). 

Labours of Bishop G. A. Selwyn (pp. 485-42) ; his testimony to the 
Society (pp. 437, 489, 440). Six dioceses mainly due to its aid (p. 442). 
A settler's testimony (p. 440). 

Maori Mission (pp. 440, 442). The Maori War and the Hau Hau fana- 
ticism (pp. 441-2). 

How starving the Colonial Churches hinders ** the surest method of preach- 
ing the Gospel to the heathen ** (p. 439). Dii!usive and fructifying character 
of the Society's colonial work : Melanesia an instance (pp. 445-449). 

The martyrs of Melanesia — Bishop Patteson and others (pp. 446-50). 
Society's efforts for suppression of the slave trade in the Pacific (p. 449). 
Bishop John Selwyn's noble work (p. 451). 

Pitcairn Island : stranger than fiction (pp. 452-4). 

Norfolk Island as a convict settlement (pp. 386-91, 894) and as a Mission 
centre (pp. 454-6). 

How the Church has done her duty in Fiji (pp. 457-9a) and in the 
Hawaiian Islands : The coming of kings ** to the brightness," and Kanie- 
hameha's translation of the Prayer Book (pp. 461-2). Chinese Mission and 
polyglot services in Honolulu (pp. 468 468a). Transfer of that diocese to 
the American Church (p. 468a). 

New Guinea Mission (pp. 4686-465). 

Statistical Summary (pp. 466 -7). 


(India— EXCLUDING Burma.) 

Early Missions in India : Syrian Christians and Roman Catholics 
(p. 471). English settlers* and traders' neglect of religion — seventy years 
pass before an English church is begun : the first Governor of Bengal 
beoomee an avowed Pagan (pp. 471, 501). 

The first Lutheran Mission to India one of the fruits and effects of the 
Society's example in America, and its object promoted by the Society (pp. 
471-2, 501 ; see also pp. 468-9). 


Foundation of Bishopric of Calcutta, and commencement of Sooiety't 
work in India (pp. 472, 474). Bishop's College, Calcutta, its waA uid 
present position (pp. 474-6). 

Transfer of the S.P.C.K. Lutheran Missions to S.P.G., and consequent em- 
j)loyment of only ** episcopally ordained clergymen," in accordance with the 
** invariable practice " of the S.P.G. (pp. 501 3). 

Subsequent extension of the Society's operations (p^). 472a, 505), and of 
its system uf work, which covers the whole ground of Missionary enterprise — 
educational, pastoral, evangelistic, medical (p. 504^). 

The Society's principal Missions : 

(1) Tinnevelly, in which stronghold of devil* worship (p. 582) Dr. 

Caldwell helped to found the Church, and, as Bishop, to build up 
and consolidate a work till it ** attained a prominence unequalled 
in the Missions of the world" (p. 550). Nazareth, the model 
Mission, ** a very home and workshop of Christ," with its 12,000 
Christians, is cited as '' a perfect specimen of the harmony of all 
forms of study and energy under the dominant power of the 
Christian faith " (pp. 550 1, 558l', 6', /). Rejection of proposed 
transfer uf Society's Mission to C.M.S. (p. 584). Progress (pp. 
538-40, 547-8, 550-1) ; '* Encouragements quite outweighing any 
disappointments " (p. 553c). Visit of Bishop Spencer (pp. 685-6). 
Native Christians' address to Queen Victoria (pp. 540-1). Visit of 
the Prince of Wales (King Edward) (j). 547), and the Duke of 
Clarence (p. 551). Accession of 35.000 natives during the fiamine of 
1877-8. Centenary celebration (pp. 547 8). 

(2) The Telugu Mission (pp. 5(>2o 7), *' perhaps the most promising of all 

the S.P.G. Missions in India" (566, 566ri), people " coming daily 
ti) Capernaum, as it were, seeking Jesus," flocking in more rapidly 
than the missionaries can receive them (pp. 566a b), and proving 
their sincerity by noble sacrifices (pp. 566a, 567). Progress arrested 
by lack of workers- -suffering and sacrifice of overworked staff 
(p. 5666). The Nunc Dimittis of Basil Wood (p. 566c). Nandyal 
College and ^Ir. Andrews' aid (p. 566^0. 

(3) Chhota Nagpur (pp. 495a-5007/). ** Sirs, we would see Jesus.'* At 

the death (in 1895) of one of the inquirers there were over 120,000 
Christians, where fifty yeiurs before the people were all devil- 
worshippers (pp. 496, 500). See also Mr. Batsch's Nunc Dimittis : 
he finds Chhota Nagpur withoiit a single Christian, and leaves it 
with more than 42,000 (p. 499). 

(4) Ahnuidnagar (pp. 580-6/^), the most promising and the largest of the 

Society's Missions in [Vrstcrn India (p. 5866). The helpless out- 
ci\sts, despised as '* the lowest of the low," are the first to throw 
away their idols and embrace the one true God, and are " rising 
up," while the high and mighty Brahmins, on their own testimony, 
are "going down." "What a work Missions are doing in this 
country ! " says a Brahmin doctor (pp. 580, 5866). Most of the 
Mahars and Slangs are more or less willing to become Christians. 
Pathetic appeals for teachers (pp. 58(5 586«)« Ernest Browne — 
" an cximiple to all workers " (p. 5866). 

*■ The devils are supposed to be ever going to and fro in the earth and wander- 
ing up and down in it seeking for opportunities of inflicting evil, always malignant, 
nes'er merciful, their wrath to be appeased, not their favour supplicated. In one 
hamlet of nine houseb us many as thirteen devils were worshipped (pp. 582, 589-40). 


(5) Cawupore and (6) Delhi — Missions originated by the English 
residents (pp. 690, 612). Massacre of missionaries in the Indian 
Mutiny (pp. 595-7, 615-6), and revival and extension of the Missions 
(Cawnpore, pp. 598-600; Delhi, pp. 615 28^). Steadfietstness of 
Ram Chmider (pp. 613-5) ; labours of Mr. and Mrs. Winter 
(pp. 627, also 615-26), and Mr. Maitland, and the Maitland Bequest 
(pp. 627 and 628a). 

(7) Hoorkee (p. 602). Converts from all classes and castes, the result of 

twenty years* work (p. 603). 

(8) Hewarri (p. 628^), an example of patient labours in a heathen wilder- 

ness (pp. 628^-^). 

(fl) Assam (pp. 606-116) ; an instance of " thoroughly sound and good " 
results of work among natives and Europeans (p. 611a) ; a " flourish- 
ing Christian colony,*' the outcome of a Kol convert*s zeal (p. 611). 

(10) Tanjore (pp. 511-166) and (11) Trichinopoly (pp. 527-6806) ; examples 
of sreat success in the educational branches, and (from lack of 
woi^ers) of stagnation in other respects (pp. 516, 530). Schwartz 
centenary (pp. 5 16a- 6). 

{See also Cashmere and the hopeful Mission at Jammu, pp. 656-7.) 

Work of Commimity Missions at Delhi (pp. 626-8^), Hazaribagh (pp. 
500/i-n) (see welcome by Ranchi Christians, p. 600Xr), and Cawnpore (pp. 599a 

Education {see also p. xxx-xxxi) : Value of Society's schools and colleges 
(pp. 600cf, h, m, 504a, 506, 510, 515-6, 530-5306, 771-3) ; nearly all the 
education of Tinnevelly in the hands of the missiona^es (pp. 643, 55j3/;) ; 
change wrought in the boarding schools " a moral miracle *' (p. 566a), and 
gives a new perception of the power of Christ in His Church (p. 566<Q. Higher 
education influences those who can be reached in no other way (pp. 500d, 
h, irif 509, 516, 549, 553o) : offers " almost boundless opportunities,*' and 
apart from its secular success its moral and reUgious influence is incalculable 
(pp. 629-306, 6286 c, 773). 

A pupil of Dapoli School becomes Senior Wrangler at Cambridge (p. 587). 

Government recognition of the need of moral training in its educational 
system : " What India wants is not so much M.A.S and B.A.s as men who 
can be trusted with small sums of money" (p. 6286, and tee p. 772). A 
Hindu's indictment of the Government system of religious neutrality : 
" Your scientific education has made our children irreligious, utheistic, 
agnostic; . . . you say you have given us Ught, but your light is worse 
than darkness. . . . Better (blt that our children should remain ignorant 
of your sciences, but retain the simple faith of their ancestors, than that 
they should know all the ologies of the day, but turn their backs upon 
religion and morality as rags and remnants of a superstitious age" {see 
the remainder, p. 628). 

Work among Women : Without their education and enlightenment the 
difficulties of the conversion of Hindus and Mahommedans " almost insuper- 
able " (p. 617). Female education the greatest lever which can be used for 
the regeneration of Indian society (p. 553c). Hindu girls, ordinarily, ** do not 
count as members of a family, and they rank more with the cattle " («.^., 
** You might as well teach monkeys as women ") (p. 653^. Education and 
training of women now csuried on in variety of forms, and with blessed 
results. {See Index references under the ' following heads : ** Education, 
Female," *' Orphanages," ** Women, Work among," " Women's Mission 
Association," ** Zenanas," and " Medical Missions," and note the Christlike 
work done at Dellii (pp. 6280-/) and elsewhere.) 


Medical work (p. xxxiii). 

Evangelistic bands : The Gospel preached to 80,000 heathen in one year 
(pp. 680, 56Sd-e). 

Work among the blind (pp. 500f-g, 558c), the deaf and dumb (p. 558c). 
Famine : Over 100,000 siifferers relieved by the Society without respect 
to race, caste, or creed, and provision made for the maintenance of ntmibers 
of orphans (pp. 4726, 485, 548, 599c, 628) ; advantages and benefits of this 
system (p. 4726). Services rendered by the missionaries during the time of 
plague. Danger arising from ignorance and want of sympathy between 
Indians and Europeans (pp. 485, 572, 5886, 699b -c, 628). 

Caste and caste troubles : caste " a more serious evil than superstition " 
(p. 539) (pp. 500/1, 506, 612-4, 616a, 517, 519, 521-2, 624, 530c, 538 (riots, 
pp. 56da-b) ). Caste agitation in Tinnevelly, and Bishop Gell^s pastoral 
(pp. 504a- 6, 553a). Christian firatemity at Nazareth, where members of 
eighteen castes unite (pp. 5586 and 5046). {See also pp. 537, 560.) 

Other trials, sacrifices, and persecutions which natives have to face on 
becoming Christians : On joining the Christian Church they are (a) regarded 
as dead by their relatives (pp. 530^^, 538) (c.^., Simeon*s cross : his relations 
would have killed hun ** rather than he should have lived to forsake the faith 
of his forefathers,** p. 693) ; (6) or are persecuted (0.^., a Christian's ears cut off 
because he refused to perform an idolatrous service, p. 542) (pp. 477, 487, 
497, 508, 520, 587, 539, 6606, 564, 566c, 601, 603, 603a) ; (c) or deprived 
of their property (pp. 497, 542, 5606, 6566). See other references to 
'* Persecution *' in Index. (Note how converts witness a good confession 
under the most grievous persecution, and ** endure to the end.") 

Society's policy in regard to Mission boundary questions — cases of Vellore 
(pp. 526-7), Madura (pp. 554-5, 558-9), Ahmadnagar (pp. 680-1, 588-4), and 
Jammu (pp. 656a-6) (and see ** Boundary " in Index). 

Beligions of India (p. 471) ; see notes on the Arya-Samaj and Brahmo- 
Samaj (p. 600) ; Mahommedanism (p. 6284), and Hindu Pilgrimages (pp. 
488, 500n, 6036). Note also how Mahommedans and Hindus fi-aternised 
recently in combining to resist the Government plague regulations (pp. 
6996-c, 628). 

Legal rights and disabilities of native Christians (pp. 4726, 478, 518, 
628/) ; the Lex Loci Act of 1850 (the charter of religious freedom), and a 
case in point (p. 508). The Royal Proclamation of 1858 (p. 478). 

The extension of the episcopate (pp. 472a, 755-6, 767). Size of the 
original Diocese of " Calcutta " (pp. 752-8). State opposition to its sub- 
division (pp. 755). Society's scheme of 1876 for ten Missionary Bishoprics 
(pp. 755 -6). Failure of experiment of Assistant Bishops (pp. 504, 547, 561-2). 
Satisfactory scheme (due to Bishop Johnson's statesmanship) for additioneJ 
Bishops on the basis of consensual compact and canonical obedience (pp. 
499, 552, 757). Contrast the jealousy and alarm caused by the foundation 
of the first Indian Bishopric in 1814, especially the suppression of the sermon 
at the consecration (p. 472), with the present position — six of the Bishoprics 
being now filled by former Missionaries (p. 472a). Note Bishop Wilson's 
testimony to the Society (pp* 480-1) and deaths of Bishops Heber (p. 528), 
French (p. 627), and Matthew (p. 628a). 

Increase of Christian population of India — " four times as fast as the 
Hindu and Mahouuuedan populations generally " (p. 4726). Marvellous 
progress of the native Church' in S. India during episcopate of Bishop Gell, 
to whose worth Orthodox Hindus bore witness as eloquently as the most 
enthusiastic of his followers (pp. 504, 604a). 

Native ministry. Examples : Eols in Chhota Nagpur, " an earnest, excel- 
lent, God-fearing set of men " (p. 5OO0). Tamils in S. India, " priests who 
themselves are the descendants of devU-worshippers, but who, through the 


power of Christ, would be an honour to any Church in Christendom " 
(p. 504a). Some undertake foreign service (pp. 507, 510). Note murder of 
Rev. J. Gnanaolivu (p. 510). (See also ** Karens '* in Burma.; 

" Self-support." Examples : Tinnevelly (pp. 545-6, 650, 558-4) ; Telugu 
district: The converts in some instances *' for every Bs. 100 contributed'' 
" are actually out of pocket to the extent of Bs. 1,000 " (pp. 566, 566a, 567), 
and see Index. 

Value of industrial training in enabling converts— even the blind and deaf 
and dumb— to obtain an honest livelihood (pp. 55Bc-e2), and in raising the 
tone of a Mission and helping to spread Christianity (pp. 558c- (2, 579-80, 
and 500^, 558, 599c, 608). Lace-making introduced by Mrs. Caldwell 
(p. 544). Scheme of agricultural settlements for oppressed converts (p. bSOd). 

Further testimony to Missions : " No class of Englishmen who have done 
so much to render the name of England respected in India as Missionaries " 
(Sir W. Hunter, p. 472a). Their Uves "a standard, an example which all 
of us would wish to follow" (Sir C. A. Elliott, Lt.-Gov. of Bengal, p. 4726). 
A large Christian congregation formed among a people of whom a Govern- 
ment official had said *' if you can make this kind of creature into men you 
can do wonders " (p. 500^). " The knowledge and the integrity of this irre- 
proachable Missionary have retrieved the character of Europeans from 
imputations of general depravity " (Beport of Commander of British Army 
in 1788). Of the same Missionary (viz. Schwartz), the ferocious Hyder Ali 
said, "Let them send me the Christian^ he will not deceive me " (p. 511). 
*' The sight of TinneveUy scatters to the winds almost all that has been written 
to disparage Mission work " ^Bishop Geil, p. 548). " The spiritual life of the 
Christians of Tinnevelly will oear comparison with any body of Christians of 
the same standing in the Church ; whether in ancient or modern times " 
(Madras Diocesan Committee, p. 552; see also p. 504d), *' 1 cannot imagine a 
more perfect and complete system of education," combining as it does " the 
mental, spiritual, and bodily training which we all desire" (Sir A. Havelock, 
Governor of Madras, on Nazareth Schools, p. 558/). ** Your Christians are 
the poorest, the lowest in the country, and yet in spite of famine, opposition, 
and even persecution, they are increasing in numbers and influence. I can 
only explain this on the ground of the high moral teaching and the goodness 
of which Christianity is the expression " (a Hmdu gentleman, p. 560(7). 
'* Christianity is the only religion which can raise up these poor people. 
Hinduism is useless for this. Mahommedanism cannot raise them " (a 
Mahommedan magistrate, p. 566e2). As an example, see the contrast between 
a Hindu village and a Christian settlement — the former with its fear of 
demons, the whole life and existence of the people centred in the heathen 
temple and its worship — and the latter with its service of love (not of fear 
and trembling), and the superiority of the people, socially, mentally, and 
spiritually everywhere apparent (p. 558/). (See also pp. 488-9, 500c, and 
832^ on the effect of Christianity in the appearance of converts, " the new 
look in the very faces of those who have tiumed from the worship of devils 
to pray to a Father in heaven," and 500c-dy 508-4, 504a, 515, 625-6, and 
other "Testimony " pages in Index.) Note also the Bengali Life of Christ, 
written by a Hindu Pandit (p. 5001), 

England's duty to India — to give her Christianity in place of the ancient 
religions, which are being killed (p. 472a). Inadequacy of the Society's 
means to enter ** regions rich with the promise of future blessing " (pp. 505. 
516, 5166, 580). 

Ministrations to Europeans : Bishop Welldon's efforts to secure a loftier 
Christian standard (pp. 472a, 658). 

Statistical Summary (pp. 780-8). 



Buddhism '' the religion of despair " (pp. 629-dOa). No conntry more 
open to mission work. Variety of races: Forty-two languages spoken 
(p. 6d0a). A heathen contributes to the starting of the first Church Mission 
(p. 031). St. John's College : its great and varied work ; 9,000 pupils 
of many races educated under Dr. Marks (pp. 634-9) ; Mandalay Mission 
one of its offshoots : Burmese King's gift of church and other buildings, and 
Queen Victoria's gift of font (pp. 648-51). The first Burmese priest of the 
English Church (pp. 631, 651). James Colbeck's life and influence (pp. 
651-2). The deliverance of the Karens, and their steadfastness and love for 
the Church (pp. 641-7). Humble and devout, and contented with small 
salaries, the Karen Clergy have proved eminently suited to the wants of the 
people (pp. 645, 646^). Salmon the master-builder (p. 646a). Attempts to 
raise the Andamanese and Nicobarese (pp. 653-5). 


England's former neglect of religion (pp. 660-2). Twenty-five years* 
progress (p. 663). The Society gives a missionary character to aU the 
Church's work and proves *^ the true handmaid " (pp. 665-7). St. Thomases 
College the great spiritual centre (pp. 665, 669). Industrial education 
(pp. 669-70). Work among the Veddahs (p. 678). Mistaken views as 
to Buddhism (pp. 664-5). Buddhist activity and opposition (pp. 664, 667, 
670 1). 


Benefits of Rajah Brooke's administration (pp. 682-8), and of Dyak 
Missions : head hunting, cannibalism, and other evils give way to Christian 
teaching, the white man now regarded as a friend, ana the missionary wel- 
comed everywhere (pp. 682-8, 690, 6906, 691). Converts become voluntary 
evangelists, build churches, and prove faithful (pp. 686, 688, 6886, 690, 
690a-&). Some villages entirely Christian (pp. 6886, 690, 690a). Work pro- 
moted by medical aid (p. 690a). Debt due to the pioneer Bishop and his 
fellow workers (p. 687). 

Chinese work — at first checked by rebellion (p. 685), afterwards makes 
good progress (pp. 687 -8a, 689-90a, 693-4, 694a). 

Work among Europeans (pp. 692-4) and natives (pp. 6946-c) in North 

The Straits Settlements reject disestablishment policy (p. 696). Poly- 
glot Mission at Singapore, and Mr. Gomes' labours (pp. 697 8). 



Bishop Scheresohewsky's labours (p. 703). The Society's pioneers 
(pp. 705-6, 709). Famine Relief (p. 706). The anti-foreign movement of 
1899-1900, and martyrdom of missionaries and their flocks (pp. 711a, 716a) 
(origin of the ** Boxers," p. 711a) ; Lord Alverstono on the martyrs (p. 711a). 
Vindication of missionaries (p. 7116) ; *' the Chinese enormously benefited 
by their labours," and the troubles " are direotiy due to heathenism '* ; 
Christianity the only hope of deliverance fi:om the "yellow peril" 
Ipp. 7116-c); testimony of Chinese authorities (pp. 711,711/). Lord Salis- 
bury's declaration that the Missionaries '* cannot renounce, they cannot 
abandon, they cannot even be lukewarm in the commission which they have 
received. . . . There is nothing which can be more devoted and more free from 


secondary motiTes than the MisnonarieB who leave these shores " (p. 7115). 
Caution and prudence of S.P.G. missionaries (pp. llli-j). The Society*8 
refusal of compensation for its losses (pp. 711c, h, j). Siege of Peking 
(pp llld-e), and of Tientsin, and death of Mrs. Scott (p. 711/). 

Mr. Greenwood's labours and bequest (pp. 709, 711«, h). Value of 
Medical Missions Opp- 70B, 7116, d, e, h). 

Proposed five new dioceses, one (** Shantung *') practically provided for 
(p. 71U). 


A Mission with " the seal of apostolic poverty *' (p. 714). Value of 
medical work in preparing the way for evangelisation, " The hospital of 
jo^ in good deeds'' (pp. 714, 716, 715a-0). Native superstition— list of 
spurits $. 716a). The tractate ** Lumen" (pp. 7166, c). The (prospective) 
♦* lona of Corea " (pp. 716c, d). 


The change effected within twenty-five years : formerly proscribed as an 
" immoral religion *' (trampling upon the Cross being an annual ceremony), 
Christiamty luts "kindled a new light in the hearts and consciences of 
men,'* and won a secure position for itself, at least as a moral power (pp. 717, 
728. 724e). 

Wisdom of the various Anglican Church Missions (S.P.G., C.M.S., 
American and Canadian, and specially of Bishop Bickersteth) in establishing 
one duly organised body, which aims at becoming in reality, as well as in 
name, the National Church of the country, and a rallying point for the 
divided Christendom of Japan (pp. 724a -c). 

Chaotic state of religious feeling in Japan (pp. 724<f, e). Revival of 
interest in the ancient religions, and mischief * caused by the ** Parliament of 
ReUgions " in Chicago in 1898 (p. 724). 

N.B. — ^The Society and Archbishop Benson declined an invitation to take 
part in the so-called *' Parliament." (See the reasons stated on p. 7626.) 

The Society's aid in establishing the principle of "Non-Society" 
Bishops (Dp. 724, 727) ; fruitful character of its work (pp. 724e-/). Services 
rendered by Archdeacon Shaw, and Japanese recognition of the same (p. 724/) 
and Bishop Foss (pp. 725 -7a), also by the native clergy (who are "hardly 
to be excelled in any Church," Ac.) (p. 724p), and by native converts 
(pp. 724a, g, i). 

Work amone Japanese soldiers and police (pp. 724c, d)^ and seamen 
(p. 724/) and the Eta (p. 724^), and in the Bonm Islands (pp. 727a-6), 
and Formosa ^. 7276). 

Statistical Summary (pp. 780-8). 


The Assyrian Christians (pp. 728-9). Cyprus and Haifa (p. 729). 

* In illustrating the hopelessness of Asiatic life without Christian faith, Bishop 
Partridge of Kyoto recently referred to the case of a Buddhist priest found by 
some of the missionaries in a Chinese temple. He was dirty, unkempt, impure, 
degraded, and as he sat in his repulsive filthiness as the representative of his 
reUgion he had hanging from the cord about his neck a card of invitation to the 
Parliament of Beligions. This represents the reality of that etherealised and 
idealised paganism conjured up by Western Ohristians as the result of reading the 
religious books or making a hasty survey of the life of the East. 



Help to Amsterdam and Moscow in 1702-8 (pp. 784). Society's *' fra- 
lemal correspondence '* with the Reformed Churches, and admission of 
representatives to honorary membership, lead to fomidation of similar 
societies (p. 784). Help for galley slaves and persecuted Palatines, Vaudois,* 
and others, and for Debritzen University (p. 786). Vryhouven bequest 
(£44,971) to Society (pp. 785-6). 

Chaplains for the Crimea, four of whom sacrificed their lives (p. 786). 
Crimean Memorial Church and Mission, Constantinople, and its work (pp. 
787-8, 742-3) (view, p. 931c.) Ordination and death of two Turkish 
converts (p. 737) — ** to convert a Turk of Constantinople . . . almost tanta- 
moimt to inviting him to undergo immediate martyrdom * (p. 787). 

Ministrations to English congree^ations on the Continent (pp. 788-42) ; not 
an intrusion or mission to make proselytes, or to interfere with other 
Churches (p. 741) ; but wherever our countrymen find their way they are 
accompanied by the Church (p. 740). Work among sailors (pp. 741-2). Inter- 
communion with Swedish Church (p. 789), and with American Church (pp. 789, 
742) ; and friendly relations with the Eastern Churches (p. 742). Canon Curtis' 
work (pp. 736-7, 742-8). Chmrch buildings vested in the Society (pp. 742a- 6). 
St. Paul's, Valetta, and Hardman Trust (p. 7426). 


Foundation and growth of the Episcopate (pp. 748-59). Note the struggle 
for Bishops for America (pp. 748-51) ; the opposition — unexampled for its 
intolerance — to the Church; and that for nearly the whole of the 18tii 
century the Society " furniflhed the only point of contact, the only bond of 
sympathy between the Church of England and her children scattered over 
the waste places of the New World " (p. 746) ; see also list of headings under 
"Episcopate " in the Index, and list of Bishoprics and Bishops (pp. 757-8, 
768-8), Society's expenditure on Bishops (\iz., £862,760), and the number 
aided (viz., 184) (p. 759). 

Church organisation — from " meetings *' and vestries, to Synods (see 
** Organisation (Church) " in Index). Lambeth Conferences (pp. 761 -2a). 
" If there had been no Society for the Propagation of the Gospel there would, 
humanly speaking, have been no Lambeth Conference *' (Bishop Lightfoot). 
Recognition by the Conference of the work of Foreign Missions as standing 
"in the first rank of all the tasks which we have to fulfil'* (p. 762a). 
" Parliament of Religions" at Chicago (p. 7626 ; tee also p. xxix). 

Education (pp. 769-74, also xxv). Comprehensive character of this branch 
of the Society's work: the beginning with a "Catechising School" lor Negro and 
Indian slaves in New York in 1704 (p. 769); the introduction of the "National" 
system into North America in 1815 (pp. 769-70) ; the great work of educating 
freed slaves in the West Indies in 1834-50 (pp. 770-1) ; the schools for convicts 
and natives in Australia (p. 771) ; and the progress made in India, where the 
Mission schools rival the Government schools, and higher education is to a 
great extent in the hands of Christians— a result partly due to the exclusion 
of moral and religious instruction from the Government schools— an evil 
which even Hindus recognise (pp. xxv, 771-2). Value of the High Schools and 
of the Boarding Schools, Seminaries, and CoUeges ("the strength of the Christian 

* The Vaudois are said to be descended from those refugees from Italy, *' who 
after St. Paul had there preached the Gospel," abandoned their beautiful country 
and fled to the mountains, where from generation to generation the Gospel has 
been handed down " in the same purity and simplicity as it was preached by 
St. Paul." 



cause in India ") (p. 778). Society's principles for conduct of Mission schools 
(pp. 778-4). The aid of the Marriott beqaest in developing educational 
work (p. 774). Account of Colleges and Training Institutions 5>P- 774a-97). 

Books : Distribution o( and gifts to Colleges, including Harvard (an Inde- 
I»endent) College (pp. 79B-9). The Negus Fund (p. 799). List of Transla- 
tions (pp. BOO-l&d). Note the Mohawk Prayer Book, begun in 1715 (p. 800). 
The Society's Home Publications (pp. 818(i-16) ; its Library (MSS. " Wliite 
Kennet/* and general collections) (pp. 816-7). 

Medical work : The beginning in Barbados in 1712, in New Zealand in 
1842, in Borneo in 1848 (p.SlOd), and subsequent development in Asia (p. 816a), 
and in Africa, &c. (p. 817), till there are now 80 Mission hospitals and dis- 
pensaries, and 178,000 cases are treated in a year (pp. 81Ga, d^e). Note (1) 
the great work at Nazareth, where natives thought that a God had descended 
amongst them (p. 8166), and at Delhi, eliciting the boundless thanks of the 
native women (pp. 8166-c), to whom the dispensary "is like an idol's shrine : 
with such amazed and adoring thankfulness do they receive help *' 
(p. 816c). Mark also the Christlike services performed by the native Christian 
nurses (there is nothing in the creed of Hindu or Mahommedan to fit a 
woman for such work) in homes fiill of physical and moral filth, and in 
which the sad scenes and terrible sufferings of women and little girls are 
too shocking for publication (pp. 628c, 816c) ; (2) the wonderful opportunities 
for ministering to the souls as well as the bodies of the afflicted (p. 628c). 
Splendid work also in other parts of Asia, resulting in fear and prejudice 
giving way to friendship and confidence as the people experience mercy and 
love unknown in heathen life (pp. 816/, 817) ; while in Africa the power of the 
witch-doctors is broken, and the way opened for the Gospel (p. 817, also 
dl6n-o), and the Coolie Mission wins the support of Hindus and Mahom- 
inedans, and renders praiseworthy service at the battle of Colenso (p. 817, also 

Emigrants and Emigration : Past neglect (p. 818) ; reforms achieved 
on sea and land (p. 820). The great loss to the Church owing to the failure 
to supply emigrants with letters of introduction (pp. 818, 820). 

Litercession : Day of united prayer suggested in 1709, but not fixed till 
1872 (pp. 820-1). Further provision made and still needed (p. 821). 

Funds and Home Organisation : First subscription list (p. 822). Notable 
help from Ireland (p. 828). Boyal letters (pp. 828-5). Special Funds (pp. 
8286-829a, and specially ArchbiBiiop Benson's remarks, pp. 829a-6). Table 
of Income and Expenditure (pp. 880-2), and '* Funds *' in Index. Junior 
Clergy Associations, their work, and boundless possibilities (p. 828a). 
Children's Associations (pp. 828a-&). 

The Bicentenary: Co-operation received, espeicially from the C.M.S. 
(p. 882a) ; the opening services and meetings (pp. 8S2b-c) ; the meetings 
abroad : e,g, in Capetown, under Sir A. (now Lord) Milner, and the " Feast 
of Tabernacles " in Tinnevelly, where 5,(X)0 Christians assembled (pp. 882c-<^. 
Royal and other contributions to the Bicentenary Fund. Self-denial of 
native Christians * (p. 882(2). Concluding meeting, and Grants from the 
Bicentenary Fund (p. 882(2). 

Security of Church property (p. 833). Anniversary Sermons (pp. 888-5). 
Analysis of preachers : only one Indian or Colonial Bishop as yet selected, 
viz. Bombay in 1901. 

Society's Offices and Secretaries (pp. 835-6). Bishop Montgomery's 
election (p. 886). 

* In the Nazareth Mission, all the Clergy, cateohists, Christian masters and 
mistresses gave one month's salary in full, whilst the children in the schools 
denied themselves in various ways to give to the fund. 



The Missionaries (pp. 886 -46). See " Missionary " in Index. Note speciaUy 
the strict observance of Church principles in the selection, appointment, and 
removal of missionaries, and in the management of the Missions generally 
(pp. 84'2-3), also the " choice Missionaries *' from Ireland (p. 840), and the 
sacrifices made by the early colonial candidates from America - the voyage 
proving fatal to one-fifth of those who ventured on' it (pp 840-1) ; the list of 
Brotherhoods (p. 8466), the Roll of Martyrs (p. 931^/), the General Missionary 
Roll (pp. 849-981c), the Summanrof the same (p. 847), and the loyalty of the 
Missionaries already noticed in the Preface (p. xiii). 

The Women's Mission Association (pp. 846, 846«r, and Index) — what it 
owes to Mr. Rullock (p. 846) and Miss 13ullock (p. 840a), and the value of its 
ever-growing work, by which means thousands of children are brought under 
instruction, and native women in zenanas and harems receive offices of 
mercy and love which only ladies can perform (p. 846a ; see aho *" Medical 
Work," 816c, &c.). Grants from the Bible Society for Bible women (p. 846a). 

The Charters (pp. 982-8) and the notes thereon, and on the constitution 
and functions of the Society and its Committees (pp. 989-42). 

List of References to authorities (pp. 1800-1889). 

The Index (pp. 1890-1429), especially the following subjects: — 

Agreements as to Mission 



Bible, The. 

Boards of Missions. 





Church building. 

Church Councils. 

Church Discipline. 

Colonies, Religious State of. 

Colonists, Hindrances of, to 
Conversion of Natives. 

Colonists in a Heathen 



Demons and Demon- 

Discipline, Church. 

Disendowment (see State 

DisestAblishment {see 
State Aid). 

Dissent and Dissenters. 
Endowments aided by 

Foreign Mission Work 

of American and 

Colonial Churches. 

Lay Mission Agents. 

Medical Missions. 
Missionary Effort. 
Native Church Councils. 
Native Ministry. 
Native Races under 

British and under 

Foreign rule. 
Organisation (Church) 

Organisation, Home 

{see Funds). 

Parliamentary Grants for 



Principles of Society. 


Results of Society's Work. 

Roman Catholic Mis- 
sions, &c. 

Roman Catholic Opposi- 
tion to Anglican Mis- 

Roman Catholic Aeoes- 
sions and Secessions. 


Scottish Church. 

Self-help and Self- 

Slaves and Slavery. 


State Aid to Religion. 

Testimony to Missions. 

Testimony to the Society 
and its Missionaries. 

Victoria, H.M. Queen. 

Wales, The Church in. 


TIMES.— "Oontaining what the Archbishop of Canterbury [Dr. 
Benson] juatly called ' b, most completo and faacinating aocount 
of the work of the Society from the very beginning, full of 
interest in lie narrative and full of vividnesa in its touches.'" 

AMERICAN CHURCHMAN [(^ iMrfins paper of (4= Churek ht the UnitM 
Stahi']. — " Misaionary literatarc has seldom, if ever, rsceLved Each an addition ae 
IE afforded by this work. . . . Every paragraph is o( permanent ami manifest 
vulue and Intereal, and ihe Church owes Mr. Tasuue .1 debt which it will always 
gratfifully acknowledge and can never pay." 


MISSIONS.— ■■Taking the vo'ume all in all, il is, to oor mind, about the most 
wonderfal missionary book which his been given to the Church since the Acts of 
Che Apostles." 

C.H.S. INTELLIOENCEB.— •Thisisatxuly vtonderfnl book. . . . We have 

always thongbt that the Church Year Book was the most remarkable monnment 
of patient industry in Church publications, but it is completely beaten now hy 
the work before us. ... A splendid model foi all published records of Societies 
and Institntiona. ... A really epoch-making book." 


for all, whether clergy or laymi 
misitiouaiy work abroad. . . , A i 

and, in fact, indUpensable compendii 
vno are concerned with the promotion 
usetul and maritorious publication." 

CEUBCH qOARTEHLY REVIEW.-" It needs a quick eye and 
exeeptiatiBl power of appreciation to gather out of a huge mass of materials 
each a histoiy as is heie given us, without overburdening the yiage with one 
anperSaODS line, and yet so to enlivea it with telling and vivid touches that 
the reader is carried 011 with unllagginfc interest to the end. . . . The one 
serioDs hindrance to the production of so indispensable a chronicle was the 
vast tabour it would involve. . . . Ur. Pascoe has satisfactorily solved the 
problem. ... It would be hard to surpass the cunning with which these 
sketches are drawn. . . . Kegardcd in its broad sweep and tendency as recorded 
. . . witboDt any attempt to conceal defeat, and without any boasting over 
victories gained, Cbnrchmen cannot but gratefully recognise the deep debt 
owing to the venerable Society (or the work it has done in her behalf. . , . The 
reader ia carried on unweariedly by the charm of the narrative. Wherever true 
Cbnrch work has had to be done on tmu Cbnrch lines the Society has been the 
stannchest of allies, and her wisdom has been Justified of her children. ~' 
■ Seeerd.' which embrace* the history of a new mission started about every 
jean sinoe 1701, makea up, as the Archbishop of Canterbury has said of 
marreUoas book, a fascinating account without a dull page." 


L the I 


CHURCH TIMES,— "A wpll-Umed publication admirably pnt tui?ether, 
. . , There is really a thrilUuK iulerest in the hisioiy which it contaiDs, . . . 
We can assure the reader that these narratives are delighltul all through. . . 
We know ol one Bishop who has put done certain chapters of the book for his 
Ordiiiation candidates to be eiamined [rom. A yeiy wise choice. , . , Wlierever 
we lum iu the volume ne (iod matter which liolds ua delighted, and the candi- 
dates for the ministry, as well H9 the children of our families, will always be 
glad 1o resume their study of it." 

DAILY OHBOHICLE.— " A monument not merely of industry, but ot 
dcxteiit)'. ... A triuniph <il precit work and a key to the whole history oC 
Protestant Misaiona. . . , Here we have an admirable compact summarj of the 
fioclely's nolle, with ionumenible sidelights upon Colonial history, progress and 
prospects, ontlining the gradual development of Christian miBsions during the 
last two centuriea in a manner not only succinct and accurate, but also enter- 

SATURDAY REVIEW.—" A atrildng impression of the continniiy and 
extent of the operations of the 8.P G, throughout the world." 

SPECTATOR,—" Admirably done."' 

ATHEN£DH.—"NDtadry abstract! it is full ot graphic and vivid toacbea, 
which render it not only iostruotivc, but interesting reading." 

SPEAKER.-" Admirably arranged, and written with enviable lilerar] skill 
by Mr. G. F. Pascoe. The narrative is, in reality, oC great historical value. . . . 
it Irsces the gradoal growth of the work step by step all over the globe, until 
lhi« splendid record of Christian lielievlng and doing ends with I be planting of 
new Missions, within the last four years, in Corea, Mashanaland, New Guinea, 
and Manchuria." 

MORKIHG POST.—" Mueh as this volume may be valued, and deservedly 
valued, BB an iiuportant history ot Christian extenfion in distant lands, it 
possesses distinct and decided claims on the attention ot the historian, the 
philologist, and the general reader, all of whom will Qnd its pages instructive." 

RECORD.^" A capital book. . . , a marvellous condensation. , . . The 
narrative captivates de by ils interest." 

ROCK. — " A book which no missionaiy library ought lo he without." 

OXFORD REVIEW Ulw Uniergradvuiei Jinirnal].— " It is a volume which 
oDght to be on the book-shelves of every Christian man." 

CAMBRIDGE REVIEW.— "We most heartily recommend this book to the 

THE COLONIES AND INDIA.-" We are now brought (ace to face with 
operations of a magnitude which can have been hardly even saspected, attended 
with a dc^ee of success that the earliest missionaries woold have characterised 

as a perfect dream. ... A stupendous record. ... A work to which glad and 

proud reference will be made through all futnre time." 

CANADIAN GAZETTE.— •' The Society could have no nobler testimony to 

its work duiing the past two centuries." 

LEEDS HERCURY.- " All friends of foreign missions, whether favourable 
' IS Society or not. should make themselves acquainted with tliia volnme." 
YORKSHIRE POST.—" It is a mine of wealth lo those interested in the 

foreign mis.ionary work of the Church." 

CANADIAN CHURCH MAGAZINE [«c iTgcn of the Canadian Board of 

MUnam'].— " The value of this book cannot be OTcr- estimated. . , . It is really a 

history of the Anglican L'hurch in the Colonies all over the world (or well-nigh 

the last two hundred years." 

UVEBPOOL CODBIER.— "A marvelloaslf entcrtniuiag and iaBtructivc 
voTk. , ■ . The storj of Che Societj'H opcraliooB in Cuooda, ai a time nlien tbe 
whole oE the Dominion woh a 'grcnt lone land,' ia as engrossing as any 
comance, , , . The Society is to bo congratulaled on the production of such a 
book, ajid the English Church ma; ne)l be proud of the noble record therein 

CRDRCH BELLS.— "A priceless contribution to Mixeiooarj lilemiure. . . , 
Nearl; two ceotDriEs' work of the Society tor the Pio[>Bgution of the Oonpel In 
bound to provide a splendid and glowing record of hiatoiy and of Cbrfitian 
deTOlion. Tbe labour in arranging and oondeosiag the great piles of documentary 
Bvidenoe . . . mait have been immense. The result, however, is excellent. 
Herein we hare, told not in dry sentences copied ooC of a minote-book bnt in a 
pleafant and interesting way, the marvellous story of the fn'eat development of 
ihe work of the S.P.O. ... It is ImpoEaible to hint at the resnltg of so vast a, 
task, Missiooar; work biui been ilone in every cornet of the world. . . . This 
book deserves the carefal study of both clergy and laity, and it ought to have the 
eSect of producing largely iucicased support towards tbe work of one of the 
noblest missionary societies in Christendom." 

ECCLESIASTICAL GAZETTE. -"There ha< not appeared a more vnluabie 
book relating la the Mistion-work of the Church. It abounds with the very 
information respecting Church Uiseioos wliich bo many persons have longed for 
for years.'' 

AKOLICAN CHURCH LEAVES.—" It it the greatest Missionary record of 
Ihe century." 

LOHDOK QOABTERLY REVIEW [H'rt;<yaj.],-"lt is a worthy record 
of a great Society. . . . Mr. Fascoe has not only earned the gratitude of his own 
Society, hut ha.^ laid all lovers of missionary work under a lasting debt by his 
researches, . . , There is not a dull page in this portly volume ; nor is there a 
page which does not tcacli many lessons, even t« those whose principles and 
methods are most at.variance with those of Che great High Church Hisaioanry 

ILLUSTRATED MISSIONARY HEWS.-" A very wonderful book. In 
fact. Its icerits. Its vast area of information, and the colossal, patient, painsl&klng 
effort which must alone have produced its charming pages from a heterogeneous 
mass of ' records.' are beyond all praise." 

ILLUSTRATED CHURCH NEWS.-" In thU book we hnve the counteipart 
of Seeley's ' Expansion of England.' Here is the spiritual side of Che Imperial., 
thietd, ... It certAinly bus much of the charm we sometimes fail to recetra 1 
from rotnance. . . . The book is indeed fascinating." 

FREEMAN ("Organ of the Elaptist Denouiination "). — "A most completi 
and valuable acconnt of the work of Che Society from the hf^inning, . . . Thi 
ralne of such a concise and exhaustive recoid of work accomplished is great." 

DAWN IK mVlA [l!i'^proan<>ftAfChriltiauLiUTat>inS'ieii!tv/<"Iiidia}. 
" We cannot point to a finer specimen of honesi, laborious, and suoceBsful wo 
of the kind. . , . Tlio narrative, thot^h abridged, is full of well-chosen inddenl 
and graphic touohes, both pathetic and amusing, so us to make Che densely 
packed pages as interesting as they are instructive. M.r, Poscoe has, by his able 
and self-denying labours, done imporlaat servloo, not only to his Society, '—' " 
the oiase of Uissions in all Chnrchee." 


a glorious 

ANGLICAN CHURCH MAGAZINE.-' MarvellouK ami faMinaiing ... a 
book Uiat will be iodispensable to every Btuijeiit of modem Cbuich bistory.'' 

BELIGIOUS BEVIEW OF REVIEWS.-" A monumenlal record of a ktcbI 
work . . . «xcellenily doue. . . . The thiinkE of ilie Miasiuoary world ba moch 
si« ot the S.P.G. llselt are ciuo lo Mr. Faacoc, who liiia so nblj carried [it] to a 
sncoeisful conclusion. . . . Tt la a marvslloas i^ompllatioQ, ia which the clearnecs, 
and accuracy, and sufScienoy oE [be information afFordod are ai striking as the 
grip of the subject in all its tearings needful for the conden^atiots of so much 
history into a single volnme." 

INDIAN CHURCH QOABTEBLY REVIEW.-- We doubt whether aiiy 
werk of an hisloncal DBturo bits been published witbio Iho present century of 
Huch general interest to Churchmen. . . . We have been surprised and gratiGed. 
HgHiin and again, at tho skill with which the compiler bos condensed ori|iinal 
docutzientB. and Ht the same lime has given us a contiQuous narrative which 
is not only leadable. but is presented in a most attractive itud interestinii: 

BOMBAY DIOCESAN BECOBD.-" To those who in the thick of the 
Church's Missionary work lind their hearts not nnfrequently bowed down within 
them with the sense of the sinpendausness of the work, and the apparent slow- 
ness of results yielded, this goodly hook mustsurely come as a real and welcome 
refreshment. To the Chui^ at large, while it is a work fraught with the 
intensest interest to every intelligent observer of her progresf, it will also prove 
an onanaweiable vindication of the reality of her evangelintic labours against all 
thoee who would make ii their task to impugn it. . . . Nothing coold demonstrate 
to us more clearly that the Church's progress, it seemingly alow, (mit perhaps at 
times hardly perceptible to those carrying it on, is yet one of steady and massive 
advance all along the line," 

NATIONAL CHURCH.— "The information hero so vividly presented and so 
orderly arranged, though primarily interesting to those who feel at heart the 
Hupreme importance of eilendjng the Qospel to ail the regions of the habitable 
globe, yet will have its interest to the student of modem civilisation, to the 
student of foreign languages and dialects, and of geogmphy, and to the philon- 
Ibropist, treating as it does of medical misaions. of edncation, of manners, 
customs, and supers! itions, of languages and dialects in foreign parts. No work 
that has hitherto appeared has diHuEed so much light as the present volume on 
the various aspects of heathenism. It is abundantly dear that no Society has 
done more for the extension of the Gospel, not only among our aoloniste abroad, 
but throughout the heathen world," 

apellUwoKlr * Be, Lli., l-rbiUr,, Ktir^rut S^mr,, 


(i'fc nlao " NoTABlLii," pp. ; 

AND Dlt. BltAY AND BISHOP C. INdl.IS {pp. i. ii). 

PREFACE (pp. ii-xv), AKD KOTAUILIA (pp. ivi-i 

THE FIELD (pp. xxiviii-ix). 


Part . 






,-AW. .-.lOU .■A.;t. 


1. Origin, Oljeot, ftad 
of tha Sodatr 




11. North Ameriea- 



757 - 


UI. Sontb CaroUn* 





IV. WMth Cfttolina 




V. OMTgia . 




Tl. Virginia . 



Vn. KaryUnd 




Tni. FamurlTMila 




IX. H«w lagland 




X. Hnr JfrM7 


— 854-9 


XI. Hew Torlt 


775 856-0 


XII. Svauunrotn 



1306, 1858 






J^ffi-ir. O.Ueg« «•«?-">• Authoritta. 

and Bishopn 





XIII. British North 

America — 


XIV. Newfoandland 

4 N. Labrador 88-108 

XV. Berxnada . 

XVI. Nova ScotU, 

Cape Breton, 
ft P. £. Island 

XVII. NewBmnevick 186-86 

XVIII. Qnebeo ft Ontario 

XIX. Quebec ) 

XX. OnUrio » 

XXI. Manitoba and - 

N.W. Canada 177-81 

XXII. Britiih ColombU 181-91/ 

Statiftical Summary — 

XXIII. West Indies, 194-6 
Central and 
S. America 

Introduction . — 
XXIV. Windward lelde. 196-806 










768, 768 





148-68 . 198-8 

168-76 • 







860, 980<i 



7786 869, 930c 

778 878, 980(2 

779-80 879,980e 


768, 768-4 

198-8 i — 

868-8 768,764 — 

XXV. Tobago 
XXVI. Trinidad 


XXVII. Leeward Island! 810-16(2 
XXVIII. Bahamas . . 816-876 
XXIX. Jamaica . 828-88 

XXX. Moskito Shore . 834-7 
XXXI. BritishHonduras 838-96 
XXXIa. CosU Bica 8396 

XXXII. Panama . 840-1 

XXXIII. British Guiana . ' 848-61(2 
Statistical Summary | 






— 268-3 — 

XXXIV. Africa- 
Introduction . 864 

XXXV. West Africa . 264-676 

XXXVI. Cape Colony : 

W. ft S. Bivs. 868-86 

XXXVII. Cape Colony: 

W. Division 286-96(2 


768, 766 






— 891, 980; 

, 891-2, 
7886,784 ] 980;.;^ 

1306, 1868 



1809, 1868 
1811, 1868 

888, 930^ 1811, 1860 

1311, 1861 

883, 930^ 

1818, 1861 


1818, 1861 

886, 930;( 

1818, 1861 

886, 980/1 

1818, 1861 


1818, 1868 


1814, 1868 

1814, 1368 

.888, 930/ 

1814, 1868 



889, 930i 

1814, 1868 

889, 980j 

1316, 1868 

1816. 1868 

1317, 1868 









XXXVIII. Cape Colony :— 
S. BiTiiion 

{contintied} . 



XXXIX. Kaifraria . 



XL. eriqnaland 



XLL St. Helena 



XLII. TristondAcnnha 



XUII. Ba«atoland 


i 884-5 

XTilV. Natal 


: 388-8 

XLV. Zalaland . 



XliVI. 8wasUand 



XLVII. Tangaland or 
Mapataland . \ 




XLVIII. PortoflrneM 8.B. 

Selagoa Bay, Ac. 



Oaialand . 



XLIX. Orange Biver Col. 



L. Transvaal 



LI. Beelinanaland . 



LIL Matobeleland . 



1 »» 

LIII. Maihonaland . 


1 ** 

LIV. **]Cakombe's'* 


LV. Central AfHoa . 



LVI. ManriUni 



LVil. Madagaeoar 



LVIII. Northn. Africa . 



Statistical Snmmary 



and Bishops 


758, 765 



















^^®8^ Roll • 



r 898-5, 
785-a \980i^/ 

786a-6 I 895, 9802 

( 896-7, 

— . \980m 

— 897,930iH 



786c |897.930//«-t< 

786 888-9,93071 

7866 899, 980o 

— 900, 930o i 

— 930o 

786c j900,930o 

786c |901,98qp 

— 901, 980p 

— j 930p 

— ' 908, 930p 


902, 930(2 

f 903-4, 
1 9302 -r 




1317, 1364 

1318, 1364 

1318, 1364 

1318, 1365 
1319, 1865 

1319, 1865 

1319, 1365 



1820, 1866 

1320, 1866 

1321, 1867 

1381. 1867 
1881, 1867 

1381. 1868 
1388, 1368 



1388, 1870 

1322, 1370 

1323, 1870 

Lix. Australasia- 



LX. VewSonthWales 

ft Norfolk IsUnd 886-408 

LXI. Victoria . 

LXII. dneensland 
LXIIL Scnth Australia 
LXIV. Westn. Australia 

LXV. Tasmania. 
LXVI. New Zealand . 







466-7 758, 766 — 




















906, 930r 


1909, 980s.^ 

910-1, 980/ 

1323, 1870 
1384, 1871 

1324, 1871 

1824, 187n 

1825, 1871 
1885, 1871 

1325, 1871 







and Bishops 




VMiK 1'A<IK 





LXVII. Melaneiia 



758, 766 




1326, 1871 

LXVIII. Pitcairn Iiland 







LXIX. Norfolk Iiland 

{continued) . 






1326, 1371 

LXX. Fyi . 





1326, 1872 

LXXI. Hawaiianlilands 

4636 1 



1327, 1872 

LXXII. New Guinea 






1327, 1872 

Statiitieal Snmmary 



— - 


LXXIII. Asia\^Intro- 



758, 767-8 


LXXIV. India J duction 
LXXV. Bengal 


f 470-1 


758, 767 

769,795a 913-5,930^/ 

1327, 1872 
1327, 1372 

LXXVI. Madras . 





(915-20, i 
1 dZ^w 

1331, 1374 

LXXVII. Bombay . 





1337. 1377 

LXXVIII. H.-W. Province! 






1840, 1877 

LXXIX. Central „ 






1840, 1378 

LXXX. Aisam 





922, 980J- 

1840, 1879 

LXXXI. Puxgab . 






1341, 1379 

LXXXII. Burma 





r 923-4, 

1342, 1880 

LXXXIII. Caihmere . 




924, 9302 

1345, 1381 

LXXXIV. Ajmere 

^ 657-8 




924, 9302 

1345, 1381 

LXXXV. Europeani in 
IndU . 




^^— « 


LXXXVI. Ceylon . 



758, 767 



1345, 1381 

LXXXVII. Borneo and 
The Straits . 



758, 768 


J 926-7, 
1 930^,931 

1348, 1388 

LXXXVIII. China . 





927, 931 

1351, 1884 

XXXIX. Corea 





928, 931a 

1351, 1885 

XC. Manchuria 





1852, 1886 

XCI. Japan 



758, 768 



1852, 1886 

Formosa . 





XCII. Weitem Asia . 



758, 768 


1355, 1887 

Statistical Snmmary 





XCIII. Europe. 



; 758,768 


1 9316-c 

1358, 1887 



XCIV. The American Episcopate and the English Colonial and Missionary 

Episcopate, with Notes on Church Organisation Abroad (pp. 748-68). 

( Anthoiities, pp. 1858-4, 1 887.) (List of BUhoprics, pp. 757-8, 768-8.) 

XCV. Education, Part I. (pp. 769-74). Part II. Colleges, with illustrations 

(pp. 774a-797). (Authorities, pp. 1855, 1888.) 
XCVI. Books and Translations (pp. 798 •816a) (Authorities, p. 1855.) 
XCVII. Medical Missions (pp. 816a-18). (Authorities, p. 1888.) 
XCVIII. Emigrants and Emigration (pp. 818-20). (Authorities, p. 1865.) 
XCIX. Intercession for Missions (pp. 820-1). (Authorities, pp 1856, 1888.) 
C The Society's Funds (pp. 822-82). (Authorities, pp. 1856, 1888 ) 
Ca. The Society's Bicentenary (pp. 882a -r^). (Authorities, p. 1888.) 
Cb. Security of Church Property (p. 883). . 

CI. Anniversary Sermons (pp. 888-5). (Authorities, pp. 1856, 1888. 
CII. The Society's Offices and Secretaries (pp. 885.6). (Authorities, pp. 1857 

cm. The Missionaries of the Society, 1702-1900 (pp. 886-98 1 r?). (Authorities 

pp. 1857, 1889.) (The Missionary Boll begins on p. 849.) 
CIV. The Society's Charter (1701) (p. 982). The Society's Supplemental 
Charter (1882) (p. 986). Notes on the Constitution and Functions 
of the Society and its Standing Committee (pp. 989-42). (Authori- 
ties, pp. 1857, 1889.) 

Beferences to Authoritiei, pp. (944^) 1800-89. 

Index (pp. 1890-1429). 



Portraits .--Rev. Dr. Bray i 

Bishop C. Inglis (the first English-Colonial Bishop) . . . ii 
The Society's Presidents, 1701-1901 .... vi-viii 

Rev. John Wesley 29 

Bishop Seabury (the first American Bishop) .... 80 

Archbishop Machray (the first English Colonial Archbishop) . 1766 

General Codrington 200a 

Bishop Gray (the first Bishop of Capetown) .... 285 

Bishop Knight-Bruce (of Bloemfontein and Mashonaland) 367 

Bishop Whitley of Chhota Nagpur and Clergy in Synod . 5OO7 

Bishop Caldwell, Assistant-Bishop for Tinnevelly 53X 

Rev. A. Britten and Choir, Nandyal o63 

Rev. Dr. Marks and Rev. J. Tsan Baw 6306 

Bisliop Strachan of Rangoon and Karen Clergy 640a 

Views 0/— Crimean Memorial Church, Constantinople 931 

Colleges and Training Institutions ll^a-1%1 

The Society's House, 19 Delahay Street, Westminster . . 943 

Seal of the Society:— Jj&rge Seal, p. iv ; Small Seal, p. 1389. 


^^<$o pe inio all lf)e toovlb atxb 


{The dates given show the year in which 

'• We thank Thee that Thy Church unsleeping. 
While earth rolls onward into light, 
Through all the world her watch is keeping, 
And rests not now by day or night. 

North Anwriort 

1702 South Carolina^ 
1702 New York ^ ! 

1702 New England ^ 
1702 New Jersey % 
1702 Pennsylvania f 
1702 Virginia f 
1708 Maryland f 
1708 Newfoundland 
1708 North Carolina^ 
1728 Nova Beotia 
1788 Georgia^ 
1769 Quebec Province 
1788 New Brunswick 
1784 Ontario Province 
1786 Cape Breton 
1819 Prince Edward Island 
1860 Bupert*s Land 

1869 British ColumbU 
1876 North-West 

Territories, Canada 

We*t IiKlies, 
CentrHl and South America 

1712 Windward Islands 
1788 Bahamas 
1748 Mosquito Shore 

(Central America) 
1882 The Bermudas ^ 
1886 Tobago 

1886 The Leeward Islands 
1886 Jamaica^ 
1886 British Guiana 
1886 Trinidad 
1844 British Honduras 
1888 Panama 
1896 Costa Biea 


1762 Western Afriea 

1821 Cape Colony (WestDiviaioB) 

1880 Cape Colony (Sast.Diviaion) 

1882 The Seychelles 

1886 Mauritius 

1847 St. Helena 

1849 Natal 

1860 Orange Biver Colony 

1861 Tristan d'Acunhm 
1866 Xaifraria 

1869 Zululand 

1861 Northern Afriea 
1864 Transvaal 
1864 Madagascar 

1870 Griqualand West 

1871 Swanland 

1878 Bechuanaland 
1876 Basutoland 

1879 Central Afrieaf 
1890 Mashonalaad 
1898 MatabeleUad 

1894 Portuguese South £. Afriea 
1896 Tongaland or Maputaluid 

List of the English-Colonial and Missionary Bishopries founded 

Missions Which were planted 


Nova Scotia t*{ 

Quebec t]: 


Newfoundland t*]: 



Montreal t{ 

Huron ^t 

British Columbia t 

Ontario ^'tt 




Saskatchewan t* { 


Caledonia t 

New Westminsterf^^ 


Mackeniie River 

Calgary tt 
Ottawa |[t 

1824 Jamaicaf t^ 

1824 Barbados t 

1848 Antigua ft 

1848 Ouianafi 

1861 Nassau t*t 

1869 Falkland Islands 

1872 Trinidad t^ 

1878 Windward Islandsft 

1883 Honduras t* 

1847 Capetown tt 
1862 Sierra Loonef} 
1868 Orahamstownti 

1868 Natal ft 
1864 Mauritiustl: 

1869 St. Helena t 

1861 ZaniibarandEastAfriea^t 

1868 Bloemfonteint*'t 

1864 Western Equatorial Afrioft 

1870 Zululand t 
1878 St. John's f^ 
1874 Madagascar!* 
1878 Pretoriat*t 
1884 Uganda 

1891 Mashonalandt*t 

1891 Lebomboft 

1892 Likoma 
1898 Mombasa 

% Thin mark sikriiitloM tlmt tlio field or (li(K*CM.> i:* now iiulcpendeiit of aM from the Society. 
/ I'/i/fmi/rMfio^ thiit thv Society haH plnntel or Hupporteil Miwions which now form a part of the DiooeM. 
' TA/-1 i//j€jn:-i that the Society haa contributeil N) tlie Hupport of llinliupd by annual grants : and 
/ TTtat the tioclety 1ia.i contrihutcl to the [K'niiaiieiit endowment ol the BVa\\o\vr\c. 

pveacf) lf)e i$ospel to eoerg cveatnve.'' 



the Society first entered each Held,) 

*' As o'er each oontinent and island 
The dawn leads on another day, 
The voice of prayer is never silent, 
Nor dies the strain of praise away/' 

Australia, New Zealand, 
and the Pacific 

1798 New South Wales 
1796 Vorfolk Island 
1886 Tafinania^ 
1886 Son th Australia 
1886 Tietoriaf 
1840 Queensland 

1840 New Zealand Y 

1841 Western Australia 
1849 Melanesia^ 
1888 Piteaim IsUndf 
1869 Hawaiian Islands^ 
1880 F^i 

1890 N«w Oninaa^ 

820 Bengal 
886 Madras 

880 Bombay 
838 North-West 

Provinces, India 
840 Cejlon 

846 Central Provinces, India f 
848 Western Borneo 
861 Assam 
864 Punjab 
864 Western Asiaf 
866 The Straits 
869 Lower Burma 
868 North China 
866 Cashmere 
868 Upper Burma 
878 Japan 

881 Ajmere 

888 North Borneo 

889 Corea 

892 Manchuria 

Europe (.Continent) 

1702-4 Amsterdam f ^ 

1866 Constantinople 

1862 Chaplaincies for 
English congregations 
on the Continent, and 
for British Sailors, 
labourers, ftc. 

in the above fields, in number 97, all but 15 of which contain 
or supported by the Society. $ 

1886 Sydney ft 

1841 Aucklsnd^tt 

1842 Tasmania^ t^ 
1847 ll«weastle«|t{ 
1847 Melbourne ^f 

1847 Adelaide tt 

1866 Christchurehf ft 

1867 Perthft 

1868 Wellington^tt 
1868 Nelson<f tt 

1868 Waiapu^t 

1869 Brisbane 1ft]: 
1861 Honolulu^t*t 
1861 Melanesia 4t 

1868 Ooulbumf t^ 

1866 Dunedinf t^ 

1867 Grafton ft Armidalet 

1869 Bat hurst ^t 
1876 BaUarat^t 

1878 North Queensland f* 
1864 Biverinaf 
1892 Bookhamptonf^ 
1897 New Guinea ff 
1899 Carpentaria t J 

1814 Calcutta! 

1886 Madras t 

1887 Bombay f 

1841 Jerusalem and the East 
1846 Colombo t{ 
1849 Victoria (China) ^f^ 
1866 Singapore, Labuan 

and Sarawak f*{ 
1872 Mid-China 
1877 Lahore ft 
1877 Bangoonft 

1879 Travaneore and Cochin 

1880 North China ^J 

1888 South Tokyo t* 

1889 Coreat*^ 

1890 Chhota Nagpurf^ 
1892 Lucknowf^ 
1894 Xiushiu 

1896 Western China 

1896 Osaka t* 

1896 Hokkaido 

1896 Tinnevelly and Madura t* I 

Proposed : — 
**Nagpur*' (for Central Pro- 
Shantungf^ [vinces India)tt 

1842 Oibraltarft 

} For general chroDol(^ical list of the Bishoprics, «v page 76H : 

For arran^emeot aoder EooJmlMticsd Provinces, witli U«t« ot BVshop*, trt va^e?.l^V^ \ 
And for list of BhtbopHca of the American Church, xtniiem, ^ ^ v«*v- 

Twentyoftbe AmeriTon Diocemsn also contain Mifwions which >vct<? yAk\\Iw\ ot ^wwotXc^l V>^ \.\tfi^<«\«vv 

See "NOTABILIA," pp. xvi-xxxii. 


p 505: after "(X.) . . . Cohnhatore" read 

" (XI.) Bellaryr 
p. 019, line 18 : for " pp. 817-18 " read " pp. 81C6-<7." 
p. 051, line 42 : for " 1HI)4 " i-ead " 1895." 








It would be beyond the scope of this book to record the various 
missionary efforts made on behalf of the Church of England previous 
to that eventful period when the Church herself, through her chosen 
handmaid, the Society, began to conduct foreign mission work on 
an organised and permanent system. A few instances, however, 
may be referred to by way of illustration. No sooner was England 
freed from the supremacy of the Pope than Archbishop Cranmer 
hastened (1684-6) to provide two chaplains for Calais, at that 
time Britain's only foreign possession. When Marfcin Frobisher 
sailed (May 81, 1678) in search of the North -West Passage to 
India " Maister Wolf all*' was "appointed by her Majestie's Councill 
to be their Minister and Preacher/' his only care being to save 
souls. Wolfall was privileged to be the first priest of the reformed 
Church of England to minister on American shores. To ** discouer 
and to plant Christian inhabitants in places conuenient '' in America 
was the main object of the expedition of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who 
took possession of Newfoundland in 1688, and to whom was granted 
(by Queen Elizabeth in 1678) the first charter for the founding of an 
English colony. Similar powers were given in 1684 (by Letters 
Patent and Parliament) to Sir Walter Raleigh, his half-brother, and 
Wingandacoa was discovered in that year and named Virginia (now 
North Carolina). The first band of colonists sent there included 
Thomas Heriot or Hariot, the eminent scientist and philosopher, who 
may be regarded as the first English Missionary to America. The 
emigrants failed to effect a permanent settlement, but during their 
stay at Roanoke (1686-6) Heriot ** many times and in euery towne *' 
where he ** came," '* made declaration of the contents of the Bible *' and 
of the " chiefe points of Religion *' to the natives according as he *' was 
able.'* One named Manteo, who accompanied the party on their 
return to England (1686) was appointed Lord of Roanoak (by Raleigh), 
and on August 18, 1687, was baptized in that island— this being the 
first recorded baptism of a native of Virginia. From this time and 
thronghout the 17th century the extension of Christ's Kingdom con- 
tinned one of the avowed objects of British colonisation. 

But though the religious duty obtained some recognition everywhere 
performance fell so far short of promise that when in 1676 Bishop 
GoMPTON instituted an inquiry into an order of King and Council " said to 
have been made " [in the time of Charles I., see p. liSi\ " to cA\xi\ccLV\)2L\\«^ 


the Bishop of London for the time being the care and pastoral eharg^ 
of sending over Ministers into our British Foreign Plantations, and 
having the jurisdiction of them," he " found this title so defective that 
little or no good had come of it,*' there being " scarce four Ministers 
of the Church of England in all the vast tract of America, and not above 
one or two of them, at most, regularly sent over." HIb proposals to 
several places to furnish them with chaplains were encouraged by the 
settlers and by Charles U., who allowed each minister or school- 
master £20* for passage, and ordered that henceforth *' every Minister 
should be one of the Vestry of his respective parish." Whereupon the 
people '* built churches generally within all their parishes in the 
Leeward Islands and in Jamaica." And for the better ordering of 
them the Bishop prevailed with the King ** to devolve all Ecclesiastical 
Jurisdiction in those parts upon him and his successors, except what 
concerned Inductions, Marriages, Probate of Wills, and Administrations," 
and procured fron^ his Majesty, for the use of the parish churches, 
books to the value of about £1,200. Soon after this the people of Bhode 
Island built a church, and six were [ordered to be] established by the 
Assembly of New York.f For the regulation and increase of religion 
in those regions the Bishop of London appointed the Bev. James 
Blaib to Virginia [about 1690] and the Bev. Dr. Thomas Bbay to 
Manrland [1696] as his commissaries [1]. 

Laudable as may have been the exertions made for planting the 
Church, they were so insufficient that at the close of the 17th century 
** in many of our Plantacons, Colonies, and Factories beyond the 
Seas . . . the provision for Ministers " was " verv mean " ; many others 
were ** wholy destitute, and unprovided of a Mainteynance for 
Ministers, and the Publick Worshipp of God ; and for Lack of Support 
and Mainteynance for such " many of our fellow-subjects seemed ** to 
be abandoned to Atheism and Infidehty." [S.P.G. Charter p. 982.] 
The truth was that the action taken had been isolated and individual, 
and therefore devoid of the essential elements of permanence. If 
under such circumstances individual effort was greatly restrained or 
wasted, it at least served to kindle and foster a Missionary spirit, and 
with the growth of that spirit the need of united action on the part 
of the Church became more and more apparent. Out of this arose 
what may be called the Beligious Society movement of the 17th cen- 
tury, to which the origin of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
may be traced. This movement had been preceded by a Missionary 
undertaking which deserves special notice. In 1646 John Eliot '* the 
Apostle of the North American Bed Men " began his labours among 
them in New England, which he continued till his death in 1690. 
Through his tracts the wants of the Indians became known in Eng- 
land, and so impressed was ** the Long ParUament " that on July 27, 
1649, an ordinance was passed establishuig ** A Corporation for the 
Promoting and Propagating the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New 
England," consisting of a President, Treasurer, and fourteen assistants, 
to be called " the President and Society for the Propagation of the 
(lospd in New England." A general collection throughout England 
and Wales (made at Cromwell's direction) produced nearly j£12,000. 

* This " Royal Bounty " was continaed to at least the end of Queen Anne's reign. 
/ -SJrv p. 57. 


of which £11,000 was invested in landed property in England. By meand 
of the income Missionaries were maintained among the natives in 
New England and New York States. On the Restoration, in 1660, the 
Corporation necessarily became defunct, but was revived by a Charter 
granted by Charles U. in 1662, under the name of " the Company for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent 
in America." The new Charter was obtained mainly by the exertions 
of the Hon. Bobert Boyle, who became the first Governor. The 
operations of the Company were carried on in New England up to 
1775, and after an interval of eleven years, caused by the American 
Revolution, removed to New Brunswick in 1786, and thence in 1822 
to other parts of British America, an extension being made also to the 
West Indies for the period 1828-40. The funds of the Company, for 
the regulation of which three decrees of Chancery have been obtained 
(1792, 1808, 1886), now yield an annual income of £8,500 (from invest- 
ments). This, the first Missionary Society estabhshed in England, is 
generally known as " The New England Company.** As reconstituted 
in 1662 it was limited to forty-five members, consisting of Church- 
men and Dissenters [2]. 

About twelve years later the existence in England of " infamous 
clubs of Atheists, Deists, and Socinians" 'labouring to propa- 
gate their pernicious principles,** excited some members of the 
National Church, who had a true concern for the honour of God, 
to form themselves also into Societies, ** that so by their united 
zeal and endeavours they might oppose the mischief of such 
dangerous principles, and fortifie both themselves and others against 
the attempts of those sons of darkness, who make it their business 
to root out (if possible) the very notions of Divine things and all 
diffei'ences of Good and Evil.** Encouraged by several of the Bishops 
and Clergy, who, as well as Queen Anne, inquired into and approved 
of their methods and orders, these Religious Societies soon spread 
throughout the kingdom — increasing to forty-two in London and 
Westminster alone— and became ** very instrumental in promoting, in 
some churches. Daily Prayers, Preparatory Sermons to the Holy 
Communion, the administration of the Sacrament every Lord's Day 
and Holy Day, and many other excellent designs conformable to the 
Doctrine and Constitution of the Church of England, which have not 
a little contributed to promote religion.** [See "A Letter from a 
Residing Member of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 
in London to a Corresponding Member in the Country ** (Downing, 
London, 1714) ; also Dr. Josiah Woodward's ** Account of the Rise and 
Progress of the Religious Societies in the City of London *' (1701) [3].] 

Among the promoters of this movement was the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Bbat. Bom at Marston, Shropshire, in 1656, and educated at Oswestiy 
and at Hart Hall (or Hertford College), Oxford, he became successively 
Curate of Bridgnorth (Shropshire), Chaplain to Sir Thomas Price at 
Park Hall (Warwickshire), Licumbent of Lea Marston, Vicar of Over 
Whitacre, and in 1690 Rector of Sheldon, an office which he held till 
within a few months of his death in 1780. On his appointment aa 
Ecclesiastical Commissary for Maryland by the Bishop of London in 
1606, Dr. Brat, before proceeding to America, employed his time in 
sending out clergymen and supplying them with suitable Ubt«LX\!^^« 


And failing to obtain assistance from Parliament, he originated the 
plan of a Society to be incorporated by Charter, for spreading Christian 
knowledge at home and in the plantations or colonies. The plan was 
laid before the Bishop of London in 1697 ; it could not then be fully 
carried out, but it soon gave rise to the " Society fob Pbomoting 
Chbistian Knowledge." 

The foreign branch of the designs of this excellent institution — 
declared at the outset to be " the fixing Parochial Libraries throughout 
the Plantations (especially on the Continent of North America) " — 
had not been extended to the employment of Missionaries, when it 
devolved* on a new organisation formed specially for the supply of living 
agency abroad, viz., The Society for the Pbopagation op the 
Gospel in Fobeign Pabts. The first meeting of the S.P.O.E. was 
held on March 8, 1699, the members present being the Lord Guildford, 
Sir Humphrey Mackworth, Mr. Justice Hook, Dr. Bray, and Colonel 
Colchester. Li December 1699 Dr. Bbay, having been obliged to sell 
his effects and raise money on credit to pay for his voyage, left for 
America, where he organised as far as he then could the Church in Mary- 
land, and returned to England in the summer of 1700 in order to 
secure the Boyal Assent to a Bill for its orderly constitution. At home 
much interest was arouped in his Mission, Archbishop Tenison 
declaring that it would be " of the greatest consequence imaginable *' 
to the establishment of religion in America [4]. Without doubt it 
was mainly the action taken by Dr. Bbay that inspired the efforts made 
in the next year by Convocation, the Archbishop, Bishop Compton, 
and the S.P.C.K., with the view to the propagation of the Gospel in 
foreign parts. The Minutes of the Lower House of the Convocation 
of the Province of Canterbury show that on March 13, 1701 : — 

" At the proposal of Dr. Isham, a Committee of twelve were named to enquire 
into Ways and Means for promoting Christian Rclijion in our Foreign Plan' 
tations : and the said Committee are directed to consult with the Lord Bishop of 
London about the premises as often as shall be found necessary. Et ulterius 
ordindrunt — that it be an instruction to the said Committee, that they consider 
the promotion of the Christian religion according to the doctrine, discipline, and 
worship of the Church of England as by law established. And that it be a further 
instruction to the said Committee to consider how to promote the worship of God 
amongst seafaring men whilst at sea. And it was declared to be the opinion of 
this houRe, That any members might come and propose anything to this or any 
other Committee, unless it was otherwise ordered by this house, but none to have 
liberty of sufifrage except such as are deputed to be of the Committee." [Page 243 
of Tke History of tlie Convocation of the Prelates and Clergy of the Province of 
Canterbury, 1700 [1701]. London : A. and J. Churchill, 1702.] 

According to Dr. Atterbuby (Prolocutor of the Lower House of 

Convocation) : — 

" When business of high consequences to the Church, and such as was likely 
to do honour to the promoters of it, was started by the clergy, attempts of the 
same kind, without doors, were set forward which might supersede theirs. Thus 
when the Committee, I have mentioned, was appointed, March 18th, 1700 [1701], to 
consider what might be done towards ' propagating the Christian religion, as pro- 
fessed in the Church of England, in our Foreign Plantations ' ; and that Committee, 
composed of very venerable and experienced men, well suited to such an enquiry, 
had sat several times at St. Paars, and made some progress in the business 
referred to them, a Charter was presently procured to place the consideration of 
that matter in other hands, where it now remains, and will, we hope, produce 

_____ ; 


excellent fruits. But whatsoever they are, they mast be aoknowledged to have 
sprung from the overtares to that purpose first made by the Lower House of Con 
vocation.** [Page 13 of Preface to Some Proceedings in the ConvoccUion of 1706 
(by Dr. Atterbury) 1708.] 

The first meeting of the Committee of Convocation was held on 
March 15, 1701, and within the next three weeks Dr. Bray appealed 
to William III. in the following terms : — 

" To the King's Most Excellent Majesty, the humble Petition of Thomas 
Bray, D.D., 

** Humbly shewethy 

" That the Numbers of the Inhabitants of your Majesty's Provinces in Ameriai 
have of late Tears greatly increased ; that in many of the CJoIonies thereof, more 
especially on the Continent, they are in very much Want of Instruction in the 
Christian Religion, and in some of them utterly destitute of the same, they not 
being able of themselves to raise a sufficient Maintenance for an Orthodox Clergy 
to live amongst them, and to make such other Provision, as shall be necessary for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in those Parts. 

" Tour Petitioner further sheweth, That upon his late Arrival into England 
from thence, and his making known the aforesaid Matters in this City and 
Kingdom, he hath great Reason to believe, that many Persons would contribute, as 
well by Legacy, as Gift, if there were any Body Corporate, and of perpetual Suc- 
cession now in Being, and establish 'd in this Kingdom, proper for the Lodging of 
the said Legacies and Grants therein. 

'* Now forasmuch as Tour Majesty hath already been graciously pleased to take 
the State of the Souls of Tour Majesty's Subjects in those Parts, so far into Con- 
sideration, as to Found, and Endow a Royal College in Virginia, for the Religious 
Education of their Touth, Tour Petitioner is thereby the more encouraged to 
hope, that Tour Majesty will also favour any the like Designs and Ends, which 
shall be Prosecuted by proper and effectual Means. 

** Tour Petitioner therefore, who has lately been among Tour Majesty's Subjects 
aforesaid, and has seen their Wants and knows their Desires, is the more 
embolden'd, humbly to request, that Tour Majesty would be graciously pleased to 
issue Letters Patent, to such Persons as Tour Majesty shall think fit, thereby Con- 
stituting them a Body Politick and Coupobate, and to grant to them and theii 
Successors, such Powers, Privileges, and Immunities as Tour Majesty in great 
Wisdom shall think meet and necessary for the Effecting the aforesaid Ends and 

** And your Petitioner shall ever Pray dc. 

M Thomas Bbay." 

The reception of the above is thus recorded : — 

" White-Hall, April 7th, 1701. 

" His Majesty having been moved upon this Petition is graciously pleas'd to 
refer the same to Mr. Attorney, or Mr. Solicitor-General, to consider thereof, and 
Report his Opinion, what His Majesty may fitly do therein; whereupon Hit 
Majesty will declare His further Pleasure. 

"JA. Vebnon."[6] 

The matter was now formally taken up by the S.P.C.K. At the meet- 
ing of that Society on May 5, 1701, '* the Draught of a Charter for the 
Erecting a Corporation for Propagating the Gospell in Foreign Parts 
was resbdy" and on May 12 Dr. Bbay'b petition with otner papets 
relating to the subject. The Archbishop of Canterbury was the first 
to promise a subscription (twenty guineas) towards the charges of 
passing the Charter, which document was on May 19 ** again read and 
debated and several amendments made, and the names of the Secretary 
and other oflBcers • . . agreed to." It being " very late" its further cou- 


sideration was '^referred to Sir Richard Bnlkelej, Mr. Gomyns, Mr. 
Serjeant Hook, and the Secretary." The S.P.C.K. (May 26) under- 
took to advance the " moneys wanting for the Payment of the Charter," 
and (June 9) £'20 was actually paid on this account. [See also p. 822.] 
The Charter as granted by William III. [see p. 982] was laid before the 
S.P.C.K. by Dr. Bbay on June 28, and thanks were tendered to him 
for ** his great care and pains in procuring the grant,*' and to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury for " promoting the passing the aforesaid 
Letters Patents," and the latter was asked to summon a meeting of the 
new Society [6]. It should here be noted that in a " form of 
subscription for raising the money due to Dr. Bray upon account of 
the Plantations," adopted by the S.P.C.K. in November 1701, it is 
stated that there remained due to Dr. Bray £200, " part of a greater 
sum by him advanced upon the credit of public Benefactions towards 
the propagation of Christian knowledge on the Continent of North 
America," that the said sums had been really expended by him upon 
that account, in particular "divers ministers" had been " sent over," 
and '^many Parochial Libraries" *' fixed in the Plantations on the 
said continent." It was added that the S.P.C.K. had '* thought fit to 
sink the subscriptions for the plantations (to which all their members 
were obliged to subscribe upon admittance) by Reason that that Branch 
of their Designs is determined " by the incorporation of the S.P.G., 
which included most of the members of the S.P.C.K [7]. [N.B.— The 
operations of the S.P.C.K. did not, however, long remain restricted to 
the British Isles. From 1710 to 1825 it supported Missions in India 
conducted by Lutherans [see p. 601-8], and though its employment of 
Missionaries then ceased it has since continued to assist materially in 
building up branches of the English Church in all parts of the world.] 
The first meeting of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts was held on June 27, 1701, at Lambeth Palace,* and 
there were present: the Archbishop of Canterbury, President; the 
Bishops of London (Compton), Bangor (Evans), Chichester (Williams), 
and Gloucester (Fowler) ; Sir John Philips, Sir Wilham Hustler, Sir 
George W'heler, Sir Richard Blackmore, Mr. Jervoyse, Serjeant Hook, 
iihe Dean of St. Paul's (Sherlock), Dr. Stanley (Archdeacon of London), 
Dr. Kennett (Archdeacon of Huntingdon) ; the Bev. Drs. Mapletoft, 
Hody, Stanhope, Evans, Bray, Woodward, and Butler; Mr. Shute, 
Drs. Slare and Harvey; and Messrs. Chamberlayne, Brewster, 
Nichols, Bromlield, Bulstrode, and Trymmer. After ** His Majestie's 
Letters Patents imder the Great Seal of England constituting a Cor- 
poration for Propagating the Gospell in Foreign Parts were read," 
officers and members were elected, and steps were taken for the 
preparation of a Seal and of Bye-Laws and Standing Orders, also for 
the printing of copies of the Charter, and the defraving of the charges 
of passing it [8]. The second meeting, held July 8, 1701, at the 
Cockpit, decided that the motto of the Seal should be '' Sigillum 
Societaiis de Promovendo Evangelio in Partibus Transmarinis," and 
that ** the Device or Impression " of the Sec^ should be : — 

" A ship under sail, making towards a point of Land, npon the Prow standing a 
Minister with an open Bible in his hand, People standing on the shore in a Posture 
of Expectation, and using these words : Transiens Adjuva Nos^ [See p. iv.] 

•~piace nor8tat»d^S.Pra7jouraai7bttt recorded in that of S.P.C.K., June 80, 170:. 


The Bje-Law8 and Standing Orders adopted at this meeting 
provided that the business of the Society should be opened with prayer, 
that there should be an annual sermon [sec p. 888], and that the 
following oath should be tendered to all the officers of the Society 
before admission to their respective offices : ** I, A. B., do swear that I 
will faithfully and duly execute the office ... of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Forreign Parts, according to the best 
of my judgment. So help me God *' ♦ [9]. 

Subsequent meetings were for many years held generally at 
Archbishop Tenison's Library in St. Martin's-in-the- Fields, the 
episcopate being largely represented, notwithstanding that the hour was 
frequently as early as eight or nine in the morning. [See Journals.] 

On March 6, 1702, a Committee was appointed '* to receive all 
proposals that may be offered to them for the Promoting the designs 
of Uiis Society, and to prepare matters for the consideration of the 
Society '* [10]. From June 18, 1708, this body became known as ** the 
Standing Committee" [11] : its meetings were long held at St. Paul's 
Chapter House [12], and up to 1882 it continued subject to '* the 
Society'* as represented in the Board meetings. On April 6 of that 
year a '* Supplemental Charter " was granted to the Society [«ee p. 986], 
one result of which was that the Standing Committee was placed on a 
fully representative basis, and thus became for nearly every purpose the 
Executive of the Society [18]. [See Constitution^ dc, of Society and 
Committee, p. 939, &c.] 

On August 15, 1701, the Society entered on an enquiry into the 
religious state of th^ Colonies; information was sought and 
obtained from trustworthy persons at home and abroad — the 
Bishop of London, English merchants, Colonial Governors, con- 
gregations, &o.t — and on October 17 progress was made in raising 
" a Fund for the Propagation of the Gospel in Forrein Parts " [14]. 

The Charter shows that the Society was incorporated for the 
threefold object of (1) providing a maintenance for an orthodox Clergy 
in the plantations, colonies, and factories of Great Britain bevond the 
seas, for the instruction of the King's loving subjects in the Christian 
religion ; (2) making such other provision as may be necessary for the 
propagation of the Gospel in those parts ; and (8) receiving, managing, 
and disposing of the charity- of His Majesty's subjects for those 
purposes. The consti action placed upon the first two heads by the 
founders of the Society was thus stated by the Dean of Lincoln, in the 
first anniversary sermon, Feb. 1702 : — 

'* The design is, in the first place, to settle the State of Religion as well as may 
be among our own People there, which by all accounts we have, very much wants 
their Pious care : and then to proceed in the best Methods they can towards the 

Conversum of the Natives The breeding up of Persons to understand the 

great yariety of Languages of those Countries in order to be able to Converse with 

* In conformity with the provisions of Act 5 & 6 Will. IV. cap. 62, the following 
- declaration " was sabstituted for the " oath " in 1S86. '' I, A. B., do declare that I wiU 
faithfolly and doly execute the oiBce of . . . the Society for the Propagation of tho 
Gospel in Foreign Parts." In 1850 the declaration was abolished [9a]. 

•f In particular see Memorial of Colonel Morris " concerning the State of Beligion in 
the Jerseys,'* &c.and Philadelphia ; Qovemor Dudley's *' Account of the State of Religion 
in the Rnylish Plantations in r^orth America" ; Rev. G.Keith's Letter ^^ About the State 
of Quakerism in North America " ; a Letter from the Lords Commissioners of Trade and 
Plantations ** cone cmirg the conversion of the Indians '* ; and "AL\«t" V^Mxm.i^eJWs 
the Bishop of London) *'of all the Piirisl:eB in the English P\aiiVa\iVonaVc Kxeat v^«w^^ \\Va.\« 


the Natives, and Preach the Gospel to them .... this is very great Ohariiyt 
indeed the greatest Charity we can show ; it is Charity to the 8ouU of men, to the 
Souls of a great many of oar oum People in those Countries who by this may be 
reformed, and put in a better way for Salvation by the use of the means of Graod 
which in many places they very much want, but especially this may be a great 
Charity to the souls of many of those poor Natives who may by this be converted 
from that state of Barbarism and Idolatry in which they now Uve, and be brought 
into the Sheep-fold of our blessed Saviour " [15j. 

At one time it seemed as if this interpretation would not be adhered 
to, for in 1710 it was laid down by the Society that that branch of its 
design which related to the "conversion of heathens and infidels" 
" ought to be prosecuted preferably to all others." [See p. 69.] Though 
the proposed exclusive policy was not pursued, the Society throu^- 
out its history has sought to convert the heathen as well as to make 
spiritual provision for the Christian Colonists, and, according to its 
aoihty, neither duty has ever been neglected by it. On this aubject 
much ignorance has hitherto prevailed at home ; and in some quarters 
it is still maintained that the Society did nothing for the evangelisation 
of the heathen to entitle it to be csdled " Missionarv" until the third 
decade of the nineteenth century. The facts are that the conversion 
of the negroes and Indians formed a prominent branch of the Society's 
operations from the first. The object was greatly promoted by the 
distribution of a sermon by Bishop FJeetwood of St. Asaph in 1711 [16], 
and of three addresses* by Bishop Gibson of London in 1727 [17], and 
an Essay by Bishop Wilson of Sodor and Man in 1740 [se« pp. 234, B16]; 
and to quote from a review of the Society's work in 1741 by Bishop 
Seeker, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury : — 

** In less than forty Years, under many Discouragements, and with 
an income very disproportionate to the Vastness of the Undertaking, a 
great deal hath been done ; though httle notice may have been taken 
of it, by Persons unattentive to these things, or backward to acknowledge 
them. Near a Hundred Churches have been built : above ten thousand 
Bibles and Common-Prayers, above a hundred thousand other pious 
Tracts distributed : great Multitudes, upon the whole, of Negroes and 
Indiatis brought over to the Christian Faith : many numerous Congre- 
gations have been set up, which now support the Worship of God at their 
own Expence, where it was not known before ; and Seventy Persons 
are constantly employed, at the Expence of the Society, in the farther 
Service of the Gospel" [18]. 

Further proof will be found in the followmg chapters, which contain 
a brief record of the Society's work in all parts of the world. In 
particular, see the accounts of the early Missions to the heathen in New 
York Province [Negroes and Indians, 1704, &c., pp. 68-74], in the West 
Indies [Negroes, 1712, &c., pp. 194, 199, &c.], in Central America 

* (1) " All Address to Serious Christians among ourselves, to Assist the Society for 
Propagating the Gospel, in carrying on the Work of Instructing the Negroes in our 
Plantations abroad/* (2) *' Letter to the Masters and Mistresses of Families in the 
English Plantations abrcMsd; Exhorting them to encourage and promote the instruction 
of their Negroes in the Christian Faith." (8) ** Letter to the Missionaries in the English 
PlantationB; exhorting them to gire their Assistance towards the Listruction of the 
Negroes of their Several Parishes, in the Christian Faith " [17a]. 


[Moskifco Indians, 1747. &c., pp. 234-6], in West Africa [Negroes, 
1752, Ac, pp. 254-8], and in Canada [Indians, 1778, &o., pp. 189-40, 
154, 165, &e.] ; see also pp. 86, 192, 252, 882, &c. 



For the greater part of the 18th century the Colonies of Great Britain, 
extending along the East Coast of North America, from South 
Carohna to Maine, together with the negroes, and with the Indian 
trihes who dwelt further inland, constituted the principal Mission- 
field of the Society. These Colonies were first settled by private 
adventurers, mostly representatives of divers denominations, dissenting 
from the Mother (!hurch, yet too much divided among themselves to 
preserve, in some parts, even the form of religion. Hence, notwith- 
standing the prominent recognition of rehgion in the original schemes 
of colonisation, the Society found this field occupied by 250,000 
settlers, of whom whole Colonies were living ** without God in the 
world,** while others were distracted with almost every variety of 
strange doctrine. Church ministrations were accessible only at a few 
places in Virginia, Maryland, New York, and in the towns of Phila- 
delphia and Boston, and the neighbouring Indians had been partly 
instructed by the Jesuits and by John Eliot and agents of the New 
Enufland Company. Until 1785 the Society laboured to plant, in all 
its fulness, the Church of Christ in those regions. 

In the Rev. George Keith the Society found one able and willing, 
not only to advise, but also to lead the way. Originally a Presbyterian, 
he had been a fellow-student of Bishop Burnet at Aberdeen, but soon 
after graduating he joined the Quakers, and went to New Jersey and 
afterwards to Pennsylvania. There he became convinced of the errors 
of Quakerism, and returning to England in 1694 he attached himself 
to the Mother Church and was admitted to Holy Orders in 1700. 
His zeal and energy, combined with his experience of the country^ 


pointed him oat as well qualified for the serrioe of the Society. 
Accordingly he was adopted as its first Missionary on Feb. 27, 1702 [!]> 
and with the Rev. Patbick Gobdon (appointed March 20) [2], sailed 
from England on April 24, 1702. Among their fellow-passengers were 
Colonel Dudley, Governor of New England, and Colonel Morris, 
Governor of New Jersey, and the Rev. John Talbot, Chaplain of the 
ship, from each of whom they received encouragement, and Talbot 
was so impressed with Keith's undertaking that he enlisted as 
companion Missionary [8]. They landed at Boston on June 11, and 
on the next day Keith wrote to the Society : — 

" Colonel Dudley was so very civil and kind to Mr. Gordon and me that he 
caused us both to eat at his table all the voyage, and his conversation was both 
pleasant and instructive, insomuch that the great cabin of the ship was like a 
colledge for good discourse, both in matters theological and philosophical, and very 
cordially he joined daily with us in divine worship, and I well understand he 
purposeth to give all possible encouragement to the congregation of the Church of 
England in this place. Also Colonel Morris was very civil and kind to us, and 
BO was the captain of the ship, called the Centurion, and all the inferior officers, 
and all the mariners generally, and good order was kept in the ship ; so that if 
any of the' seamen were complained upon to the captain for profane swearing, he 
caused to punish them according to the usuall custom, by causing them to carry a 
heavy wooddon collar about their neck for an hour, that was both painful and 
shameful ; and, to my observation and knowledge, severall of the seamen, as well 
as the officers, joined devoutly with us in our daily prayers according to the Church 
of England, and so did the other gentlemen that were passengers with us ** [4]. 

The object of Keith's Mission was to enquire into the spiritual 
condition of the people, and to endeavour to awaken them to a sense 
of the Christian religion. How that object was accomplished is fully 
told in his Journal published after his return to England [5], of which 
the folloTving is a summary : — 

** I have given an entire Journal of my two Years** Missionary Travel and Service, 
on the Continent of North America^ betwixt Piscataxoay River in New England^ 
and Corctiick in North Carolifia ; of extent in Length about eight hundred miles ; 
within which Bounds are Ten distinct Colonies and Governments, all under the 
Crown of Etiglandt viz., Piscataway^ Boston [Colony called Massachusetts Bay], 
lihod. Island [Colony included also NaragaQset, and other adjacent parts on the 
Continent], Connecticoti New York, East tmd West Jersey, Pensilvania, Maryland, 
Virginia, and North Carolvna, I travelled twice over most of those Governments 
and Colonies, and I preached oft in many of them, particularly in Pcnsilvania, 
West and East Jersey, and New York Provinces, where we continued longest, and 
found the greatest occasion for our service. 

*' As concerning the success of me and my Fellow-Labourer, Mr. John Talbot's, 
Ministry, in the Places where we travelled, I shall not say much; yet it is 
necessary that something be said, to the glory of God alone, to whom it belongs, 
and to the encouragement of others, who may hereafter be imployed in the like 

" In all the places where we travelled and preached, we found the people 
generally well affected to the Doctrine that we preached among them, and they did 
generally join with us decently in the Liturgy, and Public Prayers, and Administra- 
tion of the Holy Sacraments, after the Usage of the Church of England, as we had 
occasion to use them. And where Ministers were wanting (as there were wanting 

* Keith was actually " two yean and twenty weeks " in the Society's service, and on 
ioompleting his mission he was elected a member of the Society in consideration of 
** his great experience in the affairs of the plantations,*' &c. [6]. 


in many plaoes) the People earnestly desired us to present their Reqaest to the 
Honourable Society^ to send Ministers unto them, which accordingly I have done : 
and, in answer to their reqaest, the Society has sent to such places as seemed 
most to want, a considerable number of Missionaries. 

** Beside the general Success we had (praised be God for it) both in our Preach- 
ing, and much and frequent Conference with People of Diyerse Perswasions, many of 
which had been wholly strangers to the Way of the Church of England ; who, 
after they had observed it in the Publick Prayers, and reading the Lessons out of 
the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, and the manner of the 
Administration of Baptism, and the Lord's Supper, were greatly affected with it, 
and some of which declared their great satisfaction and the Esteem they had of the 
Solemn and edifying manner of our Worship and Administration, far above whatever 
they could obsei-ve in other Ways of Worship known to them. 

" To many, our Ministry was as the sowing the Seed and Planting, who, probably, 
never so much as heard one orthodox Sermon preached to them, before we came 
and Preached among them, who received the Word with Joy ; and of whom we 
have good Hope, that they will be as the good ground, that brought forth FniU, 
some Thirty^ some Sixty ^ and some an Hundred Fold, And to many others it 
was a watering to what had been formerly Sown and Planted among them ; some 
of the good Fruit whereof we did observe, to the glory of God, and our great 
Comfort. . . Almost in all these Countries where we Travelled and Laboured . . . 
by the Blessing of God on our Labours, there are good Materials prepared for the 
Building of Churches, of living Stones, as soon as, by the good Providence of God, 
Ministers shall be sent ampng them who have the discretion and due qualifications 
requisite to build with them *' [7]. 

In a letter (Feb. 24, 1703) written during his Mission, Keith said : — 

** There is a mighty cry and desire, almost in all places where we have travelled, 
to have ministers of the Church of England sent to them in these Northern parts 
of America. . . If they come not timely the whole country will be overrunne with 
Presbyterians, Anabaptists, and Quakers *' [8]. 

Mr. Talbot also wrote (Sept. 1, 1703) :— 

** It is a sad thing to consider the years that are past ; how some that were bom 
of the English never heard of the name of Christ ; how many others were baptized 
in his name, and [have] fallen away to Heathenism, Quakerism, and Atheism, for 
want of Confirmation. . . 

" The poor Church has nobody upon the spot to comfort or confirm her children ; 
nobody to ordain several that are willing to serve, were they authorized, for the 
work of the Ministry. Therefore they fall back again into the herd of the 
Dissenters, rather than they will be at the Hazard and Charge to goe as far as 
England for orders : so that we have seen several Counties, Islands, and Provinces, 
which have hardly an orthodox minister am'st them, which might have been sup- 
ply*d, had we been so happy as to see a Bishop or Suffragan Apud Americanos " [9j. 

These representations were followed by petitions from multitudes 
of Colonists, whom the Sooiety strove to supply with the full 
ministrations of the Church, at the same time using direct means ^ 
for the conversion of the heathen, whether Negroes, Indians, or 

In addition to its efforts to meet the calls for pastors, evan^^elists, 
and school teachers, the Society distributed great quantities of iiibles, 
Prayer-Books, and other religious works [see p. 798] ; " and for an 
example, to furnish the Churches with suitable ornaments," it sent 
iservices of Communion Plate, with linen, &c. [10]. 

The hindrances to the planting and growth of the Church in 
America in the 18th century may be indicated, but cannot be realised 
in this age As the chief hindrance is fully stated in anotli^t d^^^Vj^ 


isee p. 748], it will saffice to say here that the want of a Bishop was 
keenly felt by the members of the Church in each of the following 



South Gasolima (originally united with North Carolina in one colony) wm settled 
under a Charter granted to a Company in 1662, whose professed motives were (1) a desire 
to enlarge his Majesty's dominions and (2) *' seal for the propagation of the Christian faith 
in a country not yet cultivated or planted, and only inhabited by some barbarous people 
who had no knowledge of God." But the Society found in 1701 that more than one-half 
of the 7,000 Colouists (to say nothing of the negroes and Indians) were themselves living 
regardless of any religion, there being only one* Church (at Charlestown), no schools, 
and few dissenting teachers of any kind. 

The first Missionary of the Society to South Carolina, the Key. 
S. Thomas — who was the third sent by it to America — was less for- 
tunate in his voyage than Keith and Gordon. In the passage down 
the English Channel he was ** forced to lye upon a chest," and " after 
many importunate and humble perswasions '* he at last obtained leave 
to read prayers daily, but he was **curs*d and treated very ill on 
board." At Plymouth he was so ill that his life was despaired of, 
but during his detention there he recovered so far as to be able to 
officiate '* severall Lord's Day for a minister att Plimstock, who was both 
sick and lame . . . and whose family " was ** great and circumstances 
in the world mean." Receiving " nothing from him but his blessing 
and thanks," Mr. Thomas went on his way in another ship with a 
*• civil " captain, and for the rest of the voyage he ** read prayers thrice 
every day and preached and catechised every Lord's Day." After 
*' 12 weeks and 2 dayes at sea " he arrived at Charlestown on 
Christmas Day, 1702. He was designed for a Mission to the native 
Yammonsees, and on his appointment £10 was voted by the Society 
" to be laid out in stuffs for the use of the wild Lidians." Wild indeed 
they proved to be — they had revolted from the Spaniards '* because 
they would not be Christians," and were in so much danger of an 
invasion that they were " not at leisure to attend to instruction " ; 
nor was it ** safe to venture among them." Surroimding him, how- 
ever, were many heathen equally needing instruction, and more 
capable of receiving it, viz. the negro and Indian slaves who in the 
Cooi)er Biver district alone outnumbered the savage Yammonsees. 
Therefore, Mr. Thomas settled in that district. One of the places 
incladed in his charge was Ooosecreek, containing "the best and most 

* App. Jo. A, p. 40. 


numerous congregation in all Carolina/' who were '' as sheep without 
a shepherd " [1]. 

Numbers of the English settlers were ''in such a wilderness 
and so destitute of spiritual guides and all the means of grace '* k/ 
that the J '* were making near approach to that heathenism which 
is to be found among negroes and Indians. 'iJ Mr. Thomas pre^ 
vailed with "the greatest part of the people to a religious care in 
sanctifying the Lord's Day," which had been '* generally profaned." 
Many also were induced to ** set up the worship of God in their own 
famihes/* to which they had been "perfect strangers.** The Holy 
Communion '' had not been administered ** in one district before Mr. 
Thomas came, and after ** much pains ** he could ** procure only five ** 
communicants at first. Before long this number grew to forty-five, 
and there was " a visible abatement of immorality and profaneness in 
the parish, and more general prevailing sense of religion than had 
been before known ** [2]. After taking great pains to instruct the 
heathen slaves also (Indians and negroes), some of whom were 
admitted to baptism [8], Mr. Thomas visited England on private afEiairs 
in 1705, at the same time being "empowered and desired** by "the 
Governor, Council and Parliament'* of Carolina "to make choice of 
five such persons*' as he should "think fit, learned, pious, and 
laborious ministers of the Church of England to officiate in the vacant 
parishes, pursuant to a late Act of Parliament for the encouragement 
of the publick worship of God according to the Church of England *' 
in the Province [4]. On this occasion Mr. Thomas submitted what 
the Society pronounced to be "a very full and satisfactory account 
of the state of the Church in South Carolina " [5]. He also drew 
attention to an objectionable clause in the Act of the Assembly above 
referred t% (passed Nov. 4, 1704) [6], which placed in the hands of 
certain lay commissioners the power of removing the clergy. Holding 
•• that by Virtue hereof the Ministers in South Carolina will be too 
much subjected to the pleasure of the People," the Society referred the 
matter to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, 
and agreed to " put a stop to the sending any ministers . . . into 
those parts till . . . fully satisfied that the . . . clauses are or shall 
be rescinded, and that the matter be put into an ecclesiastical 
method " [7]. While the Society was vindicating the rights of the 
clergy, a petition was presented to the House of Lords by Joseph 
Boone, merchant, on behalf of himself and many other inhabitants 
of Carolina, showing : — 

** That the Ecclesiastical Government of the said Colony is under the Jurisdiction 
d the Lord Bishop of London. But the Govemour and his Adherents have at last, 
which the said adherents had often threatened, totally abolished it : For the said 
Assembly hath lately passed an Act whereby twenty Lay-Persons therein-named, are 
made a Corporation, for the exercise of several exorbitant Powers, to the great 
Injury and Oppression of the People in general, and for the exercise of all Ecde- 
aiastical Jurisdiction, with absolute Power to deprive any Minister of the Church 
of England of his Benefice, not only for his Immorality, but even for his Impru- 
dence, or for Innumerable Prejudices and animosities between such Minister and his 
Parish. • And the only Church of England Minister, that is established in the said 
Colony, the Rev. Mr. Edward Marston,* hath already been cited before their Board ; 
which the Inhabitants of that Province take to be a high Ecclesiastical Commission 

[* Not a Missionary of the Society.] 


Coart, destructive to the very being and essence of the Chnrch of England and to 
be had in the atmost Detestation and Abhorrence by every Man that ifl not an 
Enemy to our Constitation in Church and State.'' 

The House of Lords expressed their opinion — 

**That the Act of the Assembly lately past there ... so far forth as the 
same relates to the establishing a Commission for the displacing the Rectors or 
Ministers of the Churches there, is not warranted by the Charter granted to the 
Proprietors of that Colony, as being not consonant to Reason, repugnant to the Laws 
of this Realm, and destructive to the Constitution of the Church of England." 

On this Eesolution being laid before the Queen the matter of com- 
plaint was effect u ally " taken away *' [8]. A new Act was passed in 1706 
in which provision was made for raising the salaries of the clergy 
from £50 to £100 per annum, and in communicating the same to the 
Society the Governor and Council explained that the Clause in the 
Act of 1704 was " made to get rid of the incendiaries and pest of the 
Church, Mr. Marston/* and had the Society known the facts of the 
case it would not have blamed them ** for taking that or any other 
way to get rid of him." Mr. Boone, they stated, was " a most rigid 
Dissenter," who, while pretending to defend the rights of the Clergy, 
sought to destroy the Act '* because it established the Church of 
England . . . and settled a maintenance on the Church ministers." 
In proof of this it should be added that at the very time he was 
championing the cause of the Church, Mr. Boone was engaging ** two 
Dissenting ministers " and a schoolmaster to take back with him to 
Carolina, and they were actually fellow-passengers with Mr. Thomas 
on his return in 1706 [9]. Shortly after this the Governor and Council 
addressed the following memorial to the Society : — 

** We oou'd not omit this Opportunity of testifying the grateful Sense we have of 
your most noble and Christian charity to our poor Infant Church in this Province 
expressed by the generous encouragement you have been pleased to give to those 
who are now coming Missionaries, the account of which we have just now received, 
by the worthy Missionary and our deserving Friend and Minister, Mr. Thomas, who, 
to our great Satisfaction is now arrived. The extraordinary Hurry we are in, 
occasioned by the late Invasion, attempted by the French and Spaniards, from 
whom Ood hath miraculously delivered us, hath prevented pur receiving a parti- 
cular account from Mr. Thomas of your Bounty ; and also hath not given us leisure 
to view your Missionaries' instructions, either in regard of what relates to them, or 
to ourselves : But we shall take speedy care to give them all due Encouragement 
and the Venerable Society the utmost Satisfaction. There is nothing so dear to us 
as our holy Religion, and the Interest of the Established Church, in which we have 
(we bless Ood) been happily educated ; we therefore devoutly adore Ood*s Provi- 
dence for bringing and heartily thank your Society for encouraging, so many 
Missionaries to come among us. We promise your Honourable Society, it shall be 
our daily Care and Study, to encourage their pious labours, to protect their Persons, 
to revere their Authority, to improve by their ministerial Instructions, and as soon 
as possible, to enlarge their annual Salarys . . . When we have placed your 
Missionaries in their several Parishes according to your Directions, and received 
from them an account of your noble Benefactions of Books for each Parish, we 
shall then write more particular and full : In the mean Time, we beg of your 
Honourable Society to accept of our hearty gratitude, and to be assured of our 
sincere Endeavour to concur with them in their most noble Design of Propagating 
Christ's holy Religion. . . . Sep. 16, 1706 " [10]. 

By the same body the Society was informed in 1706 of the death 
of Mr. Thomas, of whom they reported that **hia exemplary life. 


diligent preaching and obliging courage " had seoored him " the good- 
TTill of aU men. ... He not only brought over several of the Dissenters 
but also prevailed upon several that professed themselves members of 
the Church of England to lead religious lives and to become constant 
-communicants, and other considerable services he did for the Church." 
They added, " We do most humbly request your honourable Society to 
send us four more ministers for the country, and upon your recom- 
mendation we shall have them fixed in the several parishes there ■ ' [11]- 
Mr. Thomas' widow was voted two months' salary from the Society 
and a gratuity of £25 " in consideration of the great worth of . . . 
her husband and of his dihgence in his ministerial office and for the 
•encouragement of missionarys to undertake the service of the 
Society " [12]. 

Other faithful men were found to take up and extend the work 
begun in South Carolina. For the Colonists, Missionaries were needed 
•even more than for the negroes and Indians. So many of the settlers 
lived " worse than the heathen " that the province was (in 1710-14) 
** spoiled with blasphemy. Atheism and ImmoraUty,'* and the great 
obstacle to the free Indians embracing the Christian religion was the 
** scandalous and immoral life of the white men " among them caUing 
themselves " Christians ** [18]. In the case of the slaves (negroes and ] ^ 
Indians), many of the masters were extremely inhuman, ** esteeming •< 
them no other than beasts,'' and while, it is hoped, few went to the 
extent of scalping an Indian woman (as one did in 1710), the owners 
generally were, at first, opposed to the endeavours of the Missionaries 
to instruct the slaves [14]. 

'* * What ! ' said a ladj ; considerable enough in any other respect bat in that of 
sound knowledge ; ' Is it possible that any of my slaves could go to heaven, and 
must I see them there ? * " "A young gent had said sometime before that he is 
resolved never to come to the holy table while slaves are received there." (L. from 
Bev. Dr. Le Jan, of Gooseoreek, Aug. 18, 1711 [15]). * 

All honour to those who were zealous in encouraging the instruction 
of their slaves, such as Mr. John Morris (of St. Bartholomew's), Lady 
Moore, Capt. David Davis, Mrs. Sarah Baker, and several others at 
Ooosecreek, Landgrave Joseph Marton and his wife (of St. Paul's), 
the Governor and a memher of the Assembly (who were ready to stand 
sureties for a negro), Mr. and Mrs. Skeen, Mrs. Haigue, and Mrs. 
Edwards [16] . The last two ladies were formally thanked by the Society 
for their care and good example in instructing the negroes, of whom no 
less than twenty-seven prepared by them — including those of another 
planter — were baptized by the Rev. E. Taylor, of St. Andrew's, within 
4wo years. 

Mr. Taylor wrote in 1718 :— 

'* As I am a Minister of Christ and of the Church of England, and a Missionary 
of the Most Christian Society in the whole world, I think it my indispensible and 
special duty to do all that in me lies to promote the conversion and salvation of 
the poor heathens here, and more especially of the Negro and Indian slaves in my 
own parish, which I hope I can truly say I have been sincerely and earnestly 
-endeavouring ever since I was minister here where there are many Negro and 
Indian slaves in a most pitifuU deplorable and perishing condition tho' little 
pitied by many of their masters and their conversion and salvation little desired 
and endeavoured by them. If the Masters were but good Christians themselves 
and would but ooncurre vrith the Ministers, we should then have good hopes of the 
40cnversion and salvation at least of some of their Negco and. ItlSa^iv ^\ws^<ek. ^\\\ 



lou many of theiu rather oppose than ooncurr with us and are angcy with oBt 
T am sure I may say with me for endeavouring as much as I doe the conversion of 
thuir slaves. . . . I cann't but honour . . . Madam Haigue. . . . In my parish . . . 
a very considerable number of negroes . . . were very loose and wicked and little 
inclined to Christinnity before her coming among them. I can't but honour her 
80 much ... as to acquaint the Society with the extraordinary pains this gentle- 
/ woman, and one Madin. Kdwards, that came with her, have taken to instruct those 
J negroes in the principles of Christian Ueligion and to reclaim and reform them : 

And the wonderfull successe they have met with, in about half a year's time in 
this prent un<l ^?ood work. Upon these gentlewomen's desiring me to come and 
examine these negroes ... I went and among other things I asked them, Who 
Christ was. They readily answered, He is the Son of God, and Saviour of the 
World, and told iiio that they embraced Him with all their hearts as such, and I 
<lesired them to rehearse the Apostles* Creed and the 10 Commandments, and the 
Lord's Prayer, which they did very distinctly and perfectly. 14 of them gave me so 
great satisfaction, and were so very desirous to be baptized, that I thought it my 
(luty to baptize them and therefore I baptized these 14 last Lord's Day. And I 
doubt not but these gentlewomen will prepare the rest of tliem for Baptisme in a 
little Time " [17]. 

Other owners in the same parish refused to allow their slaves to 
attend ]\Ir. Taylor for instruction, but he succeeded in inducing them 
or some of tlieir families to tea(!h the Lord's Praver, and this was so 
effectual that more negroes and Indians came to church than he could 
lind room for [IS . Tlie desire of the slaves for instruction was so 
;^eneral that but for the opposition of the owners there seems no reason 
whv the whole of them should not have been brouglit to Christ. So 
far as the Missionaries ^ere permitted, they did all that was possible 
for their evangelisation, and while so many " professed Christians '* 
among the planters were •* lukewarm," it pleased God ** to raise to 
Himself devout servants among tlie heatlien," whose faithfulness was 
fommended by the masters themselves [19], In some of the congre- 
j^ations the negroes or blacks furnislied one-half of the Communicants 
out of a total of 50 [20]. 

The free Indians were described as " a good sort of people, and 
would be better if not spoiled by bad example; " the Savannocks being, 
however, "dull and mean," but the Floridas or Cricks (Creeks) *' honest, 
polite," and their language ** understood by many nations, particularly 
tiie Yamousees." They had some customs similar to the Jewisli rites, 
such as circumcision, and feast of first-fruits; tliey loved justice, not 
enduring '* either to cheat or be cheated," and had notions of a Deity 
and the inmiortality of the soul. Many of them desired Missionaries, but 
the traders hindered this as likely to interfere with one branch of their 
trjidi- viz. the (-xclianging of their ** European goods " for slaves made 
(1:rin.v' wars instigated by themselves [21] . 

\\ ar had already reduced the number of the Indians by one-half, 
and it was the desire of the Society to bring to them the Gospel of 
peace. The Rev. Dr. Le Jau forwarded in 1709 a cop} of the Lord's 
Pra^r in Savannah, the language of the Southern Indians, and in 
1711 Mr. J. Norris, a planter, interviewed the Society, and was en- 
couraged in a design which he had formed of bringing up his son to the 
ministry and sending him to the Yammonsees at his own expense [22]. 

The Rev. G. Johnston, of Charleston, brought to England in 1718 
a Yammonsee prinoe, at the request of his father and of the Emperor of 
the Indians, for instruction in the Christian religion and the manners 
of the English nation ; it was decided that under Clause 2 of the 


CharttT the said youth might " be maintained, put to school and 
instructed at the charge of the Society " [29]. This was done, and after 
being twice examined by the Committee of the Society, he was sub- 
mitted to the Bisliop of London, and by him baptized iu the Boyal 
Chapei of Somerset House on Quinijuagesima Sunday, 1715, at the age 
of 19, Lord Carteret, one of the proprietors of South Carolina, with Abel 
Eettilby, Esq., and Mrs. Ctecilia Conyers, being sponsors, after which 
he was presented to the King " under the character given " [24]. The 
Society sent him back irith a present for his father of a"gunorffuzee," 
with a pair of si^arlet stockings, and a letter of commendation to the 
Governor and Council, who were " enhorted to contribute all they " could 
"totheconveraionof the Indians," and it was hoped that much would be 
done, as the " whole Province " saw " with a<lmiration the iraproTe- 
ment " of the prince [25]. On hia return he wrote to the Society :- - 


" Charles Town in Routh Oarolina, December 3, 1715. 

I humble thank the good Souiaty (or all Iheir Kavonrs which I never 
forget. I got intu Charles Town the 30 September. I have bard doob that m; 
Father aa gone in Sanlauguxtena and all id; Friendg. I hope ho will come to 
Charlea Town. I am with Mr. CommiBsary JohnstoD faause. I learn b; Com- 
toisBarj JohoBlon as Lady. I read every Day and night and Mr. Commissary 
Johnston he as veil kind to me alwuB. I hope I learn better than nhen I vas in 
BahooL Sir, I bumble thank the good Society For all their Favours. 

" Tour Most and Obedient Servent 

"PuiKaR Gedkqb." [26] 

The absence of the father was cansed by a war in which he was 
taken prisoner. This made the prince eitremely dejecti'd, but he 
continued hia education under Mr, Johnston, who took the same cars 
of him as of hia own children [27], and prevailed on the Emperor of the 
Cherequois to let him have his eldest son for instruction ; the Hev. W. 
Got was also informed in 1715, by Capt. Cookran, a Dissenter at Port 
Royal, that the son of the Emperor of the Yammonsees was with him, 
and that he would take care to instruct him, and that as soon as he 
could Bay the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, 
he would present him for baptism [26], 

The efforts of a few righteous men availed not, however, to save 
the province from the calamities of a war which proved as disastrous to 
the Mission cause as to the material interests of the country. This 
war was caused partly by the oppression of the traders [29], who, 
ha^'in(; sown the wind, were now to reap the whirlwind. In 1715 
the Indiana fi-om the borders of Fort St. .^ugustino to Cape Fear 
conspired to extirpate the white people. On the Wednesday before 
Easter some traders at Port Boyal, fearing a rising among the Yam- 
monsees, made friendly overtures to them, which were so well received 
that they remained in the Indian camp for the night. At daybreak 
they were greeted with a volley of shot, which kiUed all but a man and 
a boy. These gave the alarm at Fort Royal, and a ship happening to 
be in the river, about 800 of the inhabitants, including the Rev. W. 
Guy, escaped in her to Charleston, the few families who remained being 
tortured and murdered, The Appellacheea, the Calabaws, and the 
CreeliB soon joined the Yammonsees, One party, after laying waste St, 
Bartholomew's, where 100 Christians fell into their hands, was driven 


off the week after Easter by Governor Craven ; but the Indians on the 
northern side continued their ravages until June 18, when, after 
massacring a garrison, they were finally defeated by Captain Chicken, 
of the Goosecreek Company. 

The Missionaries suffered grievously from the war — some barely 
escaping massacre, all being reduced and impoverished. Timely help 
from the Society relieved their miserable state, and that of two French 
clergymen, Rev. J. La Pierre,* of St. Dennis, and Rev. P. de Rich- 
BOURG, of St. James's, Santee, who, btit for this aid, must have left 
their congregations, consisting of French refugees, who had conformed 
to the Church of England [30]. 

During the war the Rev. R. Maule, of St. John's, remained 
four months shut up in a garrison ministering to the sick and wounded, 
being, said he, '' satisfied, not only to sacrifice my health, but (if that 
could be of any use) my very life too, for the propagation of the Goepel of 
Jesus Christ [81]." Both were sacrificed, as it proved, and at his death 
in 1716 he left most of his property (or over £750 currency) to the 
Society [82]. So also did the Rev. R. Ludlam, of Goosecreek, in 1728 — 
the bequest, amounting to £2,000 currency, being partly intended for 
the erection of ** a schoole for the instruction of poor children " in the 
parish [38]. A legacy of £100 was also bequeathed by the Rev. L. 
Jones, of St. Helen's, for the support of a free school at Beaufort, 
and in 1761 the Rev. C. Martyn, of St. Andrew's, attended a meeting 
of the Society in England, and resigned his Missionary salary, ** think- 
ing the minister of St. Andrew's sufficiently provided for without the 
Society's allowance " [34]. The need of schools in South Carolina was 
thus represented to the Society by some of the inhabitants of Dor- 
chester in 1724 : — 

** The want of country Schools in this Province in general and particularly in 
this parish is the chief source of Dissenters here and we may justly be appre- 
hensive that if our children continue longer to be deprived of opportunity 
of being instructed, Christianity [will] of course decay insensibly and we shall 
have a generation of our own as ignorant as the Native Indians '* [H5]. 

Here, as elsewhere, the Assembly were moved to establish a free 
school [P6J. As early as 1704 a school was opened at Goosecreek by the 
Kev. S. Thomas [87], and several of the ordained Missionaries of the 
Society acted also as schoolmasters. Mr. Morritt reported in 1725 
that he had sent for, and was expecting, a son of a Creek chief for 
instruction in his school at Charleston [38]. 

In 1748, two negroes having been purchased and trained as 
teachers at the cost of the Society, a school was opened at Charleston by 
Commissary Garden, with the object of training the negroes as in- 
structors of their countrymen. The school w^as continued with success 
for more than 20 years, many adult slaves also attending in the evening 
for instruction. This was done by the Church in thefaceof many diffi- 
culties and obstructions, and at a time when the Government had not one 
institution for the education of the 50,000 slaves in the Colony [80], 

By the example of the Society and its Missionaries, the Colonists 
were led to take a real interest in spiritual things, and they showed 
their gratitude by building and endowing Churches and Schools, and 

* Mr La Pierre was assisted p^ain in 1720, ho being then in "miserable circum- 
stances " [aoa]. 


making such provision that in 1759 the Society decided not to fill up 
the existing Missions in the Province as they became vacant [40 . 
The last of these vacancies occurred in 1766, but in 1769 a special call 
was made on behalf of *' the Protestant Palatines in South Carolina.'* 
Having emigrated from Europe, they were ** greatly distressed for want 
of a minister," there being none to be met with at a less distance than 
60 or 70 miles ; **no sick or dying person " could "be visited at a less 
expense than ^10 sterling," and their settlement being in an infant 
state, without trade and without money, they were unable to support 
a mmister, and therefore implored the aid of the British Government. 
The Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations referred their 
petition to the Society, with the result that the Rev. S. F. Lucius was 
sent out to minister to them [41]. Arriving at Coflfee Town in 1770, he 
officiated on Easter Day to ** a people very eager to hear the Word." 
For want of a minister among them ** the children wore grown up like 
savages." In six months he baptized 40 children and 80 adults [42]. 
The people built two churches, and Mr. Lucius continued among them 
as the Society *s Missionary until the end of the American Revolution. 
During the war he was reduced to " the deepest distress" by being out 
off from communication with the Society, and unable to receive his 
salary for seven years (1776-88). After the evacuation of Charleston, 
where he had taken refuge, he attempted to go to ^* his old residence at 
Coffee Town ; but, destitute as he was of every con veniency, and travel- 
ling, more Apostolorum, on foot, encumbered with a wife and seven 
children, along an unhospitable road, he was soon unable to proceed, 
having . . certain information that he would not meet with a friendly 
reception." He returned to Charleston, and in March 1788 proceeded 
to Congarees (142 miles distant), ** where a great number of the Pala- 
tines were settled," who were in general ** very irreprehensible in their 
morals and behaviour," seventy being communicants [48]. 

(See also Chapter 79, and the Statistical Summary on p. 86.) 

V' 1 




North Carouna was inoladed in the Charter granted to the Soath Carolina Com- 
pany in 1662. [See page 12.] In 1701 it contained at least 5,000 Colonists, besides 
negroes and Ini^tans, all living without any minister and without any form of Divine 
worship publicly performed. Children had grown up and were growing up onbaptiaed 
and uneducated ; and the dead were not buried in any Christian form. 

According to an old resident, some good had been effected by religious books 
supplied by the Rev. Dr. Bray in 1699-1700; but this to a certain extent had been 
counteracted by the ill behaviour of the first clergyman, the Rev. Daniel Brett, who 

also appears to have been sent over by Dr. Brat in the latter year. ** For about | a 
year he behaved himself in a modest manner, and after that in a horrid manner *' [1} 
[Mr. H. Walker to Bishop of London, Oct. 21, 1703] 

In his Joamal Keith records that on May 10, 1708, leaving Elizabeth 
County in Virginia — 

** We [i.e. Talbot and himself] took onr journey from thence to North Carolinb. 
May 16, Whitsunday, I preached at the House of Captain Sanders in Corretuck in 
North Carolina, on Rom. i. 16. We designed to have travelled farther into North 
Carolina, bat there was no passage from that place by Land conyenient to Travel, 
by reason of Swamps and Marishes ; and we had no way to go by water, hot in a 
Canow over a great Bay, many Miles over, which we essayed to do, bat the wind 
continuing several days contrary, we returned to Virginia " >2]. 

Early in 1702, two months before Keith left England, the need of a 
Missionary for Boanoak was recognised, but some time elapsed ere one 
could be obtained [8]. 

The Rev. John Blair visited tlie Province in 1704 as an itinerant 
Missionary, supported by Lord Weymouth, but returned the same 
year enfeebled with poverty and sickness, ha^•ing found it " the most 
barbarous place in the Continent *' [4]. 

The country thus designated then consisted for the most part of 
swamps, marshes, deserts, forests, and rivers, without roads or bridges, 
but here and there a patli, more easy to lose than to find; and this, 
added to an exacting climate, made it one of the most arduous and 
deadly of Mission fields [5]. In 1705 Chief Justice Trot appealed for 
600 copies of Mr. John Philpot's Letter against the Anabaptists, " because 
the said country swann with Anabaptists " ; and the copies were 
supplied by the Society, with additions from Bishop Stillingfleet's 
works on the subject [6]. 

A paper entitled " The Planter's Letter ** showed such a want of 
ministers in North Carolina that it was decided that tlie next *' proper 
person who offers shall be sent there " [7J. The Bev. J. Adams and 


the Rev. W. Gobdon were approved in October 1707, and arriving in 
17U8 [H], took charge of four of the five distriuta into whioh the province 
bad been divided. In Chowan, though few of the peopie could " read, 
and fewer write, even of the justices of the Peace aud vestrymen," 
yet " they aeem'dvery serious and well iiiclin'd " to receive instruction, 
and 100 children were soon baptized by Mr. Gordon. In Paquimane, 
where a church had been begun by a Major Bwaii, igiioriuice was | 
combined with opposition from the Quakers, who were " very 
numerous, extreamely ignorant, tmsufferably proud and ambitious and ! 
consequently uii governable." By using tlie ' utmost circumspection . 
both in publiek and in private," and by the " Hueceas of some small i 
favours " Mr. Gordon " shewed them in physiek, they not only became 
very civill but respectful!" to him "in their way." After a year's 
e^tperieni^e he returned to England, being uuable to endure " the 
distractions among the people and other intollevable inconveniences 
in that colony " [9]. A greater trial awaited Mr. Adams. In Pascotank 
most of the people were Church members, and the government was 
"in the hands of such persons as were promoters of God's service 
and good order ; " but the Quakers " did in a most tumultuous manner 
stir up the ignorant and irreligious "against the Bulers and the Clergy, 
Of this he wrote (in October 1709) :— 

" The nbuBos and contumdies I meet with in m; own perxon are bat small i 
troablea to me in resjiect o[ that great grief of heariDg the njnet sucniit parts oL I 
Beligion impiouel; proptian'd ood rediculml. We had a Cointiiuniun lately, and the 
looter sort at iheit drunkon revcl1inj,'!i and caballs. Bpare not togive about ilieir bread 
and drink in the wards ot admin iatralion, to briny in contempt that moiit hoi; Saara- 
ment and in derision of those lew good persons who then received it " [10]. 

From bia congregations be derived not enough support " to pay for J 
diet and lodging" [H], and it was only by an increased allowance 
from the Society that he was enabled to exist [12]. Writing from 
" Currituck " in 1710 he said : — 

"Nothing hot mj true concern for ao manj poor Bouli, soattered abroad at 
sheep haring no shepherd, and my duty to thaw good men who reposed this trust 
in me, oott'd have prevailed upon roe to staj in so barbarous and dLiorderly place 
as this nov is, where I have undergone a world of trouble and mieory hntb in bodj 
and mind. ... I have struggled these two years aith a lawless and borbarout 
people, in general, oud endured Diore, I believe, than any ot the Society's Mis- 
Monariei ever has done before me. I am not able as the oountrpy is now. to hold 
oat much longer, but intend Ood willing, neit summer or fall, to set out tot 
Europe" [18]. 

From his flock be earned the cliaracter of " a pious and painfull 
pastor,' "exemplary and blameless," who bad "much conduced to 
promote tlie great end otbis Mission." Before his arrival the blessed 
Sacrament bad never been administered in Carahtuck precinct, but 
now (1710^ (here were more communicants there than in mosi of the 
neighbouring parishes of Virginia, where there had long been a settled 
ministry [14]. [See Addresses from "Carahtuck " and Pascotank, and 
from Governor Glover.] 

Sickness, however, prevented Mr. Adams leaving for England, and 
be died among his fiock. Successive Missionaries for many years 
had to encounter additional hardships and dangers arising from tha 
incursions of the Indians. The Coreea and Tuskaroras, near Cape 
Fear, formed a plot which threatened the ruin of the Colony. In 



small bauds of five or six men they waited, as friends, on their victimsi 
and, as opportunity offered, slew them. At Roanoak 187 of the 
inhabitants were massacred. Timely aid came from South Carolina 
in the form of 600 whites and 600 friendly Indians, under Colonel 
Barnwell, who defeated the enemy, killing 300, taking 100 prisoners, 
and forcing the rest, about 600, to sue for peace. Most of the other 
straggling bands retreated into " Fort Augustino *' district, linder the 
protection of the Spaniards. But though the Colony was saved from 
extinction, about 80 Indians remained, and these meeting with little 
opposition soon multiplied and gave much trouble. Families were 
daily ** cut off and destroyed " [15], and in the space of five years more 
than 80 unbaptized infants perished in this way [16]. The Rev. G. 
Ransford of Chowan was taken prisoner by the ** salvages " (in 1718) 
as he was going to preach, but escaped and took refuge in Virginia for 
two months [17]. Mr. Ransford had several conferences in 1712 with 
the King of the (friendly) Chowan Indians, who seemed ** very in- 
clinable to embrace Christianity " [18]. But the Rev. T. Newkam in 
1722 reported that though the Indians were "very quiet and peacable," 
he almost despaired of their conversion. They then numbered only 
800 fighting men, living in two towns [19]. In the course of time the 
Catawba and other tribes settled among the Planters, and, becoming 
more open to instruction, baptisms occasionally resulted. The minis- 
trations of the Rev. A. IStewart in Hyde County, were at- 
tended by " many of the remains of the Attamuskeet, Roanoke and 
Hatteras Indians," who " offered themselves and their children for 
baptism," and on one occasion he baptized as many as 21. He also fixed 
a schoolmaster among them, at the expense of Dr. Bray's Associates, 
over whose schools in the Province he acted as superintendent [20]. 

Among the negroes, a much more numerous body, greater results 
were attained, though the Missioiiaiies' efforts were frustrated by the 
slaveowners, who would "by no means permit " their negroes ** to be 
baptized, having a false notion that a christen'd slave is by law 
free " [21]. 

**By much importunity," Mr. Ransford of Chowan (in 1712) " pre- 
vailed on Mr. Martin to lett " him baptize three of his negroes, two 
women and a boy. ** All the arguments I cou'd make use of " (he said) 
" would scarce effect it, till Bishop ffleetwood*s sermon*. . .turned 
y« scale " [22]. Yet Mr. Ransford succeeded in baptizing ** upwards of 
forty negroes" in one year [23]. As the prejudices of the masters 
were overcome, a Missionary would baptize sometimes fifteen to 
twenty-four negroes in a month ; forty to fifty in six months ; and 
sixty-three to seventy-seven in a year. The return of the Rev. C. 
Hall for eight years was 355, including 112 adults, and at Edenton 
the blacks generally were induced to attend service at all the stations, 
where they behaved ** with great decorum " [24]. 

In no department of their work did the Missionaries in North 
Carolina receive much help from the Colonists. The Rev. J. Urmston 
in 1711 was with his family " in manifest danger of perishing for want 
of food; we have," he said, ''liv'd many a day only on a dry crust 
and a draught of salt water out of the Sound, such regard have the 

* See p. & 


people for my labours— bo worthy of the favour the Society have shewn 
them in providmg Missionaries and sending books *' [25]. The poor 
man was promised from local sources a house and i'lOO a year, but 
actually received only £30 in five years, and that in paper money [26]. 

Similar complaints were made by others, and to all *' the trivial 
round, the common task *' furnished ample room for self-denial. Many 
instances might be quoted to show that the bounty of the Society waft 
really needed and duly appreciated. 

Thus the ** Vestry of Queen Anne's Creek," on ** behalfe of the 
rest of the inhabitants of the precinct " of Chowan, wrote in 1714 : — 

" Wee ... in a most gratefull manner Return our hearty thanks to the Honble. 
Society &g. For their great Care of our Souls' health in sending over Missionaries 
to preach the Word of God and administring the Holy Sacrament among ui. Wee 
and the whole English America ought to bless and praise the AlmigUty for having 
putt it into the hearts of so many and great Honble. Personages to think of their 
poor Country Folk whose lott it hath been to come into these Heathen Countries 
were we were in danger of becomeing like the Indians themselves without a God in 
the World " [27]. 

In the following year the Assembly of North Carolina divided the 
country into nine parishes, and settled salaries for the Ministers of each 
parish not exceeding ^^50. The preamble of this Act states that ihey 
did this to ** express our gratitude to the Eight Honourable the Society 
for Promoting the Christian Religion in Foreign Parts, and our zeal 
for promoting our Holy Rehgion " [28]. 

In 1717 Governor Eden wrote to the Society, remonstrating on the 
" deplorable state of rehgion in this poor provhice" : — 

" It is now almost four months since I entered upon the Government, where I 
found no Clergyman upon the place except Mr. Urmston, one of your Missionaries, 
who is really an honest painestaking gentleman, and worthy of your care, but, poor 
man ! with utmost endeavours, is not able to serve one-half of the county of 
Abbermarle, which adjoins to Virginia, when as the county of Bath is of a much 
larger extent, and wholly destitute of any assistance. I cannot find but the people 
are well enough inclined to imbrace all opportunitys of attending the Service of 
God, and to contribute, to the utmost of their ability, towards the support of such 
missionarys as you shall, in compassion to their circumstances, think fit to send 
amongst them ; but our tedious Indian warr has reduc'd the country so low, that 
without your nursing caie the very footsteps of religion will, in a short time, be 
worne out, and those who retain any remembrance of it will be wholly lead away by 
the Quakers; whereas a few of the Clergy, of a complaisant temper and regular 
lives, wou'd not only be the darlings of the people, but would be a means in time 
to recover those all ready seduced by Quakerism" [29]. 

In 1732 the Society, observing with much concern that there was 
not one Minister of the Church of England in North CaroUna (and 
being unable to do more), appointed an Itinerant Missionary (Rev. J. 
Boyd) to travel through the whole of the country and at times officiate 
in every part of it. Five years later the province was divided into two 
itinerant Missions, to one of which was appointed the Rev. J. Garzia, 
whom the inhabitants of St. Thomas, Pamplico, had induced by fair 
promises to come from Virginia, and were starving with his wife and three 
children by not paying him ** his poor salary of £20 per annum " [80]. 

The travelling Missionaries were by no means equal to the mighty 
task laid on them, but they served to keep religion alive, preaching 
pabliclyi and from house to house, and baptizing from 500 to X,000 


persona a yoar, sometimes as many as 100 in a. (Jay [31]. Notwith- 
standing the hardships involved, severat of the Coloniets themselves 
were ready to uiidertalie tlie oiKce of a Missionary, and in the labours 
of one of these will be found an enample for all time. 

In 1743 tliere came to the Society a magistrate from North Carolina 
bearing letters signed by the Attorney- General, the Sheriffs, and the 
Clergy of the province, testifying that he was of " very good repute, 
life, and conversation." Having officiated for several years as a lay- 
reader, in the absence of a clergyman, he now desired to be ordained 
in order that he might more effectually minister to the wants of his 
countrymen. Admitted to the sacred office, the Rev. Clement Malij 
returned a Missionary of the Society, with an allowance of £80 a 
year [S2]. Thenceforward he gave himself up to a life of almost in- 
cessant labour, and for twelve years was the only clergyman for 
hundreds of miles of coimtry. Several of his congregations were so 
large that they had to assemble under the shady trees for service [83]. 
On one of hia tours he bapttxed 376 persons in lees than a month ; 
on another, in one day, " at a very remote place," ninety-seven, several 
of whom "were grown up, not having opportunity before " [9J]. In 
1752 he thus summarised his labours : — 

" I have now, through Qod'a Graoiona AsaiBUnce and Blessing, in aboat seven 
or eight yeurB, tbo' frequently visited with sicknesB, been enabled to perform {for 
ouglitl know) as great MiniBterial Duties oa any Clergyman in North America; 
vii., to Journey about 14,000 miles. Preach about G75 Sermons, Bap I iiiG about 5.T83 
White Children, 243 Black Children, 57 White Adults, and tl2 Black Adults-in 
all GilUfi Persons ; sometimes adminr. the Holy Sacrat. of ;e Ld.'s Supper to 2 or 
300 CouimunioantG, in one Journey, besides Churabing of Women. Visiting tbe 
sick, itc, itc. I have reaaoli to believe that my Health and Constitution is miioh 
Impair'd and Broken, by reason of my contin. Labonn in my Oflice, and also liom 
the Injurious treatment I hove ofl«n reed, from the adversaries ot our Church and 
Constitution ; for w'ch I do, and pray God to forgive thoia, and turn their 
hearts " L3fiJ. 

After labouring three more years as a travelling Missionary he was 
appointed to a ss'ltlcd Mission, St. Pant's, and died in 1759, hnving 
received into the " congregation of Chriafs flock " 10,000 persona by 
baptism [36]. 

Another Colonial candidate for Holy Orders, Mr. E. Jones, walked 
from Liverpool to London, and for the last four days of the journey he 
was reduced to living " upon a Penny a Day " [37]. 

These instances show that even North Carolina might have 
furnislied a sufficient number of Clergy had ordination been obtainable 
on the spot. The neglect arising from the want of a Bishop must 
have been great when a Missionary could report : — 

" I found the people of the Church of Englnnd disheartened, and dispersed 
like sheep, but have collected them inU) about forty congregations, or have as many 
preaching places where 1 meet them, consisting on a moderate caleulation. of seven 
thousand suuls men, vomen and children or 900 faniilys, inhabiting a country 
of one hundred and eighty miles in length and one hundred and twenty in 
breadth " [38]. [L., Rev. T. S. Drage, Feb. 38, 1771.) 

The Society had long had reason to complain that the inhabitants 
of North Carohna, though frequently called upon to build churches 
and parsonages and to fix glebes and salaries for settled Missionaries, 
did httle or nothing [3!)\ Up to 1764 only one glebe-house had been 
BniehetJ. but id that year Governor Dobbs obtained some better 


provision for the maintenance of the Clergy, whose number, then 
only six, increased threefold in the next seven years [40]. 

But in 1776 the Rev. D. Earl reported that he had " not received 
a shilling of his salary from his parish for near three years." This 
was partly owing to the political troubles. During the Revolution the 
case of the clergy, who wished not to offend, but to be left at liberty 
quietly to perform their duties, was ** truly pitiable.'* Some were 
" suspended, deprived of their salaries, and in the American manner 
proscribed by the Committees " of the Revolutionists. " No line of con- 
duct could protect them from injury ; " and the Rev. J. Reed, who 
was one of those ** advertised in the Gazette,*' did not long survive the 
treatment he received. 

Throughout the most trying period, however, the Rev. C.Pbttigrew 
was enabled to continue his Missionary journeys and to baptize 8,000 
infants within eight years, and though some Missionaries were obliged 
to ** engage in merchandise " or " other secular employment to obtain 
a subsistence for their families,*' the North Carolina clergy on the 
whole suffered less than their brethren in the other Colonies. In 1788 
the Society withdrew its aid from its last Missionary in the Province 
(the Rev. D. Earl), having reason to believe he had ** a very sufficient 
maintenance " from other sources [41]. 

{See aUo Chapter XII.^p. 79, and the Statistical Summary on p. 86.) 




Geokoia was established as an English Ck>lonv in 1788 with the object of protecting 
the southern provinces of North America against the eucroacluuents of the Spaniards and 
French, and tit the same time affording an asylom to poor English families and to those 
Protestants in Germany who were being persecuted because of their religion. By the 
exertions of a philanthr(>])iKt, General James Oglethorpe, a charter was granted by 
George II. in 1782, placing the administration of the Colony in the hands of a Corpora- 
tion of Trustees — mostly Cimrchmen — at whose instance not only was liberty of conscience 
guaranteed, but the Trui^tees themselves were debarred from receiving any ** profit 
whatsoever " by or from the undertaking. The first settlers sent out by the Trustees 
consisted of 85 families, in all about 120 "sober, industrious and moral persons." 
They were led by General Oglethorpe, and, embarking at Deptford, after a service in 
Milton Church, Uiey arrived at Georgia in January 1738. They were accompanied by 
the Rev. IIeniiy Uerbeut, D.D., who after three months' ministrations returned to 
England to die. Tlie expulsion of 2r),000 German Protestants from the province of 
Saltzburg. Bavaria, on account of their religion, evoked English sympathy to the extent 
of £88,000, and some 250 of these exiles were, by the aid of the S.P.C.K., sent to 
Georgia about 1785. 

It appears that Dr. Herbert did not intend to remain in Georgia, 
for before he and the Brst settlers bad reached the country the Trustees 
for estabhshing the Colony memorialised the Society in the following 
terms : — 

" That in pursuance of powers granted to them by His Majesty they have sent 
out a number of families of His Majestie's subjects to settle in Georgia, and that 
to provide for the establishing a regular Ministry according to the Church of 
England they have already directed the laying out a site for the Church, ami have 
allotted three hundred acres of land for glebe for the Minister but in regard it 
will be some years before the glebe can produce a sufllcient maintenance for the 
said Minister, they humbly hope that the Society will deem it to be within ye 
intent of their Charter to make the like allowance \o the Rev. Mr. Sajiukl Qcincy 
the Minister chosen to be settled among them as they do for the Missionaries 
establisht in the other Colonies till such time as the glebe shall be sufficiently 
improved for his maintenance as likewise that they will favour the Trustees with 
a benefaction of such books or furniture as they have usually given upon the 
first foundation of Churches. That they have received some benefactions for 
religious purposes which they have already set apart for erecting a Church for the 
town of Savannah clearing the glebe land and building the Minister's house. 
Benj. Martin, Secretary, Trustees Office Palace Court Westminster 17th of Jan. 
1732 " [1733J. 

The prayer of the Trustees was granted [1]. 

The Rev. John Wesley became the successor of Mr. Quincy. 
The following Minute records his appointment as a Missionary of the 
Society, at a meeting held on January IGth, 1736, at which the Bishops 
of London, Lichfield and Coventry, Rochester, and Gloucester, and 
others, were present : — 

"A memorial of the trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America was 
read, setting forth that the Rev. Mr. Samuel Quincy, to whom the Society had been 
pleased, upon their recommendation, to allow a salary of fifty pounds per annum, 
has by letter certified to the said trustees, that he is desirous of leaving the eaid 
Colony of Georgia, and returuing home to England in the mouth of March next 


to Kliii-h ttiey hn\e n^TtKi! ; niic) Lhc aoid tnislcBa recommeDil the liet. Mr. John 
Wesley to the Society, that tbey would sllow to bim tlie eoid lifty puuiidu [i. 
Rnnam from the timo Mr. Quincy shall leave [be said Colony, in the name monnei' 
Mr. Quincy bad it. Agrevd tlial the Society do approve of Mr. Wfsley as a proper 
person to be B Miesianary at neorgia. and that Sfty poiiuils per annum be allowed 
to Mr. Wesley (rom the time Mr. Qniucy's salary shall cease " [9]. 

Wealejf had Bailed for Georgia on October 14, 1735 — tbal is, before 
bU name was aubtnitted to the Society. '■ His first design," as he 
informed the Society iu a letter written from Savannah on July 26, 

" was lo receive notbini; of any man hat lood to eat and rayiuent Id put on. 
and those in kind only, that be mii^ht nvoid, as tar as in him lay. worldly desires 
and norldly cares; but being afterwards convinced by his friends that bo nngUt to 
consider the necesHities of his Souk, as well as bis onn. he thankfully accepted that 
bouutjr of the Society, which be needed not for bis own personal subsistance " [!)]. 

Arriving at Savannali in February, 173C, Wesley found little oppor- 
tunity of carrying out bis design of evangelising the bealben. owing to 
the bad lives of bia countrymen. Over bis European congregations be 
exercised tlie strictest discipline — he baptized children by imniersioD, 
accepted none but Communicanta as sponsors, catechised the children 
on Sundays after the Second Lesson in the aflemoon, refused the Holy 
Communion to Dissciiti'rs (unless previously aJmilted into the Church), 
or lo read the Burial Service over the unbaptized. He also Look a 
journey to Charleston (South Carolina) to make a formal complaint to 
the Bishop's Commissary, of a person who had been maiTying some of 
bia parishioners without banns or licence. l>iiring his visit, it being 
tbetune of their aimual Visitation," I had," said Wesley, " the pleasuie 
of meeting with the Clergy of South Carolina ; among whom, in the 
afternoon, there was such a conversation, for several hours, on ' Christ 
our Rigbteonsness,' as 1 bad not heard at any Visitation in England, 
or hardly any other ocuasion " W- 

The claims of the settlers at Savannah and neighbourhood left him 
DO time for preaching to the Indians, although he mode several 
attempts to do so. Thus bis Journal records : — 

" Satarday, Oct. 39, 1T3T.— Some ol the French ot Muvannab were present al 
the prayers at IliKhgate. The next day 1 receiveif a message from them all, that. 
as I read prayers lo the French of Highgale, tvho were but few. thcj hoped I would 
lie the same to those of Savannah, where there waa a large number who did not 
understand EnRtish. Sunday. 30th. -I began to do so, and now I had full 
employment lor that holy day. The lirst English prayers lasted from five to half- 
put six. The Italian, which I read lo a few Taudois. began at nine. The second 
service (or tbe English (including the Sermon and the Holy Communion) continued 
from half an hour paut (en lo half on hour past twelve. Tbe French Service 
began at one. At two I catechised the children. About three I began the EuKlisb 
Service. After this was ended, 1 bad tbe happiness of joinine with as many as 
mj largest room would bold in reading, prayer, and singing praise : and about six 
the service ol the Moravians, so-called, began, at whioh I was glad to be present, 
not as a teacher, but a learner." 

If, as bis labours show, Wesley spared not himself, it must be con- 
fessed ho spared not his Bock. The strictest disdphne of tbe Church 
might have been thought sufficient for those who ware as yet babes in 
Clirist, bat weighted with rules of bis on-n [nhich he called "Apostolical 
InstitulUMU "J ths burdens were heavier dian could be borne. 


While yet dissatisfied with the fruit of his labours, an event occurred 
which caused him to leave Georgia. A rebuke which he found 
occasion to administer to a member of his congregation — a lady for 
whom before her marriage he had entertained an affection — having 
been angrily received, he refused to admit her to the Holy Communion, 
since she had failed to comply with the rubric requiring notice of inten- 
tion to communicate and open repentance of her fault. On this the 
husband charged him before the Recorder and Magistrates with 
defaming his wife and repelling her without cause. Wesley denied 
the first charge, also the right of a secular court to adjudicate on the 
second — a matter purely ecclesiastical. The whole Colony became 
involved in the quarrel. A true bill was found by the grand jury, 
twelve, however, protesting ; and for months courts were held, and 
slanderous affidavits received, without Wesley having an opportunity 
of answering them. These vexatious delays and the prospect of im- 
paired usefulness decided him to return to England. The magistrates 
sought to prevent his departure, but he disregarded their order, and 
on December 2, 1737, he records in his Journal : — 

" Being now only a prisoner at large, in a place where I knew, by experience, 
every day would give freah opportunity to procure evidence of words I never said, 
and actions I never did, I saw clearly the hour was come for leaving this place ; 
and as soon as evening prayers were over, about eight o'clock, the tide then 
serving, I shook off the dust of my feet and left Georgia, after having preached 
the Gospel there (not as I ought, but as I was able) one year and nearly nine 
months " [6]. 

Besides the Mission at Savannah — which was renewed in 1789 — 
others were opened by the Society. The Rev. T. Bosomworth found 
at Frederica in 1744 ** that the people had been too long as sheep with- 
out a shepherd, and driven to and fro with every wind of doctrine " [6]. 
The Society joined with Dr. Bray's Associates in supporting a school- 
master for the negroes in 1761, and an improvement in the slaves was 
soon admitted by their owners [7]. At Augusta the Rev. S. Frink, in 
1766, who made some converts among the negroes, reported his efforts 
to convert the Cheeksaw [Chickasaw] Indians ** all to no purpose while 
many of the white people " were ** as destitute of a sense of rehgion as 
the Ladians themselves " [8*|. 

For although the Georgia Assembly had (Act of 1758) divided the 
province into eight parishes, and made provision towards the building 
of a church and the support of a clergyman in each parish, so little 
advantage was taken of the Act that the Church of England remained 
established in name only [9]. The condition of the settlers in 1769, 
when there were but two churches in the whole of the country, and 
these 150 miles apart, was thus described by Mr. Frink : — 

" They seem in general to have but very little more knowledge of a Saviour 
than the aboriginal natives. Many hundreds of poor people, both parents and 
children, in the interior of the province, have no opportunity of being instructed 
in the principles of Christianity or even in the being of a God, any further than 
nature dictates " [10]. 

It was for such as these that the Church in America needed and 
desired a Bishop *' to bring again the out-casts "and " seek the lost." 
To indifference and opposition succeeded persecution. The revo- 

lutionary war fount! the Rev. J. Sktmour at Augusta, For "two 
years after the hrtaking-out of the rebellion " he performed the duties 
of his parish, though often "threatened by the mob." In 1779 he 
was a prisoner in tlie " rebel eamp " for several days, but owing to the 
care of the officer in command* he was " well used." He reached home 
to find " one of hia children a corpse and the rest of his family very 
sick." Some months afterhishouaewaaoccupiedbyarebel regiment and 
the church turned into a hoapital; faorraukswerebuilt on part of the glebe 
and the remainder waa sold. The success of the British troops enabled 
him to regain possession of his parsonage, hut the enemy renewing the 
attack be " fled into a deep thick swamp, where he remained, in the 
greatest ansiety, five days and nights ivithout any shelter, A party 
was sent in search of him, who threatened his life, if they found him, 
but, it pleased Qod, he escaped undiscovered." His fanuly, however, 
were " stripped of everything valuable even of their clothing and pro- 
visions," and "35 innocent loyalists" in Augusta were "murdered" 
"in their houses." For some time Mr. Seymour took refuge at 
Savannah, where he assisted the Rev. J. BnowN (another S.P.G. 
Missionary detained there), and represented his own parishii 
the " Commons House of Assembly." Eventually he made his escape 
to tit. Augustine in East Florida, and there officiated until 1,1738-1) the 
Spaniards took possession of the Province t [11]. 

(Sm aUn Chnpln- Xn..p. Vlt, a,<,l ll, - SMUlieal Sumi-.nrg oil p. Sfl.J 





ViBOiNU had the advantage of being planted (ander a London Company) by settlen 
who were mostly members of the Church of England. As soon as the Colony was fairly 
established they began to make provision for their soals as Christians, as well as foi 
their temporal concerns as merchants. In 1612 the whole country was laid out into 
Parishes or Townships. Churches were built, and an Act of Assembly fixed a salary 
upon the Minister. 

The " maintenance " being ** hurt by disuse," in 1701 nearly half 
of the forty to forty-six parishes, containing 40,000 people, were un- 
supplied with Clergy. Still the Colony was better provided than any 
other, and therefore the Society*s assistance was limited to gratuities 
to two clergymen there, in 1702 and 1725, and the supply of religious 
books [1]. 

In 1702 a Mr. George Bond offered to convey to the Society his 
right and title to an estate of 950 acres of land in Virginia. The offer 
was accepted, but the title proving " dubious" the matter dropped [2]. 

Keith, who with Talbot visited the country in April 1708, 
records in his Journal : — 

" May 23, Sunday, 1703, 1 preached at the Chnrch in Princess Ann County in 
Virginia, on Heb. 12, 1, and I baptized eight children there. Mr. Talbot preached the 
same day at a Chappcl belonging to the same county, and baptized ten children. The 
whole county is but one parish, and is about fifty miles in length ; the People are 
well affected, but they had no Minister, and greatly desire to have one ; and as they 
informed us, the Minister's salary being paid id Tobacco (as it is generally all over 
Virginia and Maryland *) tfad Tobacco of that county was so low that it could not 
maintain him '* [3]. 

[For Statistical Summary seep. 88.) 
• [See p. 851.] 




Mabtland — 80 named in honour of Henrietta Maria, consort of Cliarles I. — ^was first 
settled in 1(>34 under a Charter granted to Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic. 
Toleration having been granted to all who professed the Christian religion, the Colony, 
at first mainly Romanist, lost its exclusive character, and local provision was made for 
establishing Uie Church of England by Act of Assembly in 1GU2 &c. 

In 1701 Maryland had a population of 26,000, settled in thirty 
parishes, and although only about half supplied with Clergy, its claims 
could not compare with those of other Colonies, and therefore it 
received from the Society (and that only for a short time) occasional 
help in the settlement of clergymen and libraries [1]. 

The province was visited by Keith and Talbot in July 1708. 
On "July 4, Sunday" (wrote Keith), ** I preached at Annapolis on 
1 Thess. i. 6, and had a large auditory well affected ; my Sermon, at 
the request of a worthy person who heard it, was printed at Annapolis, 
mostly at his charge ; and copies of it sent by him to many parts of 
the country." Being requested "to have some friendly conference " 
with the Quakers at Ilerruig Neck, Keith endeavoured to do so, but 

** had spoke but a very few sentences when " (as he says) " they interrupted me very 
radely . . . abused mo with reviling speeches in meer Generals as the manner 
generally of the Quakers is, to all who endeavour to reform them from their Errors, 
^d especially to any who with a good conscience upon Divine Conviction, have 
forsaken their Erroneous ways, to whom they are most outragious, as the Jews 
were to St. Paul^ after his conversion to Christianity." 

At Shrewsbury he preached also, "where was a large auditory out 
of diverse Parishes : But that parish of Shrewsbury had no Minister, 
nor have had for some considerable time." Here he had some discourse 
with a Quaker trader who was " extream ignorant," denying he had " a 
created soul " [2J. The Society appointed a Missionary to this place in 
1707, who, however, failed to reach his destination, being carried away 
into captivity. His case deserves notice as illustrating some of the 
dangers which Missionaries had to encoimter in those days. The Rev. 
William Cordiner, an Irish Clergyman, received his appointment to 
Shrewsbury in January 1707, with an allowance at the rate of £50 
per annum, on condition that he transported himself and family there 
" by the first opportunity." Three months passed before he could 
find a ship, and when on April 13 he embarked on the Do very man-of- 
war, at Spithead, it was only for a day — for the Dover being ordered 
on a cruise he landed, and the ship returned disabled. On May 24 he 
re-embarked on the Ciiestery man-of-war. After being " sixteen times 
out at sea "—sometimes fifty and sixty leagues — and driven back by 
contrary winds or the Fronch, the Chester at length left Plymouth in 
company with five men-of war and 200 merchantmen in the evening of 
October 10. At noon on the next day they were engaged by fourteen 


French men-of-war, and in two hoars* time were all taken except the 
Boyal Oak (escaped) and the Devonshire (blown up). The Chester was 
on fire several times, and the thirty-seven men on the quarter-deck 
were all killed and wounded except the c&ptain and two others. The 
prisoners were searched '* to the very skin ** and deprived of all they had. 
The French sailors, taking compassion on the women and chOdren, 
gave some things back, which the chief officers then appropriated, 
even the shoes and stockings of the little children. On October 19 the 
prisoners were landed at Brest, having suffered from exposure and want 
of food and clothing. There Mr. Cordiner was offered provision for his 
mother, ^ife, and two children if he would betake himself to a convent. 
On the way to Dinan, which was reached on December 5, they were 
subjected to ill treatment from the Provost. A great many sick men 
were ** carryed in a very pitiful condition, some . . . being blind with 
the small-pox and whenever they complained " they were beaten. 

At Fugiers and at Dinan Mr. Cordiner ministered to his fellow- 
prisoners, and encouraged them. An Irish priest (Father Hagan) 
having stopped his doing so in Dinan Castle, some of the merchant- 
men procured a room in the town, where service was held every 
Sunday and on holy days. Sevoral " who never understood it before " 
were instructed in the Liturgy and conformed. During their detention 
at Dinan one of Mr. Cordincr's children and his servant died, and a child 
was born to him. He was ** several times . . . imprisoned for two or 
three hours, and daily threatened with close restraint and confinement." 
The number of English prisoners, at first 1,000, was increased to 1,700, 
but some 200 died. The prisoners ** were mightily cheated in their 
allowance and too much crowded together, and the hospital at Dinan 
was a place to despatch them out of this world." 

When ** the design of the Pretender" was in hand the French abused 
and beat their prisoners and applauded the Scotch ; but when they found 
** that he was obliged to return to France . . . they cursed the Scotch 
bitterly," saying, ** Scot will be Scot still, always false." Upon which 
disappointment the prisoners were sent to England, landing at Wey- 
mouth on December 11 [8]. 

The truth of Mr. Cordiner's statements was confirmed by a certificate 
signed by sixty-two of the masters and officers, his fellow-prisoners, 
who also testified that " by his sound and wholesom Doctrine, pious 
Admonition, exemplary life and conversation " he 

** established and confirmed several in that most pure A holy Religion from w*^ 
they would otherwise have been seduced & drawn away, by the sly insinuations and 
false Delusions of our sedulous and crafty Adversarios, and hath in all other respects 
discharged his Ministerial oflice and Function with that diligonc" carefulness and 
sobriety and hath behaved himself with that Prudence, Piety, and Zeal as doth 
become his character and Profession " [4]. 

When in 1720 the Maryland Clergy were in danger of having their 
salaries " considerably diminished " by the action of the Local 
Assembly, the Society supported them in successfully opposing the 
confirmation of the Act, and 

** Resolved that the Lord Baltimore be acquainted that in case the Clergy of 
Maryland be obliged thro* the hardships they suffer by this Act to leave Maryland 


the Society will employ them in their Mission in other Govemmenis, and will not 
make any allowance to them or any other Clergymen as their Missionaries in 
Klaryland, there having been a sufficient maintenance settled apon them by a 
former Act of Assembly, part of which is by this Act taken away and thereby the 
Gleigy rendered incapable of subsisting themselves in that Qovemment " [5.] 

{For Statistical Summary tee p. 86.) 



PBNNsrLTAKU was ori^nally settled by Swedes and Dntoh; the Swedes formally 
Mirrendered to the Dutch in 1655, and the Dutch to the English in 1(M>4. In 1680 the 
country was granted by Charter to William Penn, from whom it took its name, the first 
English settlers consisting of 2,000 Quakers taken over by him. The Dutch were 
Calvinists; the Swedes, Lutherans. The Quakers were followed from the mother 
country by other denominations, including some members of the Church of England. 
Religious divisions set in among the Quakers ; the other inhabitants followed each what 
was good in bis own eyes; so that in 1701 " the youth " of the country were " like those 
in the neighbouring provinces, very debauch't and ignorant"; [1] and the population 
of 20,000 were for the most part living in general neglect of public worship of God, and 
without the instituted means of grace and salvation. The Swedes from their first 
settlement in 1686, and the Dutch, were partly provided with Ministers ; but the 
English Church was not set up till 1005, when Christ Church, Philadelphia, was built 
onder the direction of the Rev. T. Clayton, then appointed there. 

In 1700 the Rev. Evan Evans was sent to Philadelphia by Bishop 
Gompion of London. His labours were so successful that congrega- 
tions consisting chiefly of persons brought over from the Quakers 
and other sectaries soon joined the Church of England in Philadelphia 
and other places ; these he endeavoured to ground in the faith ** till 
they were formed into proper districts and had Ministers sent over 
to them by the Venerable Society " [la]. 

On tlie application of the Church congregation at Philadelphia 
William III. settled an allowance for a minister and a schoolmaster 
there, and the Society in January and February 1702 bore the cost — 
between ;^80 and £40 — of the Letters Patent for giving effect to the 
same [2]. On Nov. 5 of the same year Eeibh and Talbot [ste p. 10] arrived 
at Philadelphia, ''and were kindly received by the two Ministers 
there, and the Church People, and especially by the late converts from 
Quakerism, who were become zealous Members of the Church." On 
the next day, Sunday, the two Missionaries preached, '' and had a very 
great auditory, so that the church could not contain them, but many 
•iayed without and heard " [8]. Their preaching here and elsewhere 


prepared the way for resident Missionaries, whom the Societjr were 
not slow to send, the first being the Bev. H. Nichols, in 170S [4]. He 
was stationed .at Chester, or Uplands, where the people had begun 
building a church, but as the Vestry informed the Society ** We 
never had so much reason to hope that ever the Gospell would be 
propagated, in these of all other Forreign Parts, till now we find 
ourselves to be the subject of your great care " [5]. The Philadelphia 
" Minister and Vestry *' also wrote in 1704 : — 

'* We can never be sufficiently Uumkfall to Divine Providence, who hath raised 
yon up to maintain the Honor of religion, and to engage in the great work of 
promoting the Salvation of Men. Gratitude, and an humble acknowledgemt of 
your noble and charitable Besolutions of propagating the Sacred Gospell in these 
remote and dark comers of the world, is not only a duty, but a just debt to you 
from all true Professors of Christianity. We cannot but with the profoundest 
deference make mention of those noble instances of piety and Beneficience you 
exhibited to the Church of God in generall in these uncultivated parts since you 
were first incorporated, particularly we crave leave to return you our most thankfull 
acknowledgements for your pious care in sending over the Bev. Mr. Keith whose 
unpftralleled zeal and assiduity, whose eminent piety, whose indefatigable diligence 
(beyond what could be expected from a person of his declining years), whose frequent 

E reaching and learned conferences, whose strenuous and elaborate writing made him 
ighly and signally instrumenall of promoting the Church and advancing the number 
of Christians not only here but in the neighbouring provinces " [0]. 

Thus encouraged the Society continued to send Missionaries to 
Pennsylvania to minister to the settlers, Welsh as well as English, 
and to evangelise the heathen. The Colonists showed their desire for 
the Church's ministrations by building and endowing churches, and 
otherwise contributing to the support of their pastors ; and it was to 
the Church rather than to Dissenting teachers that the Quakers turned 
for baptism when they became Christians [7]. 

The Rev. T. Crawford, after two years' work at Dover, reported in 
1706 :— 

" At my first comeing I found the people all stuffed with various opinions, but 
not one in the place that was so much of a churchman as to stand Godfather 
for a child : so that I was two months in the place before I baptised any, on that 
account . . . but now (I thank God) I have baptised a great number, they bring 
their children with sureties very orderly to the church ; and also people at age a 
great many the greater part whereof were Quakers and Quaker children for by 
God*s blessing upon my labours I have not only gained the heart of my hearers 
but some that were my greatest enemies at first, and Quakers that were fully 
resolved against me are come over and have joyned therasclves to our Communion. 
I have baptised families of them together, so I have dayly additions to the con- 
gregation " [8]. 

In Sussex County the Rev. W. Becket (1721-4) effected such a refor- 
mation in the hves of the people as to draw forth the *' thanks of 
the Magistrates and gentlemen of the Church of England " in the 
couniy [9]. Within three years three churches were built m his 
Mission, "yet none of them," he wrote in 1724, "will contain the 
hearers that constantly attend the Church service " [10]. Grateful too 
were the Welsh at Oxford and Badnor, to be mhiistered to in their 
own tongue, while only "poor settlers" "in the wilderness." The 
people at Badnor " built a church in hopes of being supplyed with the 
right worship of God" [11], hopes which were first gratified in 1714 
by the appointment of the Bev. J. Clubb. In referring to his deatli, 



which occurred in December 1715, the Churcli wardens and Veatry 
wrote in 1720 :— 

" Mr. Clubb our lal<i Minister nos the first thut undertook the care al Badnor 
and Oion and ha paid denr tor it, toi the great fategiie ot rideing between the tva 
ChoroheH, in such dismull -nnyes and weather as we generally have tor lour raontlia 
in winter, sixm pnt a period to Iiia Life " [12]. 

The death of a Missionary was freqoently followed by the loss of 
ft congregation to the Chtiruh. "For want of Ministers episcopally 
ordained " " many large congregations of Churchmen " were " obliged 
to join with the Disnentera in worship," as appeared from the answer 
of a Preabyterian teacher, who being aaked liow his congregation 
stood affected in those unsettled times, answered he was " happy in 
having his congregation chiefly consisting of Church of England 
])eopIe who gave themselves up to none of those wild notions and 
enthusiastick ravings which some people practiced so much and were 
so fond of" [13], The disadvantageous position of the Chnroh of 
America for want of a Bishop was forcibly represented by the Bev. H. 
Neill of Oxford. Uimaelf formerly a, Presbyterian minister he had, 
since conforming, educated for the ministry of the Church a nephew, 
Mr. Hugh Welbon, who on returning from ordination in England was, 
with the Rev. Mr. Giles, shipwrecked and drowned within sight of 
land in 1700. On hearing of this Mr, Neill wrote (May 19} :— 

" Buoh, alSE I are the misfortunea, and I maj say, peraecntiona, tbat attend 
the poor digtrese'd Church ot England in America, that whilst (he DisEfutera oan 
eend out an innnmerable tribe ol teoahers ot all sorts without any eipences, we 
must aend three thousand milea oroaa the Atlantio Ocean, at the eipence ol alt we 
Me worth, some times, and as much more as wehavecredit tor. oe well as the risque 
ot our liiea, before we can have an ordination — this is a difliculty that baa, and 
always will, prevent the growth of the tliurch in America. Few Enghahmen that 
can hve at home will nndertake the Mission — -the great eipenoes and dangers ol 
the Seas that the Americans Eanst encounter with, before lliey can obtain an 
ordination, damps their spirits, and forces many of them (who have strong in- 
olinatione to the Church) to join the DisHenters, and become teachers among tbom— 
thns, when a vacancy happens among them, it can be fiUed in an instant, when a 
vacancy among us [it] is some considerable time before they [we] can have a 
minister. All Uiis time the DisBonleraar«makiiigsut'!i havoek among the Church 
people, that when a Missionary comes to one of theea destitute places, he has all 
the work to begin again and many years before ha can collect his scattered 

"The Dissenters very well know that the sending a Bishop to AmfcitB, would 
oontribnle more to the Enciease ol the Chnrch btre than all the money that has 
been raised by the VeQerable Society. . . . Alaa I we see and feet the power ot 
oar enemies and weakness ot our friends, and can only moom In secret and 
pray for better timea " [U]. 

One of the earlier Missionaries, the Rev. G. Boss of Chester, on the 
return voyage from England in 1711 fell into the hands of the French, 
by whom he was " carryed prisoner into France," where, he wrote : — 

"I as well as others was strip't of all my cloaths fromtbo crown of my head 
to the sole of my float : in ii word, I was left as naked aa I was born, and that by 
means of the greedy priest that was Chaplain of the Ship : he perceived that my 
doaths were better than his own. and therefore he never ceased to importune hit 
Obtain till he got leave to change, forsooth, with me ; so that I am now cloathed 
in roggs. in testimony of my bondage " [Letter from Dinant, March iri, ITll,] [IS] 

la hia Mission of Chester (to which when released he returned) 
Quakerism had "taken deep root," and was " cultivated by a-rt d.u'I 



policy aind reootnmended by fashion and interest," so that " the doc- 
trine of Christ ** met " with much reproach and opposition " [16]. 
Some fifty years later, one of his successors, the He v. G. Cbaig, 
estimated the Church members in Pennsylvania to be less than one- 
fiftieth of the whole population [17]. Nevertheless, in spite of 
numerical weakness and other disadvantages, the Church gained in 
strength wherever a faithful Missionary was maintained. 

Thus at Perquihoma the congregation increased greatly *' by the 
daily coming over of Roman Cathohcks, Anabaptists and Quakers '* [18], 
and at Conostogoe and Newcastle by Irish immigrants, of whom 
.from 8,000 to 10,000 arrived in Penn^lvania^ 1729-80), many being 
shepherded by the Missionaries, the Bishop of Kaphoe also remembering 
them by a present of Bibles, Prayer Books, &c. [19]. In Sussex County 
the several ** orderly, well disposed congregations ** were joined by 
Dissenters; there were baptisms every Sunday,. and ''scarce a Com- 
munion " but what some ** were added to it." The ** countir-bom 
people '* were generally members of the Church, and Quakerism 
strangely decayed ** even in that Prpvince designed to be the Nursery 
of it" [20]. Strangers who ** accidentally attended" service at 
Apoquiiiiminck expressed '* an agreeable surprise at the decency and 
regularity of it,'* and both here and in many other places, previous to 
the Revolutionary movement. Dissenters flocked to the churches, which 
in the summer season were so crowded that, for want of room and 
fresh air, the Missionaries had " to preach under the green trees " [21]. 

The Rev. C. Inglis (who became the first Colonial Bishop) wrote 
in 1768 that his Mission in Kent County was in '' a flourishing state, 
if building and repairing churches, if crowds attending the publick 
worship of God and other rehgious ordinances, if some of other 
denominations joining . . . and a revival of a spirit of piety in many 
can denominate it such " ; though there were '' still left Lukewarmness, 
Ignorance and vice enough to humble him sufiiciently and exercise, if 
he had it, ** an apostolic zeal " [22]. 

The inhabitants of York County in 1756 '' acknowledged the infinite 
service done by the Society's Missionaries in that dark and distant part 
of the world," and particularly by the Rev. T. Barton, who, they wrote, 

"has distingaished himself at this time of public danger with so much zeal 
and warmth in behalf of Liberty and Protestantism that he has endeared himself 
not only to his o^v7l people, but to all Protestant Dissenters there. He has con- 
stantly persevered by word and by example to inspirit and encourage the 
people to defend themselves and has often at the head of a number of his 
congregations gone to oppose the savage and murderous enemy, which has so 
good an effect that they are verily persuaded that he has been instrumental under 
God, in preventing many families from deserting their plantations and having the 
fruits of many years* labours gathered by the hands of rapacious and cruel 
nmrtherers" [23]. 

The ** public danger " was caused by the incursions of the French 
and Indians, who reduced Cumberland County to a condition " truly 
deplorable." Mr. Barton reported in 175G that though his churches 
were '* churches militant indeed, subject to dangers and trials of the 
most alarming kind," yet he had the pleasure every Sunday to see the 
people crowding to them "with their muskets on their shoulders," 
declaring that they would "dye Protestants and Freemen, sooner than 
jive Idolaters and Slaves " [24J. 


The services rendered by Mr. Barton in organising liis people for 
defensive purposes were thus noticed in a letter from Philadelphia to 
Mr. Penn, \v ho communicated it to the Society : — 

*' Mr. Barton deserves the commendations of all lovers of their coantry ; for he 
has put himself at the head of his congregations, and marched c':her by night or 
day on every alarm. Had others imitated his example, Cumberland would not have 
wanted men enough to defend it ; nor has he done anything in the military way 
but what hath increased his character for piety, and that of a sincerely religious 
man and zealous minister: In short Sir, he is a most worthy, active and 
serviceable pastor and Missionary, and as such please to 'mention him to the 
Society " [26]. 

In 1768-4 Mr. Barton reported : — 

** The Churches in this Mission now make as decent an appearance as any 
Churches in the province, those of Philadelphia excepted. But much morels the 
pleasure I feel in observing them crowded every Bunday during the summer season 
with people of almost every denomination, who come, many of them, thirty and 
forty miles. . . . Amidst all the mad zeal and distractions of the Religionists that 
surround me, I have never been deserted by any of those whom I had received in 
charge. . . . This Mission then takes in the whole of Lancaster County (eighty 
miles in length, and twenty-six in breadth), part of Chester County, and part of ■ 
Berks ; so that the circumference of my stated Bfission only is 200 miles. The 
county of Lancaster contains upwards of 40,000 souls : of this number, not more 
than 500 can be reckoned as belonging to the Church of England ; the rest are 
Oerman Lutherans, Calvinists, Mennonists, Moravians, New Bom, Dunkers, 
Presbyterians, Seceders, New Lights, Covenanters, Mountain-Men, Brownists, 
Independents, Papists, Quakers, Jews, &c. Amidst such a swarm of Sectaries, 
all indulged and favour'd by the Gk)vernment, it is no wonder that the National 
Church should be borne down. At the last election for the county to chuue 
assembly-men, sheriffs, coroner, commissioners, assessors, Ac, 5,000 freeholders 
voted, and yet not a single member of the Church was elected into any of these 
offices. Notwithstanding . . . my people have continued to give proofs of that 
submission and obedience to civil authority, which it is the glory of the Church 
of England to inculcate : and, whilst faction and Party strife have been rending 
the province to pieces, they behav'd themselves as became peaceable and dutiful 
subjects, never intermeddling in the least ... In the murder of the Indians in this 
place, and the different insurrections occasioned by this inhuman act, not one of 
them was ever concem*d. . . . Their conduct upon this occasion has gain'd them 
much Credit and Honour. Upon the whole, the Church of England visibly gains 
ground throughout the province. The mildness and excellency of her con- 
stitution, her moderation and charity even to her enemies, and . . . the indefatigable 
labours of her Missionaries, must at length reconmiend her to all, except those who 
have an hereditary prejudice and aversion to her. The German Lutherans have 
frequently in their Coetus's proposed a union with the Church of England, and 
several of their clergy, with whom I have conversed, are desirous of addressing . . . 
my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and . • . Bishop of London upon this subject. 
A large and respectable congregation of Dutch Calvinists in Philadelphia have 
already drawn up constitutions, by which they oblige themselves to conform to 
the Canons and Constitutions of the National Church, and to use her Liturgy and 
forms, and none else provided they be approv*d of and receiv'd at Home and 
that my Lord Bishop will grant ordination to such gentlemen as they shall 
present to him. The Church of. England then must certainly prevail at last. 
She has hitherto stood her ground amidst all the rage and wildness of 
Fanaticism: and whilst Methodists and New Lights have roam*d over the 
country, * leading captive silly women,' and drawing in thousands to adopt their 
strange and novel doctrines, the members of the Church (a few in Philadelphia 
eaicepted) have * held fast the profession of their faith without wavering.* And, if 
depriy'd as she is of any legal establishment in her favour, and remote from the 
immediate influence and direction of her lawful Governor the Bishops, she has 
iioodnnmoY'd and gain'd a respectable footing— what might be expected if these 
onoi to take place. . . . Many of the prindpal Qoakers wish for it [the ^ 


establishment of Episoopaoy] in hopes it might be a oheok to the growth of 
Presbyterianism, which they dread ; and the Presbyterians . . . would not chusa 
to murmur at a time when they are oblig*d to keep fair with the Church whose 
assistance they want against the Combinations of the Quakers, who would willingly 
crush them " [26]. 

Mr. Barton had made a favourable impression on the Indians, had 

held conference with them, and induced some to attend Church ; but 

he says : — 

** Just when I was big with the hopes of being able" to do service among these 
tawny people, we received the melancholy news, that our forces, under the com* 
mand of General Braddock, were defeated on the 9th of July, as they were marching 
to take Duquesne, a French fort upon the Ohio. This was soon succeeded by an 
alienation of the Indians in our interest ; and from that day to this, poor Penn- 
sylvania has felt incessantly the sad effects of Popish tyranny and savage cruelty 1 
A gresrt part of five of her counties has been depopulated and laid waste, and some 
hundreds of her steadiest sons either murdered or carried into barbarous cap- 
tivity " [Nov. 8, 1766.] [27]. 

With a view to the conversion of the Indians the Society in 1756 
agreed to allow £100 per annum for the training of native teachers in 
the College at Philadelphia imder the Rev. Dr. Smith [28]. 

*' Nothing can promise fairer to produce these happy effects than the scheme 
proposed by the honourable Society,*' wrote Mr. Barton. ** In the conversion of 
Indians many difficulties and impediments will occur, which Europian Missionaries 
will never be able to remove. Their customs and manner of living are so opposite 
to the genius and constitution of our people, that they could never become familiar 
to them. Few of the Indians have any settled place of habitation, but wander 
about where they can meet with most success in hunting : and whatever beasts or 
reptiles they chance to take are food to them. Bears, Foxes, Wolves, Baccons, 
Polecats, and even Snakes, they can eat with as much ohearfulness as Englishmen 
do their best beef and mutton " [29]. 

Wars and rumours of wars, however, kept the Indians too unsettled 
to listen to Christian teaching. In 1763 Mr. Barton wrote : — 

<* The Barbarians have renewed their hostilities and the country bleeds again 
under the sava<je knife. The dreadful news of murdering, burning, and scalping, 
is daily couvey'd to us and confirmed with shocking additions. Our traders, with 
goods to the amount of near £200,000, are taken ; our garrisons have been invested, 
and some of them obliged to surrender. Above fifty miles of the finest country 
in America are already deserted, and the poor people, having left their crops in 
the ground, almost ready for the sickle, are reduced to the most consummate 
distress" [30]. 

The obstacles to the conversion of the negroes were not so great in 
Pennsylvania as in some parts of America. As early as 1712 the 
Missionaries began to baptize the slaves ; and a Mr. Yeates of Chester 
was commended by the Eev. G. Eoss for his " endeavours to train up 
his negroes in the knowledge of rehgion ** [81]. 

Other owners were moved by the Bishop of London's appeal 
[see p. 8] to consent to the instruction of their slaves ; and the result 
was the baptism of a considerable number [82]. At Philadelphia the 
Rev. G. Ross baptized on one occasion twelve adult negroes, *' who were 
publickly examined before the congregation and answered to the ad- 
miration uf all that heard them . . . the like sight had never before 
been seen in that Church " [88]. The sight soon became a common 
one, and in 1747 the Rev. Dr. Jenney represented that there was a great 
and daily increasing number of negroes in the city who would with 
joy attend upon a Catechist for instruction; that he had baptized 


several, but was unable to add to his other duties ; and the Society, 
**ever ready to lend a helping hand to such pious undertakings," 
appointed the Rev. W. Sturgeon to be their Catechist to the negroes 
in Philadelphia [84]. Generally the Missionaries showed great dih- 
geuce in this branch of their work, Mr. Neill of Dover baptizing 162 
(145 being adult slaves) within about 18 months [85]. The Revo- 
lutionary War, which put a stop to this and many other good works, 
entailed nrach sufifering on the Missionaries. Mr. Barton reported in 
1776 :— 

*' I have been obliged to shut up my ohurcheSf to avoid the fury of the populace, 
who would not Buffer the liturgy to be UR'd, unless the collects and prayers for the 
King and royal family were omitted, which neither my conscience nor the declara- 
tion I made and subscribed when ordained, would allow me to comply with : — and 
although I used every prudent step to give no offence, even to those who usurp'd 
Authority and Rule, and exercised the severest tyranny over us, yet my life and 
property have been threatened upon meer suspicion of being unfriendly, to, what 
is call*d the American Cause. Indeed every Clergyman of the Church cf England 
who dar*d to act upon proper principles, was mark'd out for Infamy and Insult. 
Id consequence of which the Missionaries, in particular, have sufferM greatly. 
Some of them have been dragM from their Horses, assaulted with Stones and 
Dirt, ducked in water, obliged to flee for their lives, driven from their Habita- 
tions, and Families, laid under arrests and imprisoned — I believe they were all 
(or, at least, most of them) reduced to the same necessity, with me, of shut- 
ting up their churches *' [36j. 

The following account of the closing of Apoquimininck Church on 
Sunday, July 28, 1776, is related by the Rev. P. Reading : — 

"After the Nioene Creed I declared, in form that, as I had no design to resist the 
authority of the new Government, on one hand, and as I was determined, on the other, 
liot to incur the heavy guilt of per j ury by a breach of the most solemn promises, I should 
decline attending on Uie pubUo worship for a short time from that day ; but that for 
the benefit of those who were in full and close communion with me, for comforting 
them in the present distress, for strengthening them in the faith, for encouraging 
them to persevere in their profession unto the end, I would administer the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper on (Sept. 8th) that day six weeks. I had purposed to 
say more on the subject, but the scene became too affecting for me to bear a 
further part in it. Many of the people present were overwhelmed with deep 
distress, and the cheeks of some began to be bathed in tears. My own tongue 
faltered, and my firmness forsook me ; beckoning, therefore, to the clerk to sing the 
psalm, I went up into the pulpit, and having exhorted the Members of the Church 
to ' hold fast the profession of their faith without wavering,' and to depend upon 
the promises of a faithful God for their present comfort and future relief, I finished 
this irksome business, and Apoquimininck Church from that day has continued 
thai np " [87]. 

After being confined to his house for two years by the rebels, Mr. 
Barton was left ** no choice but to abjure his King, or to leave the 
country," At his departure for New York in 1778 the people of 
Pequea and Carnarvon* testified their esteem and regard for him by 
paying the arrears of his salary, presenting him with £50, taking a 
noose for his eight children, and ** giving the kindest assurances that 
they should be supported, till it might please God to unite them again." 

* These people were aocuBtomed to provoke one another to good works. In 1768 
Mr. Barton mtiodnced to the " notice of the Society Biir. Nathan Evans, an old man 
belonging to the Caernarvon congregation, whose generosity to the Church" was 
" perhaps onequaUed '* in t^t part of the world. ** Though he acquired his estate by 
hard labomr and Indtistry," he gave " £100 towards finishing their ChiurcV* " purchased a 
glebe ci 40 acres for the use of the Minister," and contributed further to the endowmeuv 
ol the Church [88a]. 


During his confinement, being " no longer allowed to go out of the 
country . . . under penalty of imprisonment,** " he secretly met his 
people on the confines of the counties, chiefly the women (who were 
not subject to the Penalties of the laws), with their little ones to be 
catechised, and infants to be christen*d.** Under this restriction he 
" sometimes baptized 80 in a day." The Missionaries were ''most 
<jn*ievous sufferers in these days of trial.** Most of them '' lost their 
all,** many wore reduced to a state of "melancholy pilgrimage and 
poverty," and some sank under their calamities, Mr. Barton among 
the number, *' his long confinement to his house by the Rebels having 
brought on a dropsy,*' from which he died* [88]. The Report for 
1779 stated there had been '* a total cessation of the public worship " 
in Pennsylvania, and almost every Missionary had been driven out 
of the province [89]. One of those who remained and persevered 
in the faithful discharge of his duty, ''in spite of threats and ill 
treatment,'* was the Rev. S. Tingley of Lewes, who was unable to 
communicate with the Society for six years (1776-82). During this 
period he went about Sussex County, and sometimes into Maryland, 
** strengthening and confirming the brethren," travelling " at least 
8,000 miles a year," and baptizing ** several thousands . . . and 
among them, many blacks, from 60 years to 2 months old.*' He 
' seldom performed publick service without having at the same time 80, 
40, or 50 baptisms.** His " difficulties and sufferings'* were " many 
and great ** ; often he " scarcely had bread to eat, or raiment to put 
on,*' and the Revolutionists were so cruel as to deprive his family of 
some refreshments which had been sent him, '* though his weak and 
dying wife begged a small part only of the things as a medicine '* [40]. 

(See aUo Chapter A'iJ., j>. 70, ami (hn Statntical Summary on p. 88.) 

* A Corporation for the Relief of the Widows and Children of Clergymen in Ihc 
Provinces of Now York, New Jerm'y, and Pennsylvania was established in 1709, the 
Society contributing i.'20 annually to each of the three branches [886]. 




New England was formerly divided into four great districts or goyernments, 
including the Colonies of Massachnsetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, 
Maine, Vermont, and Naragansett or King's Province. The first settlement — tnat of 
New Plymouth, Massachueetts Bay — was formed by a small party of Puritans or 
Independents in 1G20, which was much strengthened by a fresh emigration from England 
in 1629. Other sects poured into the country, which soon swarmed with Brownists, 
Presbyterians, Quakers, Familists, Antinomians, Conformitants or Formalists, Arrians, 
Arminians, Gortonists, &c. The Qortonists were so lost to common humanity and 
decency that they were suppressed by the Civil Power under Governor Dudley in 1648. 
The Independents soon established their ecclesiastical system, and sought to exact from 
others a rigid conformity to it. Fleeing from persecution in England, they now them- 
selves became persecutors ; and notwithstanding their former professions of moderation 
and liberty of conscience, and the toleration conferred by the New England Charter, 
ihey drove out of Massachusetts the Quakers * and other sectaries. The Church settlers 
were so restrained from having their own form of worship that in 1679 many of the 
inhabitants of Boston petitioned Charles II. that they nught be allowed to build a 
church there for the exercise of religion according to the Church of England. Permission 
was accorded, and the congregation of the " King's Chapel," Boston, so increased that 
William HI. settled an annual allowance f of £100 for the support of an assistant 
minister for them. 

In 1701 there were still only two clergTmen of the Church of Eng- 
land in New England, the population (Massachusetts, 70,000 ; Con- 
necticut, 80,000 ; Bhode Island and Providence, 5,000 ; Naragansett, 
8,000; New Hampshire, 8,000; and Maine, 2,000) being mostly 
Dissenters [1]. 

In February 1702 the Society, after reading letters " delivered in 
by Dr. Bray," and consulting the Rev. G. Keith, recorded its opinion 
" that a Missionary should be forthwith sent to the Naragansets 
country,'' and the Bishop of Loudon was asked to recommend 
one [2]. It was not possible, however, to carry out the proposal till 
many years later. In the meantime, Keith, Talbot and Gordon [pp. 
9, 10] reached Boston on June 11, 1702, and the former reported : — 

** At my arriyal the Beverend Mr. Samuel Miles, the Reverend Mr. Christopher 
Bridge, both Ministers of the Church of England at Boston, did kindly reoeivo 
me and the two Ministers in company with me, and we lodged and were kindly 
entertained in their houses during our abode at Boston. June 14, 1702. Being 
Sunday,* at the request of the above-named Ministers of the Church of England, 
I preached in the Queen's Chapel at Boston, on Eph. 2, 20, 21, 22, where was 
a large auditory, not only of Church People, but of many others. Soon after, at 
the request of the Ministers and Vestry, and others of the auditory, my Sermon 
was printed at Boston. It contained in it towards the conclusion, six plain brief 
rales', which I told my auditory, did well agree to the Holy Scriptures, and they 
being well observed and put into practice, would bring all to the Church of 
England, who dissented from her. This did greatly alarm the Independent 
Preachers at Boston. Whereupon Mr. Increase Mather, one of the chief of them 
was set on work to print against my sermon, as accordingly he did, wherein he 

* Jifter the Chnroh of England had been set up in Bhode Island the Quakers were 
led to *' express their regard " for it "from the experience . . . they had of the mildnciii 
and lenity of its administration ** [81. 


laboured to prove them all false and contrary to Soriptore, but did not say any- 
thing against the body of my sermon. And not long after, I printed a Treatise in 
Vindication of these Six Bnles, in answer to his, wherein I shewed the invalidity 
of his objections against them. This I had printed at New York, the printer 
at Boston not daring to j>rint it, lest he shoald give o£fence to the Independent 
Preachers there. After it was printed, the printed copies of it were sent to 
Boston, and dispersed both over New England and the other parts of North 
America ** [6J. 

The MS. of Keith's Journal contains this passage : — 

'*In divers parts of New England we found not only many people weU 
affected to the Church, who have no Church of England Ministers, and in some 
places none of any sort ; but also we found several New England Ministers very 
well affected to the Church, some of whom both hospitably entertained us in their 
houses and requested us to preach in their congregations, wch. accordingly we 
did, and receiv'd great thanks, both from the Ministers and people: and in 
Cambridge Colledge in N. England we were civilly treated by some of the ffellows 
there, who have a very great favour to the Church of England, and were it not for 
the poysonous doctrines that have been infused into the scholars and youths there, 
and deep prejudices agt. the Church of England by Mr. Increase Mather, formerly 
President of the Colledge there, and Mr. Samuel Willard, now President there, the 
Scholars and Students there would soon be brought over to the Church " [6]. 

The truth of the above description was remarkably con- 
firmed in later years, when the persecution of the Church was 
followed by the conformity of large numbers of Dissenters and 
their teachers. Already some of the inliabitants had begun to 
show their preference by building churches and petitioning the ' 
Society for ministers, and the first to receive encouragement were the 
people of Newport, Rhode Island, for whose church the Society 
allowed in January 1708 £15 for ''a Chalice Patten, Cloath and 
other necessaries." At the same time £20 was granted (at Governor 
Dudley's request) " towards the support of Mr. Eburn, a Minister in 
the Isle of Shoales, for one year *' [7]. The Rev, Samuel Ebubn min- 
istered in this Mission three and a half years; in which time it 
cost him £150 more than he '' ever received from the inhabitants." 
**This extraordinary expense" he ''was at merely to introduce the 
service of the Church of England in those Islands," and did it to some 
good effect. •* He stay*d there so long till every family of the place 
removed their goods to the mainland for fear of the enemy " [8]. In 
1704 the Rev. J. Honyman was appointed to Newport. He not only 
built up the Church in Rhode Island, but gathered congregations at 
several towns on the continent, and ministered to them until they 
were provided with resident clergymen. In spite of the " frow^;is and 
discouragements " of the Government — there being only " one baptized 
Christian in the whole legislature" of the island — Mr. Honyman was 
able to report in 1782 : — 

*' Betwixt New York and Boston, the distance of 800 miles, and wherein are 
many Missions, there is not a congregation in the way of the Church of England 
that can pretend to compare with mine, or equall it in any respect ; nor does my 
Church consist of members that were of it when I came here, for I have buried 
them all ; nor is there any one person now alive that did then belong to it, so 
that our present appearing is entirely owing to the blessing of God upon my 
endeavours to serve him " [9]* 

Mr. Honyman*s labours at Newport extended over nearly half a 


In Connecticut the foundationa of several JCssiong were Itud by ' 
tlie Rev. G, Mcirson. Altbougli attached to the parish of Rye in New 
York, he could not resist the desire of the people of Stratford to have 
the Church settled among them. Colonel Heathcote accompsjiied 
him on his visit in 1706, and thus described their reception in 
Connecticut : — 

"Wb (ooridllial Collonj maoh aa we eipeclsit, very ignorant of the Constitution I 
of our Cburcb, and therefore enemja to it. Alt their TowueB are fumishail with 1 
Ministers . . . cbieSy Independents, denying Baptlame to the Obildrec o( all 
who are not in full Communion ; there are man; Chouannda in that Oovmt. 
nnbaptieed, the Ministers were very une^y at our coming amoQgBt them, and 
abandanoa oF pains was tnkan to terrify the People from hearing Mr. Muircon. 
But it availed nothing, for not withstanding all their endeavours, he had n very 
IjTeat Coofireifution and indeed infioitly beyond nij expectation. The people 
were wonderfully surprised at the Order of our Churoli, eipecting (D have heard 
and Bceu some nonderfuU strange things, by the Ac^count and Itepreee station of ] 
it that their Teachers had given them, . . . Mr. Muiraon baptised about I 
a — inoBt grown people " [10]. | 

The viBit waa renewed (again by invitation) in 1707, the steiwl- 1 
fastness of the people being unshaken by the Indepenilente, whose 
ministers and magietratee went from house to house threatening I 
*' with prison and punishment " those who would go to hear Mr. 
Muirsou preaoh. 

" One of their Magistrates" (wrote Mr. Muirson) " with some other officers, 
came to my Lodgings, . . . aud in the hearing of Colonel Hcathcote niiJ a great 
many people read a long Paper. The mennlng of it was to let mo know that 
theirs vax a Charter Government, that I bad done an illegal thing in coming 
among 'cm to establish a new Way of Worship, and to Corenam me from 
preaching any more. Thia ha did by rirloe of one of their LawB ... the Words 
fae made use of are these as the said Law eipreasea them : Be it enacted by the 
. . . General Assembly, That [here shall be no Ministry or Church Administration 
entertained or attended by the Inhabitants of any Town or Plantacon in thii 
Colony, diitinct and separnte from, and in opposition to that which is openly 
and publicklj observed and dispenced by the approved Miniatera of the Place.' 
Now whatever Interpretation of Ui a Words of the said law may ailmit of, jet we are to 
regard the sense and force they put upon them ; which ia plainly tlius, to eicluile tha 
Church their Government, as appears by their Proceedings with me. So that j 
hereby they deny a Liberty of Conscience to the Church of England people, si i 
well as all others that are not of their opinion ; wbiob being repugnant to 
the Laws of England is contrary to the Grant of their Charter " [II]. 

The movernent in favour of the Church was stimulated by thia 
opposition; other towns invited Mr. Muiraon to visit them, and ha 
became a kind of travelling Missionary in the Colony, The tactics of j 
the Independents were repeated. 

" They . . . left no means untryed both foul and fair, to prevent the aettling of ' 
the Church among them " (wrote Mr. Muirson) ; " . . . the people were likewlw ' 
threatened with Imprisonment, and a forfeiture of £5 for coming to bearing me, 
Jt won'd require more lime than yon would willingly bestow on these Lines, to | 
express bow rigidly and severely they treat our People, by taking their Estate by . 
diitresR when they do not willingly pay to support their Ministera, . . . They 
■pare not openly to speak reproachfully and with great contempt of onr Church, J 
tfaey Bs; the sign of the Cross is the Mark of the Beast and the sign of tha * 
Devil and that those who rcoeive it are given to the Devil '' [12]. 

Mr. Muirson died in 1709 ; and two years later Governor Hunter , 
of New York wrote to the Society ; — 

" When 1 waa at Connecticut, those of the Communion of the Church at i 


Stradford, came to me in a Body, and then, as thej have since by a Letter, 
begg*d mj Intercession with our most Venerable Society and . . . the Bishop of 
London for a Missionary; they appeared very much in earnest, and are the best 
sett of men I met with in that country " [13]. 

Disappointment from ' Mends was perhaps a severer test of 
earnestness than persecution* from enemies ; but neither could shake 
the faithfubiess of the Church adherents at Stratford, and after 
waiting another eleven years their wishes were gratified by the 
Society sending them a Missionary, the Rev. O. Piqot, in 1722. To 
some extent many other congregations were subjected to similar trials, 
and oppression and persecution seemed to be the common lot of 
the Church in New England. Sometimes Churchmen's complaints 
reached the ear of the Governor, and grievances were redressed, but 
in general the Independents had the upper hand, and their bigotry 
was extreme. At Newbury, Governor Dudley had eased the Church 
members from paving taxes to the Dissenting Ministers, but the Bev. 
H. Lucas found on his arrival in 1716 that the Dissenters had 
taken possession of the church and robbed it of its ornaments, vest- 
ments, and books. Next day, however, the ornaments &c. were 
restored; he reconciled the people, and two of the Dissenting 
teachers who had been relied on to '* dissolve " the Church congre- 
gation were admitted to Holy Communion, and one of them sh(^y 
after *' put on y® courage to read the Holy Biblef in the meeting and 
say the L*'" Prayers, a thing not done before** there, and "he 
resolved " to continue it " tho* very much opposed." Mr. Lucas* 
** knowledge in Phisick" was very serviceable in winning people,- and 
effected** that which by preaching " he ** could not have done ** [14]. 

Of the 84 Missionaries on the Society's list in New England, 
more than one-fourth were brought up Dissenters. Among these were 
Samuel Seabury (father of the first American Bishop) ; Timothy 
Cutler, President of Yale (Presbyterian) College ; and Edwabd 
Bass, the future Bishop of Massachusetts. ''The great incliimtion 
of some young students in New England to enter into Episcopal 
Orders " had been brought under the Society's notice at an early 
period, and in 1706 a letter was sent to the Governor and the 
Clergy encouraging the sending of candidates to England for ordi- 
nation [15]. The sacrifices involved by conformity were such as 
to exclude all but persons actuated by the highest motives. Hence 
those who conformed were a real gain to the Church, which 
exerted a power and influence out of all proportion to her numerical 
strength. Of tbis the Dissenters were aware, and their dread and 
intolerance of the Church showed that they had little confidence in 
their own systems of rehgion. What some of those systems were, 
and how the Church was affected by them, may be gathered from the 
writings of the Missionaries. 

The Bev. Dr. Johnson of Stratford wrote in 1727 that he bad 

* This continued after Mr. Muirson's death. See " An Account of the Su£ferings of ' 
the Members of the Church of England " and an Appeal to the Queen for relief from 
their grievances, about 1711-12 [16]. 

t A similar effect was produced in the Rev. S. Palmer's Mission, where a congrega- 
tion of Dissenters, from observing the regular method of reading the Scripture in 
church, " voted that a new folio Bible be bought for them and that their teacher shall 
read lessons out of it every Sunday morning and evening.'' 


visited (at Fairfield) ** a considerable number of my people in prison 
for their rates to the Dissenting Minister, to comfort and encourage 
them under their sufferings . . . both I and my people grow weary of 
our lives under our poverty and oppression " [17, 18], 

In 1748 he opened a new church at Ripton. ''On the Sunday 
following a Dissenting teacher, one Mills ... a great admirer of Mr. 
Whitfield, reviled and declaimed'* against the Dr.*s Sermon, ''which 
was on the subject of relative holiness/' and soon after some of Mills' 
followers " put his doctrine into practice, by defiling the Church with 
ordure in several places " [19]. 

In the Mission of the Bev. J. Beach of Newtown &o. some people 
began to build a church. But, said he in 1743 : — 

" The Independents to suppress this design in its infancy . . . have lately prose- 
eated and fined them for their meeting to worship God according to the Common 
Prayer ; and the same punishment they are likely to suffer for every o£fence in 
this kind. . . The case of these people is very hard. If on the Lord's Day they 
continue at home, they must be punished ; if they meet to worship God according 
to the Church of England, in the best manner they can, the mulct is still greater ; 
and if they go to the Independent meeting in the town where they live, they must 
ieiidnre the mortification of hearing the doctrines and worship of the Church 
vilified and ' the important truths of Christianity obscured and enervated by 
enthusiastic and antinomian dreams. . . . My people [at Newtown &oJ] are not all 
shaken, but rather confirmed in their principles, by the spirit of enthusiasm that 
rages among the Independents. ... A considerable number [of the Dissenters] in 
" this Colony have lately conformed, and several churches are now building where 
they have no minister " [20]. 

Dr. Johnson reported in 1741 : — 

** We have had a variety of travelling enthusiastical A antinomian teachers 
come among us. . . . Not only the minds of many people are at once struck 
with amazing Distresses upon their hearing the dismal outcrys of our strolling 
.preachers, but even their Bodies are in a moment affected with . . . surprising 
Convulsions, and involuntary agitations and cramps " [21] . 

The Rev. H. Canbr wrote from Fairfield in 1748 : — 

" At Norwalk, Stanford, and Ridgefield . . . there have been large accessions 
made to the Church of late . . . chiefiy persons who appear to have a serious sense of 
religion . . . Where the late spirit of Enthusiasm has most abounded the Church 
has received the largest accessions. Many of these deluded people ... as their 
Passions subsided, sought for rest in the Bosom and Communion of the Church '' [22]. 

A joint letter from its Missionaries in New England acquainted the 
Society in 1747 that it was *^ a matter of great comfort to them to see 
in all places the earnest zeal of the people in pressing forward into the 
Church from the confusions which Methodism had spread among 
them ; insomuch that they think nothing too much to do to qualify 
themselves for the obtaining of Missionaries from the Society " [28]. 

The Rev. Mr. Fayerweather, at Naragansett, had his dwelling "in 
the midst " ''of enemies, Quakers, Anabaptists, AntipoDdobaptists, 
Presbyterians, Independants, Dippers, Levellers, Sabbatarians, Muggle- 
tonians, and Brown is ts," who united " in nothing but pulling down 
the Church of England,*' which they in their language called 
•** emphatically Babel, a synagogue of Satan," &c. Thus situated he 
found it best ''to be mild and gentle, peaceable and forbearing,'* 
which the Society earnestly recommended to him and all their Mission- 
aries. In consequence of this behaviour several conformed to the 
Church from the Anabapti.sts and other persuasions. In that part of 


America Mr. Faybbweatheb fonnd ''immersion preferred among 
persons in adult years to sprinkling/' and whenever it was required he 
administered in that way, as the Church directs [24]. See also letters 
from Rev. Dr. Cutleb, Boston, June 80, 1743, and Dec. 26, 1744 [26] ; 
Rev, J. Beach, Newtown, April 6, 1761 [26]; Rev. E, Winslpw, 
Stratford, July 1, 1768 [27]; and Rev. R. Mansfield, Derby, Sept. 26, 
1768 [28]. This testimony (and much more that might be quoted) 
shows that the influence of the Society's work was beneficial to the 
whole country. The progress made must have been considerable when 
Missionaries could report from 100 to 846 communicants in their con- 
gregations [29]. In the Newton and Reading district Mr. Beach 
"preached in many places where the Common Prayer had never 
been heard nor the Scriptures read,'* in others where there had 
been no public worship at all, and he had the privilege of raising up 
** flourishing congregations,'* and seeing the Church members increase 
more than twenty-fold and outnumber the Dissenters [80]. 

The Rev. J. Bailey, Itinerant in Massachusetts, stated in 1762 
that "Industry, Morality, and Religion" were "flourishing among a 
people till of late abandoned to disorder, vice, and Profaneness,*' which 
alteration was " chiefly owing to the performance of Divine service 
and those pious tracts which the Society's generous care has dis- 
persed "[81]. 

Another missionary, the Rev. E. Pundebson — who during thirty^ 
years failed to officiate only one Sunday —" almost alone raised up 
eleven churches in Connecticut under the greatest trials and difficul- 
ties imaginable" [82]. In New Hampshire the difficulty of raising 
up churches was lessened at this time by the action of Governor 
Wentworth, who made over to the Society 120 town lots of land, of 
about 800 acres each, and also set apart church glebes in each town, 
and " granted an equal portion or right to the first settled minister 
of the Church of England and his heirs with the rest of the pro- 
prietors of every town for ever " [88]. 

The eflbrts of the Missionaries for the conversion of the negroes 
and Indians in New England met with more opposition than en- 
couragement from the Colonists. From Bristol the Rev. J. Usheb 
reported in 1780 that " sundry negroes " had made " application for 
baptism that were able to render a very good account of the hope that 
was in them," but he was " not permitted to comply with their 
requests . . . being forbid by their masters." In the same year, how- 
ever, he succeeded in baptizing three adult Indians, and later on the 
Bristol congregation included " about 80 Negroes and Indians," most 
of whom joined " in the Publick Service very decently " [84]. 

At Newtown the opposition was more serious, and the story of the 
Rev. J. Beach should be taken to heart by all who profess the name 
of Christ. This is what he wrote in 1788 : — . 

*• When first I arrived here, I intended to visit tlie Indians who live three 
miles from Newtown, and I had hopes that some good might have been wrought 
upon them ; but many of the English here that are bitter enemies to the Church, 
antidoted them against the Church, or any instructions they might have received 
from me, By insinuating them with a jealousy, if they recieved me as their 
Minister, I would in time get their land from them ; and they must be oblidged io 
pay me a salary. This put them into a great Rage, for these Indians are a very 


JealonB people, and partionlarlj suspioions of being cheated out of their land by 
the English (the English having got most of it from them already). These 
English Dissenters likewise rail'd against all the Gharchmen in Generall, telling 
them (the Indians) they were rogues, <&c., and advised them that : if I came among 
them to instmct tnem, to whip mc. In a word they raised such a ferment among 
these Bude Barbarians, that their Sachem, or Chief, said that if I came among 
them, he would shoot a bullet thro my heart ; these things several! of the Indians 
have told me since. However J, not knowing the danger, went to visit them, but 
they looked very surlily upon me, and showed a great uneasiness when I mentioned 
the name of God, so that I plainly saw, that they were resolved not to hear me, and 
I feared that if I had persisted in my discourse of Beligion, that they would have 
done me a mischief " [85]. 

Mr. Beach does not appear to have baptized many Indians, and his 
parishioners had but few negio slaves ; but all they had he, after 
proper instruction, baptized, and some of them became communi- 
cants [36]. The teaching which the Indians received from the Romish 
Church, as well as from Dissenters, tended to make them imperfect 
Christians. The frontiers of Massachusetts Bay were frequented by 
** a great number of Indians,'* the '' remains of the ancient Norridge- 
walk Tribe '* ; they universally spoke French, and professed " the 
Bomi3h rehgion,'' visiting Canada " once or twice a year for Abso- 
lution.** They had ** a great aversion to the English owing to the 
influenpe of Roman CathoHc Missionaries,** who taught them "that 
nothing is necessary to eternal salvation, but to believe in the name of 
Christ, to acknowledge the Pope his holy Vicar, and to extirpate the 
English because they cruelly murdered the Saviour of mankind.** It 
is not surprising therefore that the Rev. J. Bailey found them " very 
savage in their dress and manner " [87]. 

ilming at something more than nominal conversions, the Mission- 
aries of the Society sought to accomplish their object by ** a more 
excellent way,** and their teaching proved acceptable to not a few 
heathen. At Stratford Dr. Johnson *' always had a catechetical lecture 
during the summer months, attended by many negroes, and some 
Indians, as well as the whites, about 70 or 80 in all, and *' (said he in 
1751) '* as far as I can find, where the Dissenters have baptized one 
we have baptized 2, if not 3 or 4 negros or Indians, and I have four 
or five communicants ** [38]. 

At Naragansett, Dr. Macspabban had a class of 70 Indians and 
negroes, whom he frequently catechised and instructed before Divine 
service, and the Rev. J. Honyman of Newport, Rhode Island, besides 
baptizing some Indians, numbered among his congregation " above 
100 negroes who constantly attended the Pubhck Worship** [39]. 
Among the Naragansett tribe in Rhode Island Catechist Bennet, of 
the Mohawk Mission, New York Province, laboured for a short time 
at thp invitation of their King, Thomas Ninigrate. These people 
were specially commended by the Rev. M. Gbaves for their donation 
of 40 acres of land* towards a church and their progress in religion 

• The land referred to by Mr. Graves was probably that given in 174C by " George 
Ninegrett, Chief Sachem and Prince of tlie Narrsigansett Indians," who " for and in con> 
sideraiion of the love and affection " which he Iiad for " the people of the Church of 
England in Charlcstown and Westerly . . . and for securing and settling the Service and 
Worship of God amongst them according to the usuage of that most excellent Church . . . 
conveyed . . to the use of the Society " (S.P.G.) forty acres of land in Charlcstown, 
Rhode Island, with all buildings thereon, to be appropriated for the benefit of the 
Episcopal Ministers of that Church [44]. 


and attachment to the Church and Grown of England ; and on Mr. 
Bennet's departure Mr. Graves, at the Society's request, undertook to 
appoint a successor and himself to superintend the Mission. Mr. 
Graves had several of them at his house, and found them " very 
worthy of notice and encouragement/* and that they had ''made 
great proficiency in spiritual knowledge '* and spared '* no pains for y^ 
Improvement of their Souls." Mr. Graves ministered to four other 
adjacent tribes, who had ** great confidence in him " [40]. A similar 
regard was shoim for the Rev. J. Gheckley of Providence, who 
lH)ssessed ** great skill in the neighbouring Indian language '* and a 
*' long acquaintance with the Lidians themselves.'* He not only 
A-isitiKl the natives but was himself sought out by '* some of his old 
Indian acquaintances . . . from far distant countries " [41]. 

In *' Old Plymouth Golony " the Rev. E. Thompson used " hia 
utmost endea>x>urs to be serviceable" to the natives, and it was 
reix)rted in 1758-4 that *' the Indians in the neighbourhood of Scituate 
and Marshfield come more frequently to Ghurch and behave with 
decency and de>x)tion and bring their children to baptism and 
Rubmii to Mr. Thompson's instructions, to which the Society's bounty 
of Bibles and Common Prayer Books [in 1753] has not a little con- 
tributed/' and that his labours among them were ** attended with 
greater success than ever " [42]. At Stoughton and Dedham the B^. 
W. Clark reclaimed several Indians whose frequent attendance and 
devout behaviour at church became a subject of remark [48]. These 
instances sufiice to show that the heathen were not neglected by the 
Society and that the work among them was not in vain. 

During the American Revolution numerous and pitiable accounts 
were received by the Society of the sufferings of their Missionaries. 
The Rev. S. Peters of Hebron ** left his Mission to avoid the farr 
of an outrageous midtitudo. who after the most inhuman treatment of 
him« still threatened his life " ~45\ Several others were driven from 
their posts. The Rev. J. Wiswall of Falmouth, after being taken 
prisoner, ** greatly insulted and abused, and in danger of being shot to 
death " — being actually fired at by *' the mob ** — made his escape to 
Boston, having lost all his property and his real estate. His wi£? and 
feimily were permitted to follow him. •* with only two days' provision," 
'* hor wearing apparel, and bedding " : but a few days after reaching 
Boston she and his only daughter die*l '40'. The Rev. R. Cossnr ^ 
Haviriiill and Claremont received fre^iuent insults, and was ** confined 
as a prisoner in the town of Clar>?mont *' nearly four years. Yet he 
•• cou>:ai:tly kept up Publick Service, without omitting even the 
Pravors for the Kinc and the Roval Familv," and " his conen^ratioD 
and oouimunioains '* increased, though " oruoUy persecuted by fines 
for r^fusiui! to fiirht a&runst their Kins;.' In manv other places where 
Le u>^ so ofiiciite the Chuivh people " t.^tally dwindltxl away." some 
escaping to the King's army ft>r proi^viion. •* some bting banished/* 
and many dying '47'. 

The Rev. J. W. Weeks of ^^arblehead, his wife, and eight helpless 
children, were " obliireil to s^ek shelter m a wilderness, the horrors of 
which they had never s^n or felt before ; ** and which were added to 
» by the snapping of a loaded gun at Mr. Bailey and him while walking 
in the garden." No umccency of inientioas and no peaceableness of 


rondnct could brin;; him security from the wild undistinguishinf' mgc 
of p.iity, and being " ex]K)si.'d to most dreadful consequences " by re- 
foaing to take the oath of abjnration, he made his esoape to England, 
leaving his family dependent on the pity of friends for support [iS]. 

The Rev. R. Mansfield of Derby Ac. was forced to fly from hia 
Mission (leaving his wife and nine children behind), "in order to 
escape outrage and violence, imprisonment and death." Ont of 180 
families attending his two churches, 110 remained iojal, as did, almost 
to a man, the congregations of Messrs. James Scovil and Beach [49]. 

The Bev. W. Clabke of Dedham, whose natural bodily in- 
firmities should have aecured him from molestation, seems to have 
been " singled ont as an object for oppression and cruel usage." 
" The DiHsenting Minister of the Parish, who had always received the 
most civil and obliging treatment from him, with some others, stirre<:l 
op the violence of the mob so suddenly" that " about midnight Mr. 
Clarke " was assaolted by a large number of them, his house 
ransacked, and himself used with indignity and insult." Soon after, 
he was arrested, "earned t-o a publick House and shut up in a 
separate room for ^ of an hour, to view the Picture of Oliver 
Cromwell," then harried to Boston, where, after a trial conducted "in 
a manner nearly reHembling the Romish Imiuisition," and in which 
" he was denied counsel and not permitted to know what was alledged 
against him," he was " condemned to Banishment and confiscation of 
Estate." This sentence was so far relaxed that he was allowed to 
remain a prisoner in his pariah. As such " he drank deep of the cup 
of affliction and endured complicated misery " for nearly a year, when 
he took refuge at Newport, Rhode Island [50]. 

At Fairfield the Rev. John Satsb and his congregations were 
"greatly oppressed merelyon account of their attachment to their Church 
and King." , . . Many of them were " imprisoned on the most frivolous 
pretences and their imprisonment aggravated with many circum- 
stanoes of cruelty." The enlargement of North Fairfield Church was 
stopped " by the many abuses " which it " shared in common with the 
other chnrchfs in the Mission. Shooting bullets through them, 
breaking the windows, stripping off the hangings, carrying off the 
leads . . . and the moat beastly defilements, make but a part of the 
insults which were offered t-o them." His house was " beset by more 
than 200 avined horsemen," and for some da^s he was not allowed to 
leave hie promises, Next he was 

■■ ailvertized as an enemj to hie couulrj for refusing to sign no Association 
which obliged it's subst^ribcra to oppose the KiQg with lite aod fortune and to 
nithdruw all oDicef pvea of jii»tice, humamtj, and ofaarit;, trooi ever; rsansant. 
lu ooosequencp of tbis advertizement aU persons were forbiddott to hold any kind 
al ouEMBpondence, or to hnva nny manner jf dealing wilb him, on pain ol bringinH 
thninselves ioto the eame predicument. This order was poatpd up in crevy atorp, 
mill, mechanical shop, and pablic hoaae iu the county, and was repeated!; 
|iilblislied in the newnpapers ; but, tlironith t])o goodness of God they wanted tor 
nothing, the people uudnr cover at the ni(;ht, and, as it were b; stealth, supplying 
them with plentj al the comlorts and neueasaries ol lite." 

He waa then banished for a time. When General Tryon drove off 
-tbe enemy and set fire to the town, although a guard was sent to 
protect the parsonage it was destroyed, and Mr. Sayre with Ids n-ife 
md eight children were left " destitute of house and raiment " [611 


By the operation of the British troops the church and a great 
part of Norwalk parish were also '' laid in ashes/' and the Bev. J. 
Leamino lost everything except the clothes he was wearing 
[52]. General Tryon informed the Society in August 1779 that he 
had rescued these *' two very worthy clergymen, who were galled 
with the Tyranny of the Beoels '* [58]. In Mr. Leaming's case the 
mob " took his picture, defisbced and nailed it to a sign-post with the 
head downwards." By the treatment he received during imprison- 
ment — when he was denied abed— he contracted a disease which made 
him a cripple for life. Great as were his sufferings, Mr. Learning 
stated (in 1780) that ''the Bulers of Ck)nnecticut . . . treated the 
Clergy of the Church of England with more lenity than any other 
Government on the Continent " [54]. 

For '' assisting some loyalists to escape from confinement *' the 
Bev. B. ViETS of Simsbury (Conn.) was taken in 1776 and conBned 
**a close prisoner in Hartford gaol"— for a time "in irons" [55]. 
EventuaUy he was released. During his long imprisonment •' ahnost 
all his fellow prisoners" (some hundreds in numbers), being " of the 
Church," he prayed with them '* twice a day, and preached twice on 
each Sunday. To those three of them who were put to death for their 
loyalty he was suffered to administer the Sacrament . . . which they 
received with great devotion." [L., Oct. 29, 1784 [56].] 

The Bev. J. Bailey of Pownalborougli for three years underwent 
" the most severe and cruel treatment." Twice he was " assaulted by 
a furious mob," who on one occasion "stripped him naked"; four 
times he was " hauled before an unfeeling committee," and " sentenced 
to heavy bonds " ; thrice he was " driven from his family and obliged 
to preserve a precarious freedom by roving about the country " (in the 
provinces of Maine, Hampshire, and Massachusetts), " through 
unfrequented paths, concealing himself under the cover of darkness 
and in disguised appearance." Two attempts were made to *' shoot 
him." In his absence his family " suffered beyond measure for the 
necessaries of life." But as long as they had anything to bestow, his 
people assisted him —often '* at the risque of their freedom and 
property," it being accounted " highly criminal to prevent a friend to 
Great Britain from starving." When at last he and his family escaped 
they arrived at Halifax in 1779 in a state of utter destitution. [See 
p. 115.] During his wanderings "he travelled through a multitude of 
places, where he preached in private houses and baptized a great 
number of children " [57]. 

The Bev. M. Graves of New London, liaving undergone " a con- 
tinued scene of persecutions, afflictions, and trials, almost even unto 
death, for his religious principles and unshaken loyalty," took shelter 
in New York ; but only to die. The like fate befell the Bev. E. 
WiNSLOW of Braintree ; and the Bev. J. Leaming of Norwalk narrowly 
jscaped with his life to New York [58]. 

Mr. Winslow reportefl in 1776 that " all the Churches in Connecticut 
and Bhode Island were shut up, except Trinity Church, where the prayers 
for the King are omitted " [59]. But in 1781 the Society was able to 
announce that the Church rather increased than diminished in New 
England, and that the condition of the Clergy was not so distressing 
as it had been ; especially in Massachusetts and New Hampshire there 


had been a great increase of the Church people, even where they had 
no ministry [60]. And from Simsbury in Connecticut the Rev. B. 
ViETS reported in 1784 that the losses of his congregation ** by deaths 
emigrations &c." were " pretty nearly balanced by the acce«!sion of new 
Coiiiormists.** Although some ignorant people were being *' seduced 
from the Church by enthusiasm/' yet more joined themselves to her, 
*' from a full conviction that the doctrines regulations, and worship of 
the Church are more consistent with reason, Scripture and the true 
spirit of devotion, than those of any other Church upon earth *' [61]. 

{Sf'e aho CJtapter XIL^p. 79, and the StafUfical Summary on p. 80.) 

U i 




New Jeb8ET was first settled in 1624 by Danes. They were soon followed by 
Swedes and Dutch ; bat in 1G61 the country was acquired by the English and grunted 
to the Duke of York J|see page 57], who transferred it to Lord Berkeley and Sir Gheorge 
Carteret. By them it was divided into two districts, " East and West Jersies " ; and ni 
1702 surrendered to Queen Anne, when the name of New Jersey (after Lord Carteret, 
ex-Governor of tiie Isle of Jersey) was resumed for the whole country.* 

The earliest English settlers wero Quakers and Anabaptists; and it was by two 
members of those persuasions that an attempt "to setle a maintenance ... for minis- 
ters " in 1697 was defeated [1]. 

In 1701 Colonel Morris represented to the Society that ** the youth 
of the whole Province " of East Jersey were " very debauched and very 
ignorant, and the Sabbath Day seems there to be set apart for Byotting 
and Drunkenness. In a word a General Ignorance and immorality 
runs through the whole Province." The inhabitants of Middletowne 
lie described as " perhaps the most ignorant and wicked people in the 
world ; their meetings on Sundays is at the publick house where they 
get their fill of rum and go to fighting, and running of races which 
'\re practices much in use that day all the Province over.*'f At Perth 
Amboy ** a shift" had been " made ... to patch up an old ruinous 
house, and make a Church of it, and when all the Churchmen in the 
Province " of East Jersey were " gott together " they made up " about 
twelve Communicants." In West Jersey the people were ** generally 
speaking ... a hotchpotch of all reUgions," but the Quakers appeared to 
be the only body possessing places of worship. The youth of this pro- 
vince also were "very debaucht . . . and very ignorant " [2]. The 
population of the two provinces numbered about 11,000, and, according 
to Keith, " except in two or three towns," there was ** no place of any 
public worship of any sort," but people lived "verv mean like 
Indians " [8]. 

In February 1702 the Society came to a resolution that three 
Missionaries should be sent to the Jerseys ** with all convenient speed," 
and that the Governor should be asked " to divide the Governments 
into parishes and to lay out glebe lands in each parish " [4], On 
October 2 in the same year Keith and Talbot (in their tour through 
America) reached New Jersey. The next day, Sunday, Keith preached 
at Amboy * — 

** The auditory was small. My text [said he] was Tit. 2, 11-12. Bat saoh 
as were thero were well affected; some of them, of my aoqaaintance, and 
others who had been formerly Quakers but were come over to the Church, par- 
ticularly Miles Foster, and John Barclay rBrother to Bobert Barclay, who published 
the Apology for the Quakers) ; the place nas very few inhabitants " [5]. 

^ It was also someiimM called Nova Caasaria [6]. 

t In 1702 Col. Morris added that the majority of the inhabitants of East Jeraeyi 
=' generally speakiug/' ooold "not with truth be cali'd Chiistians " [7]. 


Both Kkith and Talbot preached often at Burlington, then tht 
capital of West Jeraey, ajid contaiuing 200 families. The result ivaa the 
people agreed to conform to the Church of England, and wrote in 1704 
to the Society : — 

" We doBire ta adore tbe goodiieaa o[ God for moving the hearts nf the Lord^ 
Spiritual], Nubles aod Oentry. to enlei itito a Society (of Frapagatinu the Ooapell 
in Foteign Piali, the Beoi-lit oC wch, we bave aliuady experienced and bopp 
InrlheT to enjoy. . . . These encourage meats caused ua some time iince to joja in 
ft subsoriiiliuu to build a ohucch here which tho' not as yett near Uiiiah'd have 
bean! manj good Senuons in it from the Bevcreod Mr, Keith and the Bev. Mr, 
Jno. Talbot wboiu uezl to Mr. Keith wee have a very great esteem for and do oil 
in humility bcaeceh your Lordsbipit he may receive ordera from yon to sellle with 
UH. . . . Our oii'cumstaaoea at present ore so that wee cannot u-ithout the assist- 
ance of your Ldps. maintain a Minr. . . ." [8]. 

After ituterating in Aini'iica a year longer than Keith, Talhol 
settled at Borlington, and soon had a large congregation, where before 
bad been "little else bat Quakerism or Heathenism" [9]. Here 
too assembled the Clergy (in 1705) to agree on a memorial to the Society 
for a Bishop [10]; and here was made ready in 1718 a house for the 
expected Bishop. [See p. 744.] Vieiting England in 1700, the bearer 
of the memorial on the Episcopate, Talbot had an opportunity of 
supporting in person the cause which ho so ably advocated in his 
writingB. Bencwing his engagement with the Society, he returned to 
Burlington early in 1708. [See also f. 745.] The Church there became 
well estabhshed, the members thereof being incorporated by Governor 
Lord Cornljury and receiving gifts of Communion plate from Queen 
Anne* and Mrs. Catherine Bovey* [see p. 66], and a parsonage and 
g'.dbo providid from bequeats of Bishop Frainptont of Gloacester 
(£100) and Mr, Thomas Leicester (250 acres of landl.t and from 
a gift of Mrs. Bovey, who appears to have been both the chief 
promoter and tho principal donor of the endowment fund [11]. 
Extending his labours in every direction, Talbot stirred up in 
other congregations a desire for the ministrations of the Church — 
a desire so earnest that places of worship were erected before there 
was even a prospect of having a resident pastor; and the stead- 
fkatnesa with which the Church was souf.'ht after and itdhered to in 
New Jersey was remarkable. Thus at Hopewell a Church begun by 
voluntary contributions about 1704 remained vacant for ten years, 
saving when a Missionary happened to pass that way ; yet the people 
fell not away, but contin;iing in one mind, gladly joined in the servioee 
whenever opportunity offered ^12], 

Similar earnestness again is shown In the followinK appeal : — 

" The hunhie Addrees of the Inhabitaats of Suleni in West Indies. New Jeisey, 
and parts adjacent, members of ye Gburoh of England ; To the Huoomable ikiciety 

" Very Vcnble. Gentlemen, A poor unhappy people aeltled by God'a Provi- 
denoe, to procure by laborious Industry u SubaiBtauoe for our Fomjlys, make bold 
to apply ourselves to Qod, thro' that very pious and chacitabiD Society, his happy 
InstnunentB to ditipcniie His Blessings in tlieae remolo Farts; that as His Qood- 
nesa hath vouchsafed us a moderate Support for our Bodys, his holy Spirit may 
Inflnence yoa to provide os with Bpiiitusl Food tor our Souls : In this Case our 

• In 1708 in both instates, Queen Anne also Riving Church fumitnre, t Bee p. 60. 

I Th* propriolotB of land in the Colonios hod hod aii oiomvla w\ 'Jama >rj 'W.i 
BoQeant Hook, aproiuiaent mamtier of the Booietj, who, bavui^ pnrc'liii.«4 63*** w;'*' 
I . irfJiUd in Wttt Jeeaof, stre oQs-tanth a* a glabo to the Cktuch iu "iaatit v*''^ 


[ndigenoe is excessive, and our Destitution deplorable, having never been so blessed, 
as to have a Person settled among us, to dispenoe the August ordinances of 
Religion ; insomuch that even the Name of it is almost lost among us ; the Virtue 
and ernegy of it over Men's Lives, almost expireing, we won't say forgotten, for 
that implies previous Knowledge of it. But how should People know, having 
learned so little of God, and his Worship ? And how can they learn without a 
Teacher ? Our condicon is truly lamentable, and deserving Christian CJompassion. 
And to whom can we apply ourselves, but to that Venerable Corporation, whose 
Zeal for the Propagation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, hath preserved so many 
in these Colonys, from Irreligion Profaneness, and Infidelity ? We beseech you 
therefore, in the Name of our Common Lord and Master, and gratious Redeemer, 
and for the sake of the Gospel (just ready to die among us) to make us Par- 
takers of that Bounty to these Parts ; and according to the motto engraven on 
your Seal, Transeuntes adjuvate nos {pefU Infideles) — Be pleased to send us 
some Reverend Clergyman, according to your Wisdom, who may inform our 
Judgments, by preaching to us the Tmths of the Gospel ; and recover us all. 
Aged and Young, out of the miserable corruptions, consequent to a gross Ig- 
norance of it ; to whom we promise all Encouragement according to our Abilities, 
and all due Itespect and Obedience to his Office, Instructions and Person. The 
Lord in Mercy look upon us, and excite you, according to your Wonted Piety, 
to have a compassionate Regard of our Case, and we pray the Great God to 
prosper all your pious Undertakings, to promote His Glory and the Gk>od of Ms 
Church, especialy in this destitute Place of the Pilgrimage of your most dutiful 
and obedt. Servants, &c" (Signed by 27 persons.) [13]. 

This and many simUar prayers from other places were granted, 
and, by the Missionaries and the books sent over by the Society, many 
who were in error were shown the light of the Truth and returned into 
the way of righteousness. 

Placed at Elizabeth Town in 1705, in the midst of ** a vast number 
of Deists, Sabbatarians, and Eutychians, as also of Independents, 
Anabaptists and Quakers," the Rev. J. Brook, from these '' absur- 
dities '* " brought a considerable number of them to embrace our most 
pure and holy rehgion '* [14] ; and the congregation wrote in 1717 
that they had *' a firm and through perswasion of mind " ; that '* the 
Church of Christ " had been ** in its purity planted and settled " 
amongst them by means of the Society [15]. The influence of 
Elizabeth Town and its Missionaries spread, and so welcome were the 
ministrations of the Church that the Bev. E. Vaughan baptized 620 
persons within two years, 64 being adults [16]. Dying in 1747, 
after nearly forty years* service, Mr. Vaughan bequeathed his glebe 
of nine acres and his bouse to the ** pious and venerable Society for 
the use of the Church of England Minister at Ehzabethtown and his 
successors for ever " [17]. 

His successor was the Rev. Dr. Chandler, who, educated in Dissent, 
conformed to the Church and became distinguished for the services he 
rendered as Evangelist and author, and as a champion of Episcopacy. 
That he should be able to recover from Dissent many families who 
had fallen away because of neglect, is not a matter of surprise seeing 
that Dissenters themselves were glad to seek in the Church refuge from 
the distraction of sects. Thus " at Amwell above 200 Presbyterians 
end some families of Anabaptists constantly attended Divine Service 
at the Church " opened in 1758, " and a great number of them, seemg 
the peace and charity *' which reigned among the Church congregations 
''and the troubles and dissensions among that of the Dissenters" 
" contributed towards the finishing the Church " building under the 

New JGBSEt. 66 

Society's Mi asionary, the Rev. M. Houdtii, liimself forinei'ly a Roman 
Oatliolio priest [18J. Sixteen years later the UisBeiilei-s aj.siiiled in 
repairing the church, and on the death of their Minister in 17G!) (viz. 
Mr. Kirkputrick, a Preshyterion, " of good seuGe, beuevolent diaposibon, 
and catholic spirit," whoae people were " not any way tinctured with 
that rigid severity in religious matters so peculiar to some Dia- 
senters ") they constantly attended chaich, as did many persons of 
various denominations at Elizabeth Town, New Brunswick,' and in 
Susses County, and other parts. At Maidenhead, while there was no 
Church building, the DiKsenters' Meeting House was placed at the 
disposal or the Rev. A. Tmeadweli. (in 1768} for Church Service [19]. 

The Mission of New Brunswick included '' a great number of 
negroes," but this does not appear to have been the case generally in 
New Jersey. The Missionary spirit was not, liowever, wanting, as the 
baptism of black children and ndults from lime to time testihed [20]. 

One of the Evangelists, the Rev. T. Tkomphos, became (in 1752) 
thefirstMissionary of the Church of England to Africa. [Sm p. 255.] 
In 1774 Dr. Chandler of Elizabeth Town reported :— 

■'The Cliurohin thia jirovinae iiinkrn a more respectable appesraooe, than it 
ever did. till vei; lately: Tlianks to the venerable Society, without whoac charitable 
ialerpoaition. there would not have been one episcopal congtogatioa imonii ua. 
Tbey have now no leafi thsD Eleven Hiuaioniaiee in Ibis Diatrict; none o( whom 
<tte blaiDeable in tbeir conduct, and booio o( tUem are eminently ueeful. Inatead 
ol lbs small buildings, out o( repnir. in which our eongregationa uaed to aascmble 
'iO years ago. we have now several that make a hnndHonie appearance, both for size 
and d(«ent omamenl, pni ticularly at Burlington. Sbrowsbnry. Mew Brunswick, 
and Newark, and all the rest are in good repair : and the congregations tn general 
appear to be as much improved, aa tbo Churches Ibey assemble in " [21]. 

Ere two years had elapsid all tlie Churches in New Jersey were 
shut up, some being desecrated, and pastor and llock were persecuted and 
scattered. The esi^tence of discontent hail long been observed, and 
though unswerving in loyalty to the mother country, Dr. Cliandler did 
not fail to remonstrate against the folly of her rulers in dealing with 
the Colonies. In 1760 he wrote : — 

"If the Interest of the Church of Kngland in America bud been made a 
Natianal aancrrn from the lic^tinniug, by this lime a general aubmission in the 
Colonic*, to the Mother Country, in everyttung not Bintul, might have been 
elpeotad. . . . and who oan be certain that the present rebellioua DiaposJtion of 
Lbe Catonies is not intended by Providence as a punishment for that neglect? . . . 
the Nation wbelher Bensible of it or not, is under great obtigations to Ibal very 
worthy Society," 

That the Government iniglit become " more sensible " of tha Society's 
services, " and at Length co-oporate with them ... as the most prob- 
able means of restoring the mutual happiness of Great Britain and 
her colonies." was his " dayly prayer " ['^2]. 

It pleast-d God that this prayer should not be granted, and long it 
was before His Cb".rt'h in America was enabled "joyfully to serve" 
Him " in all godlj quietness." At Newark tlie Church building was 
aaed as a " hospital for the Rebells," who removed the Seats and erected 
"a large stack of chimneys in the centre of it." The Rev. I. Browne 
underwent "a long course of injuries and vexations," and in 1777 was 
" obliged to fly to New York," leaving his family " in the hands of the 




rebels/' who sold his " little property " and sent his "infirm wife to 
him destitute of everything but some wearing apparell '* [28]. 

Nevertheless, though " driven from their homes, their property 
seiz*d, plunder 'd, and sold and themselves consequently reduced to 
the most extreme poverty," the members of the Church "in daily 
suffering for the sake of truth ** and preser\ing " a good conscience 
toward God" rendered to Him "true and laudable service " [24]. 

{St'c also Chapter XII.^ p. 79, and the Statistical Summary on p. 86.) 

NoTB TO PAOB 63. — Bishop Frampton was the deprived non-juring Bishop of 
Gloucester, who had retired to Standish, Qloucestershire. Mrs. Catherine Bovey, 
who resided at Fiaxley Abbey, in that county, and was an intimate friend of the 
Bishop, described his bequest as " a generous one," considering his circumstances. 
The name of this distinguished lady deserves to be held in lasting remembrance 
for her good deeds, in particular for the great interest which she took in the 
Society, and in Sunday Schools (of which she was one of the pioneers in England, 
long before Robert Raikes). Though buried at Fiaxley, a monument to her 
memory was erected in Westminster Abbey. [Sec No. [26] in the references to this 


NlW Tonx WAS fir^t si^ttlpd in l(>ia by the DqIcIi. Tho origliial CoIodt •>! 
■'Nora B«t^V or "New NeUiC'rlen<lH" tji it was ciLllBd, mclude.1 EoHl and Wnat 
Jeisey; uid owide to ths gusfBcU'e of ii?ligiouB (olentioQ, it liecBuiu u ruFuge fur tlio 
pcrBegnted ProteBtanta of Friinco, Belgiimi, Gennimj', Bohemio.. ftud PiKdmonl. Tha 
WBI wiUi HoUKnd in 1661 cliiuiged it to Ik Biitish Postesaion, irfah'li being gruted to the 
Duke o( York togk its preteiit uunc. 

The religions BtiiCe ol the Colonibti to«iuda Uie cloM of tlie ITtfa oeutnty nuy In 
Kitthervd fiom a lettet addrebecd to the Suuiety by CDlonel HeatIii:uto io I7D4, rcjjardius 
the Couut; of Wost Cheet^r. When he Snt came there, about 19 ycais before, "I toond 
it." B^d ha, " the moHt rude and Heatheniah Conntrr 1 ever saw in m; whole Lite, wbicb 
o»lled themeelves ChristiBna, there being not eo inuob as the least macks or FootatepB 
ot BaligioD of any Sort. Stitulai/> being the only Time Belt apart by them lor all 
muinet ol tmd Sporta BJid lewd Diierfioiis, and they were grown to anch a Degree ol 
KudenesB that it was intoIlBrable, and hating then thi- eomand of the Militia, I sent an 
urdar to all tho Captains, ntquiring them to call their Men under Anas, and to acquaint 
Ihem, that b Case they woiDd not in every Town u^ree umongBt theomelvee to appoint 
BaaderB and pasx the Sabbath in the best Mumer they eoutd, till nch Timea aa they 
could be better provided, tbut they should OTory f^unday call their Companies under 
arms, and upend the Day in Exercise; whereupon it was UDUuiiuoUHly agreed on thro' 
the counlT, to maJie Choice ol Rradorej nhicb they accordingly did, and contiaued 
in Uioee Metbods fur some Time" [1], No attempt towards a Bettlement ot the Church 
to have been made until lUBS, when becauso " ProfanetioEs nnd Licontiouiuosi 
m want of a settled Ministry throughout the some, it was 
ordained by Act ot AiiEetably that Sii PioteBtaiit Mitustera sboitld be appoint 
therein " [2], But this Act began not to operate till 1CB7, when a church was built 
the city of New York and the Vestry appointed Iheieto a Mr. Vesey (then with the 
conditionally on his obtaining ordination in England. This be did, and for GO fi 



pontinaed Eector of Trinity Cburi^b, daring muoh ot wtucb time he <ras also the Bishop 
of London a Oommiswiry for the I'ruvinte. 

In 1701 the popolation ot the Province nnmbered at,000. Ttiey were dtstribgted " in 
Twenty Five towns; about Ten ol them Dutch, the rent English " [S]. Ixing laland was 
"a erent place" with "many Inhabit^uits." The Dutch were Calvinists and had soma 
" CalTiniBticol CongregatJona," "The English tome of Ihcni Iiidependentu but many 
lii them no Rehgion, hut like wild Indians." There appeared to be "uu Churcb oiF 
Bnglaad in all Long Island, nor in all that great Continent of New York Province, 
except at Hew York town " [4 J. 

In February 1702 tbe Society, after considering a representation 
made by Mr. Vesey, decided " tliat six MiBsionarieB should be sent to 
New York," and oii March 20 the Rev. Patrick Goedon was appointed 
to Jamaica, Long Island [5]. Leaving England with Eeith, in April 
1702 [see p. 10 ] , he reached his parisli, but '■ took sick the day hefore 
lie designed to preach, and so continued til his death . . . about eight 
days after" [6]. The island did not long lack for prea«biiig, for the 
two travelling Misaionuries came there in September 1702. At Haiiip- 
Bted (or Hempsted) where Keith officiated on Sunday, September 27, 
there waa " such a Multitude of People that tlie church could not 
bold them, so that many stood without at the doors and windows to 
bear, who were generally well affected and greatly desired that a Church 
of England Minister ahould be settled among them." Among those 
baptized by Keith were a Justice of Peace and bis three children and 
another family, at Oyster Bay. Ilere had " scarce been any profij^aiaa 


of the Christian BeUgion " ; hut there were many of ** Case's crew who 
set up a new sort of Quakerism . . . among other vile principles they 
condemned marriage, and said it was of the Devil,*' and that '' they 
were the Children of the Resurrection." In New York Keith first 
preached on September 80, 1702, at '' the weekly Fast which was 
appointed by the Government by reason of the great mortality. • . . 
Above five nundred died in the space of a few weeks, and that very 
week about seventy " [7]. 

The second Missionary of the Society to New York Province was 
the Rev. J. Babtow, who was stationed in the West Chester district 
in 1702, where at that time there were not ten Churchmen. Two 
years later he reported : '* I have . . . been instrumental of making 
many Proselyts to our holy Religion who are very constant and devout 
in, and at their attendance on Divine Service ; those who were enemies 
at my first coming are now zealous professors of the ordinances of our 
Church " [8]. 

At East Chester the people were generally Presbyterians, and had 
(in 1700) organised a parish of their own ; but when Mr. Bartow came 
among them ''they were so well satisfied with the Liturgy and 
doctrine of the Church, that they forsook their Minister," and con- 
formed [9]. The Dutch also thronged to hear him at Yonkers, where 
service was held in a private house or in a bam [10]. 

Success also attended the labours of the Rev. J. Thomas at 
Hempsted and Oyster Bay, in Long Island, 1704-24. In this district 
the people had been '* wholly unacquainted with the Blessed Sacra- 
ment for five and fifty years together." As they had '* lived so long 
in the disuse of it" Mr. Thomas "struggled with great difficulties 
to make them sensible of the want and necessity of it " ; but in 
1709 he had " five and thirty of them in full com.munion with the 
Church who [once] were intirely ignorant that Communion was a duty " 
and '* the most numerous uf any country congregacion within this or 
the neighbouring colonies " [11]. To remove the miserable ignorance 
of the people and children both here and in Stat^en Island, where 
the Rev. E. Mackenzie was placed in 1704, the Society established 
schools and distributed books, with excellent results. [See pp. 769, 798.] 
Most of the inhabitants of Staten Island were Dutch and Frencli, 
and the English consisted chiefly of Quakers and Anabaptists. Mr. 
Mackenzie, however, met with encouragement from all : the French, 
who had a minister and church of their own, allowed him the use of 
their building until an English church was built, and the Dutch, 
though at first prejudiced against our Liturgy, soon learned to esteem 
it on receiving Prayer Books from the Society in their own language. 
Some of them allowed their children to be instructed in the Church 
Catechism, as did the French, and all but a few of the English Dis- 
senters [12]. 

In 1713 the Church members in Richmond County returned their 
thanks to the Society for sending Mr. Mackenzie to them, stating 

"the most implacable adversaries of our Church profess a personal respect for 
him and ioyne with us in giveing him the best of characters, his unblameable life 
affoording no occasion of disparagemt. to his function, nor discredit to his 
doctrine. • . Upon his first induction to this place, there were not above four or five 

m the wliulc i^uiiuly. llint ever knew uiytlitag of our EiLi^llent Lilur);y and foroi 
of \Vorsliip, aiid utan.v kneiv little more of Tteli^on, than the com'on nution ol a 
Ddty. nuj nx tbcir JgnorBnce was great and groBB, sowks theirprocticc irrHgnlftr 
and bsrbarouB. But now, by the blcBsingot Qod attending tiis labours, our Churcli 
incresaea. a considerable Befonnntion in wrongbt and something □( the face of 
Chrintianity ia to be B©en amongst as " [13]. [Sen also Ihanks for School, p. TfiO 
of Ihis book.] 

Hitheirto Mr. Maekeniue had oiBcialed in the l*'reach Church 
" upon sufferance," but now Ilia people, with aBaistam:e from neigh- 
bouring oounties, provided "a pretty liaudaoni church"* and a par- 
sonage and glebe [14]. 

The inhabilauts of Bye were etill more forward in promoting the 
Eettling of the Church of Englauil. Until the advent of the Rev. 
G. MciRBON in 1705 there were few Church members, but he soon 
gathered "a very great congregation" from "a people made ap 
almost of all Perswasions " [15]. In 1706 he reported thus to the 
Society ; — 

" 1 have baptiiici! about 300 jniing nnd old, but most adult pemons. and am in 
hopes of initialing many more nilo the Church of Christ, after I have examined, 
taught, and find tiiem iiualifyeii. TbiB is a laige parish, the towns ate lar distant. 
The people were some Quakers, some AnBbap.[ lists], bnt cbJeHy Presbylerians and 
IndependentH. They were violently set against our Church, but noix (blutsed be 
Ood I) they comply heartily ; for I have now above forty communicants, and only 
six when I first administred that hnly sacrament .... I find that eBtcclu»ing 
on the H-eek days in the remote towns, and frequent visiting, is of great service; 
and I am snre that 1 have made twice more pro»e1ytes b; proceeding alter that 
method than by public preaching. Every fourth Sunday I preach at Bedford. 
... In that town there are about 120 persons unbaplized : and notwithstanding 
all the means I have ubed. I coa'd not perswade them of the necessity of that holy 
ordinance lili of late . . . some of them begin (o conform " [16]. 

In his short but useful Ministry (1704-8), and while still in charge 
of Kye, Mr. Muirson did much towards founding the Church in 
Connecticut. [See pp, 43-4.] 

At New Hochelle the Society in 170i) met the wishes of a settle- 
ment of French Protestants for conformity with the Church of 
England by adopting their Minister, the Kev. D, Bondet [sec p. 855], 
and instructing him to use the Pjngheh Liturgy ; whereupon the people 
generally conformed and providai a new church, a house and glebe. 
Mr. Bondet (1700-21) had a large congregation, which increased under 
hia successor, the Rev. P. 6toupe (172S-60) (17]. 

Like results attended the ministrations to the Dutch in their own 
language at Albany. This place formed an important centre, being 
the chief trading station with the Indians, and supplied with a strong 
fort and a garrison of from 200 to SOO soldiers for the security of the 
province from the ravages of the French and Indians. The inhabi- 
tants (nearly 4,000) were mainly Dutch, who had their own Minister ; 
but on his returning to Europe the yociety, in 1709, appointed the 
Bev T. Barclay (the Enghsh Chaplain at the fort) to be its Mie- 
eionary there [16]. 

For seven years he had the use of the Lutheran Chapel, and so 
effective were his ministrations that a considerable number of the 

* Opened in the Gmutuar of ] Hi. 


Dutch coDformed, and when a new building became necessary all 
parties seemed glad to unite in uontributiug to its erection. The lown 
of Albany raised :£200, every inhabitant of Schenectady (a village 20 
miles distant) gave something — " one very poor man excepted " ; from 
the garrison at Albany came noble benefactions^ the "poi^r soldiers" 
of "two Independent companies" subscribing £100, besides their 
officers' gifts ; three Dutch ministers in Long Island and New York 
added their contributions, and the Church was opened on Nov. 25, 
1716. Mr. Barclay described it as " by far the finest structure in 
America," the " best built tho' not the largest " [10]. A different 
Hpiritwaa shown by the Independents (from New England), who formed 
the majority of the inhabitants of Jamaica in Long Island. The 
successor of Mr, Gordon, the Itev. \V. Ubcjuhabt, died (about 1709) 
after about four years' ministry, and when the Rev. T. Potek 
was sent to occupy the Mission in 1710, he found the Independents 
in possession of the Parsonage and glebe, which they refused 
to surrender * [201. Biz mouths before his death in 1731 Mr, 


.h tbo King's pern. ., .._... ., , . 

n in 1703 wGoyuraoruf Now York und New jBTBeyt-iOa). Thofollowingex 

liuiy) with the King's permissinu, conuuiuiii. ated to Che Society the Hoyaf iuBtmotituis 

will b« ol inloreijt, eapeuislly sh ClanasB 60 and 6S ixintiDnei) (almi 

be inoladed in tlie Cutmctiima sent out to Colonial Gorernori uiiiii iiir on inu mo 

preisQt cenlurf. " the Biahop of the " being aubstitulijd tor " the Binhi>p of 

" HO. You ahall take eapeoia] rare that God Almi);lity bo devoutly and duly secv'd 
thronghoDt your Ooveninient. Ilie Book ot Commou Ptayei as by Law eetabliah'd 
read each Sondsy and Holy Day und the bleaaed Saorament admiuisUr'd aocordiug to 
the rilcB ot the Chnroh of England. You elmll be caielul that tbe Uhuicliea already 
bnilt there be weU and orderly kept and thai uior.i be built na tho Colouy shall, by Ood'e 
bli.'B»iiig be improied, and that beaidea a oompetunt uuuntenimcu to be aaui^'d tbe 
Uinialtr ot oooh Ortbodot Church, a convenient Bouse bo bnilt, at the Common Charge 

Knd exeri-ise ol hia induatry and yoti are to take care that tlio paTiBnea be ho limited and 
Milled BB yon ahall h-ad most convenient for tbe acooniplialung this good work. 

"61. YoQ are not lo prefer uy MinUtor to any EcolesiHHtical Benefice in that our 
ProTince without a certilicate from the Right BsTerend Father in Qod, the Bisliop of 
London, of hia being confonnahle to tlie doatrine and discipline of the Church of 
Rnghmd, and ol a good lUv and convorEution, And if any pi'rson preteirod already lo a 
Benefice aball sppoai to you to give Scandal, i-ithei' by liie iltutrine or in manners, you arc 
to use tbe bsBl means for the removal oF him, and to aupply tlie vacancy in laoh maimer 
■a we haTe directed. 

"6± Yon are to give order forthwith (it the auno be not alicady doue) tlmt evoiy 
ortlioddi Minititer within your goveinment be one of the Teatry in hia reapeotive Parish, 
and that no Teatry bo hold without liiin, eioept in i aae of skkiiesa, or UiaI, alter uolioe 
ot a Veatry Bummoned, he omit to tome. 

■■es. Yon are to enquire whether 

bfing in due cirdora, and to gi 


ent in any orthodox Chnrob or Chapel wi 
t thereof to the said Biahop ot London. 


"M. And to tbe end the eocl«Bii.i,tiesl juried 
LODntenance and enconiagemenl to the eieroiae 
reurved to yon our Qovemoi and to the Com 

ctiOD ol th 
and prol 

e Biahop of Luudon may take 
do thi£k fit that yon give all 
e, excepting only tbe coUatiiig 
ato of WillB, which wee have 
Cheif ol our aoid Province for 

"06. Woe do further direct that no Bchooluiaater he henceforth permitted to 
from Bnglaiid, and to keep Schoolo, within our Province of New York, withoi 
Lyconce ot the said Biehup ol London, and that no other i>craoo oon there, or tlinl 
eome bom other porta, be admitted to keep scbools without your Lyceucefiratoblui 


Foyer represented to the Society that during his residence in Jamaica 


"baa bad grekt and tlmoet oontiniial contentiona nitli the IndepeodeDts in his 

Pacish, has huil Bcvsral lav suits with tliem tor the ealarf setllcd b; tbe country 

lor tbe Uinister of tbe Chorcb of England, and also tot aame gUbs lands, that by 

a late Tijti at Law he has lost them and tbe Oburob itsell, which hia tjongregatioD 

baa bad tbe posseBaion ot for 35 jeaia" [21]. 

" Tet notwithstanding tbe emparioua bebarionT of theEo our enemies vbo stick 
not to oall themselves the F.stablisbed OhnrEh aod DB Dissenteca we can " (wrote 
the Church Members to the Sooietj in 1717) " with j'oj say that the Cburch hare 
has inoreaaad Yei7 considerably both in its number of hearers and oammtmicants 
by tba Binenlar care, pain>^ and Industry ol aur present Laborioas Hinitter Mr. 
Pofer who notwitbelanding Ibe manj ilitliualties be baa atroggled with has Devsi 
beoiiii tbeleutwaatinj^ in thedne eiecution of hia Ministerial fancitiDn but rather 
on (he contrary has strained himself in travelling through the pariah beyond his 
atrengtb and not seldom to the prejudioo ol hia health wbioh is notorious to all the 
inhabitants " [221. 

The arrival of a body of "poor PalatineH " in England from 
Germany in 1709 enliated English sympathy, and the Government 
having afforded them a refuge in New York Province, the Society ap- 
pointed the Rev. J. F. Haeoeb, a German, to minister to them. While 
in London tliey took up their quarters in Aldgate and St. Catherine's 
parishes, " a uiixt body of Lutherans and GalvintBts," in number 
about COO. In the summer of 1710 they reached New York, one ship 
having been " etav'd but the men presery'd." Some of the Lutherans, 
finding their own form of worship in New York, naturally preferred it, 
but the conformity of a large number was established under Mr. 
Haeger, who reported in Oot. 1710 that he bad GOO communicaute, of 
whom 18 had l)een Papists until instructed by him (23). The Eev. 
Joshua Kocherthal, who accompanied some of the Palatines, was voted 
£20 by the Society in 1714, in consideration of his great pains and 
poor circumalances —he also having disposed many of his people to 
conform to the Church of England — an* for his encouragement for 
the future, it not being consistent with the Society's rules to make 
him a Missionary • [24]. Another Lutheran pastor, Mr. J. J. EhUg, 
was assisted in this way bi 1726 [26], 

The Society aJso supported for three years (1710-131, as Missiotiary 
to the Dutch congregation at Harlem, the Rev. H. Beyse, a Dutch 
minister whom Colonel Morris had persuaded to accept epiacopat 
ordination. The continuance of his salary was made dependent on 
the conformity of his congregation, and Oolonel Morris (who had 
" perswaded the Dutch into a good opinion of the Church of England ") 
reported in 1711 that Mr. Beyse " had gained the most considerable of 
the inhabitants " at Harlem. The Mission, however, failed of its object 
and was withdrawn in 171.S [27]. 

Many of the early Colonial Govemons and other laymen were ever 
ready to promote the estabhsUment of the Chiirch in America, and 
the aid rendered to the Society by such men as Colonel Morris, Colonel 
Heathcote. Colonel Dudley, General Nicholson, Governor Hunter, Sir 
William Johnson, and Mr. St. George Talbot deserves grateful 
acknowledgment. Besides rendering valuable servioe in their ofBcial 
capacity, some of these gave freely of their own substance. General 
Nichcdwn'a gifts extended to all the North American Colonies [2H\ 

' That U to uy, hs had not rooeiTed Anglioan Ordination, tM in tha oaeeg cil Meim. 
Haegei and Bejw. 


Sir W. Johnson's included one io the Society of 20,000 acres of land, 
subject to *^ His Majesty's grant " of the same, which does not appear 
to have been obtauied. The land was situated about 80 miles from 
Schenectady, and was intended for the endowment of an episcopate [29]. 
Mr. Talbot contributed handsomely to the foundation of Churches in 
New York and Connecticut, and bequeathed ** the greatest part of his 
Estate " to the Society, whose portion however was, by the opposition 
of the heirs at law, reduced to £1,800 cy. [30], 

The character of the Society's Missionaries in New York was thus 
described by Lord Cornbury in 1706 : — 

**For those places where Ministers are setled, as New York, Jamaiea,* 
Hempstead,* W. [West] Chester,* and Rye,*^ I must do the gentlemen who are setled 
there, the justice to say, that they have behaved themselves with great zeal, ex- 
emplary piety, and unwearied diligence, in discharge of their duty in their severa! 
pishes, [parishes], in which I hope the Church will by their Diligence, be en- 
creased move and more every day " [31J. 

Colonel Heathcote's testimony is no less valuable : — 

" I must do all the gentlemen that justice, which you have sent to this province 
as to declare, that a better clergy were never in any place, there being not one 
amongst them that has the least stain or blemish as to his life or conversation.'* 
[L., Nov. 9, 1705 [82].] 

Governor Hunter wrote from New York in 1711 : — 

" Wee are happy in these provinces in a good sett of Missionarys, who generally 
labour hard in their functions and are men of good lives and ability " [34]. 

Planted by worthy men and carried on by worthy successors, the 
Missions so flourished and multiplied that in 1745 the Rev. Com- 
missary Vesby was able to report to the Society that within his 
jurisdiction in New York and New Jersey there were twenty- two 
churches, ** most of them . . . commonly filled with hearers." He then 
observed that when he came to New York as Bector of Trinity Church 
in 1697, at that time, 

*' besides this Church and the Chappel in the fort, one Church in Philadelphia and 
one other in Boston, I don't remember to have heard of one Building erected for the 
publick worship of Gk)d according to the Liturgy of the Church of England on this 
Northern Continent of America from Maryland (where the Church was establish't 
by a Law of that Province) to the Eastermost bounds of Nova Scotia, which J 
believe in length is 800 miles, and now most of these Provinces or Collonies have 
many Churches, which against all opposition increase and flourish under the 
miraculous influence of Heaven. I make no doubt it will give a vast pleasure to 
the Honble. Society to observe the wonderfull Blessing of God on their pious Cares 
and Elndeavours to promote the Christian Religion in these remote and dark 
Comers of the World, and the great Success that by the concomitant power of the 
Holy Ghost, has attended the faithfull Labours of their Missionarys, in the 
Conversion of so many from vile Errors and wicked Practices to the Faith of 
Christ, and the Obedience to his Gospell " [35J. 

• [A Large Bible, Prayer Book, Book of Homilies, with Cloths, for the Pulpit and 
Communion Table, and a sflver Chalice and Paten, were given by Queen Anne to each 
of the Churches at these places and to Staten Idand Church in 1706 [88 j.] 

From th<> rnnaticnl preacbers, so coDiinon in America, the Charcli 
in New York (as in other Colonies) gained rather tlmn los^t. Tbe 
character of these "enthusiaeta," aa they were called, may be gathered 
from the fact that in Long Island " several of the Teachers ... as well 
as hearers " were " found gtiilty of the foulest and immoral practices," 
and others of them wrought themselves " into the bigliest degree of 
madnesB." "These accidents, together with the good books sent over by 
the Society," " taught the people what true Christianity ia and what it 
is not " [36]- Thus reported the Rev. T. Colgan ia 1741. Eighteen 
years later the island, which in the previous generation had been " the 
grand seat of Quakerism," had become " the seat of infidelity." " A 
transition how natural," wrote the future Bishop Si=;ABURY : — 

" Bred up in intire neglect of all religious principles, m Hatred to the Clergy, 
and ID CoDteinpt of Ibe SttorameotE, bow btud U their ConTersion I Etigx^cisll; ae 
they diBBVow even the neceaiuty of any redemption. ... It is pvident to 
the luoBt Buperfioi&l Obeerver, that, where there nave been tbe gTontesl nnm. 
ber at Qu&kera among the first eetllere in tliia conntry. there Infidelity and a 
Disregsnl to all Religion have taken the dFppest Boot ; and if tboj have not 
intirely ooirupted the religious Priueiplea of tbe other Inhabitants, they have at 
least very macb veakened them, and made tbem look upon Beligioo with 
Indifference. This aeems to me the Beason why it is so hard to bring the People 
of that parish [Hempsted] or this [Jamaica] to oomplj with the Bacraments of the 
Christian Church, or to think themselves under any Obligations ol dulj' to attend 
the public Worship of Goit." [I,,. Rev. S. Keabury. Ott. 10, 1759, and Inne 2fl, 
176S [37J.} 

Among the European settlers, both here and generally in America. 
were many who, before tbe Society had established its Missions, were 
as fiT removed &om Ood aa the Negroes and Indiana, and indeed whose 
lives proved a greater hindrance to tbe spread of the Gospel than those 
of their coloured brethren. That any race should be disquabSed from 
having tbe message of salvation, because of the colour of their skiu or 
any other reason, was ever repudiated by the Society. To the care of 
the Negroes and Indians, as well as the Colonists, m the Province of 
New York it devoted much labour. 

The instruction of the Negro and Indian slaves, and so to prepare 
them for conversion, baptism, and communion, was a primary charge 
(oft repeated) to "every Missionary . . . and to all Schoolmasters" 
of the Society in America. [See Instructions, pp. 889, 8i5 [38].] 
In addition to the efforts of the Missionaries generally, special 
provision was made in the Province of New York by tbe employ- 
ment of sixteen clergymen and thirteen lay-teachers mainly for the 
evangelisation of the slaves and the free Imlians. For the former' 
a " Catechising School" was opened in New York city in 1704, under 
the charge of Mr. Eliab Neau. Mr. Neau was a native of Prance, 
whose confession of tbe Protestant Faith had there brought Inni 
several yeara' confinement in prison, followed by seven years iji " the 
galliee," When released ho settled at New Yoik as a trailer. He 
showed much sympathy for the slaves, and in 1708 drew the 
Society's attention to tbe great number in New York " who were with- 
out Ood in the world, and of whose souls there was no manner of care 
takeo," and proposed the appointment of & Catechist among them. 
This ofCce tbe Society prevailed upon him to undertake, and having 



leceived a licence from the Governor of New York " to catechise the 
Negroes and lodianB and the children of the town " he left hia poaition 
of an Elder in the French Church and entirely conformed to the Church 
of England, " not upon any worldly acconnt, but through a principle 
of conBcience and hearty approbation of the English Liturgy,'" part of 
which he had formerly learnt by heart in his dungeons. In the discharge 
of IiIb otUce Mr. Neau at lirst went from house to house, bat afterwards 
got leave for some of the slaves to attend him. At his request, to 
further the work, the Society procured for him » licence from the 
Bishop of London, and prepared the draft of "a Bill to be offered 
to Parliament for the more effectual conversion of the Negro and other 
Servants in the Plantations," obliging all owners of slaves "to cause 
theii children to be baptized within 8 months after their birth and 
to permit them when come to years of discretion to be instructed in the 
Christian Religion on the Lord's Day by the Missionaries under whose 
ministry they live," but the owners' rights of property not to be 
affected • [39]. Mr, Neau's labours were mudi blessed. The Rev. W. 
Vbsey commended him to the Society in 1706 as " a constant com- 
mnnicant of our Church, and a most zealous and prudent servant of 
Christ, in proselytising the miserable Negroes and Indians among them 
to the Christian ReUgioii whereby he does great service to God and His 
Church "[41]. 

The outbreak of some negroes in New York in 1712 created u 
prejudice against the school, which was said to have been the main 
cause of the trouble, and for some days Mr. Neau could scarcely 
\enture to show himself, so bitter was the feeling of the slaveowners. 
But on the trial of the conspirators it was found that only one of them 
belonged to the scliool, and he was unbaptized — -and that the most 
criminal belonged to masters who were openly opposed to their 
Christian instruction. 

Nevertheless Mr. Neau found it necessary to represent to the 
Clergy of New York "the struggle and oppositions" he met In 
eseroising his office from " the generality " of the ■' Inhabitants," who 
were " strangely prejudiced with a horrid notion thinking that the 
Christian knowledge " would be " a mean to make their Slaves more 
cunning and apter to wickedness " than they were [42]. 

To remove these suspicions Governor Hunter visited the school, 
ordered all his slaves to attend it, and in a proclamation recom- 
mended the Clergy to ui^e on their congregations the duty of pro- 
moting the instruction of the negroes [43]. 

This caused a favourable reaction. &lr. Neau reported iu 1714 
" that if all the slaves and domesticks in New York are not instructcil 
it ia not his fault " [44] and by the Governor, the Council. Mayor, and 
Recorder of New York and the two Chief Justices the Society was 
informed that Mr. Neau had performed his work " to the great 
advancement of Religion in general and the particular benefit of the 
free Indians, Negro Slaves, and other Heathens in those parts, with 
indefatigable Zeal and Application" [45]. After Mr. Neau's death 

■ Id 1710, ana aimin in 1713, the Society 

Alricaii Conpnnj-'a Bill -' -' '~ ' 

Tetigitui [lOj 

lie Society ende&Toared to «ecDre llie msertion lu tl 
toi inBLnicting thsPluiiUlion Negrnea in the ChriatiP 


in 1722 his work was carried on for a time by Mr. Huddlestone and 
the Rev. J. Wetmore. 

On the removal of the latter the Bev. T. Golgan was appointed in 
1726 on the representation of the Hector, Churchwardens and Vestry ol 
Trinity Church, setting forth the great need of a Catechist in that city, 
'* there being about 1100 Negroe and Indian Slaves, a considerable 
number of which have been already instructed in the principles of 
Christianity by Mr. Neau . . . and have received baptism and are 
communicants in that Church*' [46]. The Mission was continued 
imder an ordained Missionary during the remainder of the Society's 
connection with the Colony. From 1782 to 1740 the Rev. R. Chaklton 
baptized 219 (24 adults), and frequently afterwards the yearly baptisms 
numbered from 40 to 60 [47]. 

Great care was taken in preparing the slaves for baptism, and the 
spiritual knowledge of some of them was such as might have put to 
shame many persons who had had greater advantages [48]. The 
Rev. S. AucHMUTY reported that ** not one single Black " that had been 
'* admitted by him to the Holy Communion " had " turned out bad or 
been, in any shape, a disgrace to our holy Profession " [49]. During 
his time (1747-64) the masters of the negroes became "more desirous 
than they used to be of having them instructed " and consequently 
his catechumens increased daily [50]. 

At New Windsor, before holding the appointment at New York, 
and at Staten Island after, Mr. Charlton did good service among the 
negroes [51]. Caste seemed to have been unknown in his congre- 
gation at Staten Island, for he found it not only practical but " most 
convenient to throw into one the classes of his white and black 
catechumens " [52]. 

The same plan seems to have been adopted by the Rev. J. Sayre 
of Newburgh, who catechised children, white and black, in each of his 
four churches [53]. 

The Rev. T. Barclay who used his "utmost endeavours'* to 
instruct the slaves of Albany, discovered in 1714 " a great forward- 
ness " in them to embrace Christianity " and a readiness to receive 
instruction." Three times a week he received them at his own house, 
but some of the masters were so " perverse and ignorant that their 
consent to the instruction of slaves " could " not be gained by any 
intreaties." Among tlie strongest opponents at first were Major M. 
Schuyler and " his brother in law Petrus Vandroffen [Van Driessen], 
Minister to the Dutch congregation at Albany," but " some of the better 
sort " of the Dutch and others encouraged the work, and " by the 
blessing of God" Mr. Barclay " conquered the greatest difficulties " [54]. 

Thus was the way prepared for others, and in the congregation at 
Schenectady some 60 years later were still to be found several negro 
slaves, of whom 11 were "sober, serious communicants " [55]. 

The free Indians, as well as the Indian and negro slaves, were an 
object of the Society's attention from the first. The difficulties of 
their conversion were great, but neither their savage nature nor their 
wandering habits proved such a stumbling block as the bad lives of 
the Europeans. Already the seeds of death had been sown among 
the natives. 




" As to the Indians, the natiyes of the country, they are a decaying people,*' 
wrote the Bev. G. Mcirson of Rye in 1708. " We have not now in all this parish 20 
Families, whereas not many years agoe there were several Hundreds. I have 
frequently conversed with some of them, and bin at their grvat meetings of 
pawawing as they call it. I have taken some pains to teach some of them but to no 
purpose, for they seem regardless of Instruction— and when I have told them of 
the evil consequences of their hard drinking (fee. they replyed that Englishmen do 
the same : and that it is not so great a sin in an Indian as in an Englishman, 
because the Englishman's Religion forbids it, but an Indian's dos not, they further 
say they will not be Christians nor do they see the necessity for so being, because 
we do not live according to the precepts of our religion, in such ways do most of 
the Indians that I have conversed with either here or elsewhere express themselves : 
I am heartily sorry that we shou'd give them such a bad example and fill 
their mouths with such Objections against our blessed Religion " [56]. 

Happily there were many Indians in the province of New York 
who had received such impressions of the Christian religion as to be 
''urgent in all their propositions and other conferences with the 
Govemonrs, to have ministers among them to instruct them in the 
Christian faith." The French Jesuits had been endeavouring to make 
proselytes of them and had drawn over a considerable number to 
Canada, and there planted two castles near Mount Royal [^lontreal], 
where priests were provided to instruct them, and soldiers to protect 
them in time of war [57]. Speaking in the name of the rest of the: 
Sachems of the ''Praying Indians of Canada/* one of their chiefs 
thus addressed the Government Commissioners at Albany, N.Y., in 
1700 :— 

" We are now come to Trade, and not to speak of Religion ; Only thus much I 
must say, all the while I was here before I went to Canada, I never heard anything 
talk'd of Religion, or the least mention made of converting us to the Christian 
Faith ; and we shall be glad to hear if at last you are so piously inclined to take 
some pains to instruct your Indians in the Christian Religion ; I will not say but 
it may induce some to return to their Native Country. I wish it had been done 
sooner that you had had Ministers to instruct your Indians in the Christian 
Faith ; I doubt whether any of us ever had deserted our native Country, but I 
must say I am solely beholden to the French of Canada for the light I have 
received to know there was a Saviour born for mankind ; and now we are taught 
God is everywhere, and we can be instructed at Canada, Dowaganhae, or the 
uttermost Parts of the Earth as well as here " [68]. 

Moved by this and other representations received from the Earl of 
Bellamont (Governor of New York), the " Commissioners of Trade and 
Plantations " in England addressed Archbishop Tenison [59] and the 
Queen on the subject, with the result that an Order in Council was 
passed, viz. : — 

" Att the Court att St. James's the third day of April 1703. Present the Queen's 
Most Excellent Maty, in Council. Upon reading this day at the Board a 
Representation from the Lords Comrs. of Trade & Plantations, dated the 2d 
of this month, relating to her Mats. Province of New York in America, setting 
forth, among other things, that as to the 5 Nations of Indians bordering upon New 
York, least &ie Intrigues of the French of Canada, anct the influence their Priests, 
who frequently converse and sometimes inhabite with those Indians, should 
debauch them from her Mats. Allegiance, their Lordships are humbly of opinion 
that besides the usuall method of engaging the sd. Indians by Presents, another 
means to prevent the Influence of the French Missionaries upon them, and 


67 ' 

Iherebj more efftctuall)' to secure their fldality, wouM be. thnt two Protestant 
Ministeta be apjiointed with a oampetent allowftnoe la dwell amongst them in 
order to instrocl them in tlia troe religion 4 oonfirm them in their dutj to Het 
Majesty : It is ordered by Ktr Matj. in Council, That it be as it is hereby relarred 
to hie Grace the Lord ATchbishop of Canterbury, to take such care therein as 
may most effectually answer this service" [60]. 

The Order in Council was laid before the Society by the Archbishop, i 
&ad confirmatory evidence was received from other aources, particularly 
from Mr, Robert Levingston [Livingston], Secretary for Indian Affaire in 
New York, who memorialised and interviewed the Society on the subject 
[61], and fi-om the Rev. J. Talbot, who reported in Nov. 1702 that 
■' even the Indiana themselves have promised obedience to the faiths" 
five of their Sachems or Kings having told Governor Lord Combury 
(at a Conference at Albany I tliat "they were glad to hear that the 
Sun shined in England again since King William's death"; they 
admired that we should have "a squaw sachem " or ■' woman king," 
but hoped eliQ would " be a good mother and send them some to teach 
them Religion and estabhsh traffic amongst them, that they might be 
able to purchase a coat and not to i;o to Church in bear skins " ; and so | 
they sent the Queen a present, to wit " ten bever skins tomake her fine 
and one far [fur] muff to keep her warm " ; and in signing t)ie treaty ' 
tbey said "thunder and lightning should not break it on their part" [62], 
It appearing that the Dutch ministers stationed at Albany from time to ' 
time had taken great pains in instructing the Mohawks, and had 
translated some forms and services ic, the Society sent " an honour- 
able gratnity" to Mr. Lydius, " in consideration of his promoting the 
Christian Rehgion among the Indians," and expressed a desire that he 
should continue his endeavours [G9]. Mr: Dellius, another I'utcli 
minister, from Albany, being in Europe was invited to undertake a 
mission among the Five Nation Indians, but he "insisted upon such 
demands as were not within the Powers of the Society to grant " [M]. 
Eventually the Bev. Thohouqhgood Moon, " with a firm counigB 
and Resolution to answer the excellent designs of the Society " under- 
took the Mission, and arriving at New York in 1704 received all 
possible countenance and favour from the Governor, Lord Corn- 
bury. But the Clergy of the province represented to the Society that 

" it is most true the converting Heathens is b work laudable, Hononrable and 
OIorioDB. and we doubt not but Clod will prosper it in the hands of our Oood 
Brother Mr. Tliorogood Moore, ■ . . but after all with Eubmieaion we humbly 
BUpplioate that the children first be sutieQed, and the lost sheep recovered who 
have gone astray among heielicks and Quoliers who have dcnycd tlie Failb and 
are worse (him Infidels and Indians thai never knew it" [66). 

" Father we iire come to express our joy at your safe an-ival and that you hava 
eacapt the dantiers ol a dreadful sea. which you have croal, I hear, to instruct ui 
in Beligion. It only grieves us that you are come in time of war, when it is 
aaeert&in whether you will live or die with us." ' 

Four utber ludians. Including one of their Sachems, visited a 



couraged hiin, but although courteously received at the settlement 
also, it soon became evident that his Mission would not be accepted. 
After waiting at Albany nearly a year and using *'all the means he 
could think of, in order to get the good will of the Indians, till their 
unreasonable delays and frivolous excuses, with some other circum- 
stances, were a sufficient Indication of their Resolution never to accept 
him, and therefore expecting either no answer at all or at last 
a positive • denial ... he thought it better to leave them " [66]. 
Mr. Moor liad by this time made the discovery that " to begin with 
the Indians is preposterous ; for it is from the behaviour of the 
Christians here, that they have had, and still have, their notions of 
Christianity, which God knows, hath been generally such that it hath 
made the Indians to hate our religion," and that "the Christians 
selUng the Indians so much rum, is a sufficient bar, if there were no 
other, against their embracing Christianity " [67]. 

Mr. Moor withdrew to Burhngton, New Jersey, for a time, and 
Lord Cornbury (1705) promised the Society that he would endeavour 
to secure him a favourable reception by the Indians, adding '* he is 
certainly a very good man " [68]. Mr. Moor had a rather different 
opinion of Lord Cornbury, who carried his scandalous practices so far 
as to exhibit himself in women's clothes on the ramparts of New York. 
For this Mr. Moor declared that he ** deserved to be excommunicated ** 
and hesitated not to refuse to administer the Holy Communion to the 
Lieut.-Govemor (a supporter of Lord Cornbury) " upon the account 
of some debauch and abominable swearing" [69]. 

Retaliation followed. Summoned by Lord Cornbury to New York, 
on some charge of irregularity, Mr. Moor refused to obey what seemed 
to be an illegal warrant, and was arrested and imprisoned in Fort Anne 
by the Governor. The supposed irregularity was the celebrating of the 
Blessed Sacrament as often as " once a fortnight," ** which frequency 
he was pleased to forbid " [70] ; but Mr. Neau reported to the Society 
tiiat the Governor's action was occasioned by the denunciation of his 
profligate habits * [71]. Mr. Moor escaped after a short imprisonment 
and embarked for England in 1707, but the ship and all in her were 
never heard of again. 

In 1709 the Rev. Thomas Barclay was appointed Missionary at 
Albany with a direction to instruct the neighbouring Indians ; they 
accepted his ministry, and he soon had fifty adherents [72]. 

Soon after Mr. Barclay's appointment four of the Iroquois Sachems 
came to England and presented an address to Queen Anne, in which 
they said : — 

•* Great Queen, Wee have undertaken a long and dangerous voyage which none 
of our Predecessors cou'd be prevailed upon to do : TJie motive that brought us 
was that we might have the honour to see and relate to our great Queen, what we 
thought absolutely necessary for the good of her and us her allies, which are on the 
other side the great water.'' 

* Colonel Morris characterised Lord Cornbury at this time (1707) as " the greatoKt 
obHtaclc that either has or is likely to prevent the growth of the Church " in New York 
and New Jerr.ey, "a man certainly the Reverse of all that is good"; "the scandal of his 
life " being such " that were he in a civilized heathen countrey, ho wou'd by the publick 
Justice be made an example to deter otliers from his practices" [Tlaj. [About a year 
later he was, in fact, deposed.] 


Then followed expressions of loyalty, and the presentation of " Belts of 
Wampum" "as a sure token of the smcerity of the Six Nations," 
and then, still speaking ** in the Names of all," they added : — 

** Since we were in Covenant with our great Queen's Children, we have had 
some Knowledge of the Saviour of the World, and have often been importuned by 
the French by Priests and Presents, but ever esteemed them as men of Falsehood, 
but if our great Queen wou*d send somie to Instruct us, they should find a most 
hearty welcome." 

The address was referred to the Society on April 20, 1710, ** to 
consider what may be the more proper ways of cultivating that good 
disposition these Indians seem to be in for receiving the Christian 
ffaith, and for sending tliither fit persons for that purpose, and to 
report their opinion without loss of Time, that the same may be laid 
before Her Majesty." [Letter of the Earl of Sunderland [72a].] 

Eight days later the following resolutions were agreed to by the 
Society : — 

" 1. That the design of propagating the Gospel in foreign parts does cliiefly and 
principally relate to the conversion of heathens and infidels : and therefore that 
branch of it ought to be prosecuted preferably to all others. 

*' 2. That in consequence thereof, immediate care be taken to send itinerant 
Missionaries to preach the Gospel amongst the Six Nations of the Indians, 
according to the primary intentions of the late King William of glorious memory. 

'* 3. That a stop be put to the sending any more Missionaries among Christians, 
except to such places whose Ministers are or shall be dead, or removed ; and unless 
it may consist with the funds of the Society to prosecute both designs." [See p. 8.] 

Other resolutions were adopted with a view to sending two Mis- 
sionaries to the Indians, providing translations in Mohawk, and 
stopping the sale of intoxicating liquors to the Indians — ** this being 
the earnest request of the Sachems themselves "—and a Representation 
to the Queen was drawn up embodying the substance of the resolu- 
tions and urging the appointment of a Bishop for America. 

The Indian Sachems then had an interview with the Society, and 
the Bishop of Norwich informed them by their interpreter 

" that this was the Society to which the Queen had referred the care of sending over 
Ministers to instruct their people in the Christian Religion and the Resolutions 
taken by the Sy. in relation to them ^vere read and explained to them by the 
Interpreter, at which the Sachems profest great satisfaction and promised to take 
care of the Ministers sent lo them and that they would not admit any 'lesuites or 
other French Priests among them.'* It was thereupon "Ordered that 4 copies of 
the Bible in quarto with the Prayer Book bound handsomely in red Turkey Leather 
be presented in the Name of [the] Society to the Sachems " [78]. 

The Sachems returned their " humble thanks " for the Bibles, and 
on May 2, 1710, added the following letter : — 

'* To the Venble. Society for Propagation of the Gospel in foreign partH. 

*' 'Tis with great satisfaction that the Indian Sachems reflect upon the usage 
and answers they received from the chief Ministers of Christ's religion in our great 
Queen's dominions, when they ask't their assistance for the thorough con\ ersion 
ol their nations : *Tis thenoe expected that such of them will ere long come over 



and help to tarn those of oar sabjeots from Satan anto Qod as may by their great 
knowledge and pious practices convince the enemies to saving fTaith that the 
only true God is not amongst them. And may that Great God of Heaven 
succeed accordingly all the endeavours of our great Fathers for his honour and 

" This we desire to signify as our minds by Anadagarjou.c^e and our Bror. Queder 
who have been always ready to assist us in all our concerns. 

" The mark 

" The mark of 


The mark of 

of Henrique A John. 


Etcwa Gacme. [74] 

The Sachems wrote again before and after their return to Ameiica, 
to remind the Society of its promise to send two ^rissionaries [75]. 
For the "safety and conveniency of the Mission," the Queen (who 
warmly supported the Society's proposals) ordered the erection of a 
fort, a house, and a chapel. Towards the furnishing of the latter 
and of another among the Onontnges, Her ^Majesty gave, among other 
things, Communion Plate, and the Archbishop twelve large octavo 
Bibles with tables containing the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and Ten 
Commandments ; to these the Society added " a Table of their Seal 
finely painted in proper colours, to be fixed hkewise in the Chappel of 
the Mohawks " [70j. The Rev. W. Andkews, who possessed colonial 
experience and a knowledge of the Indian language, was selected by 
the Archbishop for the Mission, and set out in 1712 [77 j. Moan- 
while the fort and chapel among the Mohawks had been com- 
pleted, and the Rev. T. Babclay opened the latter on October 5, 1712, 
preaching from St. Matthew xxi. 18, "it being the desire of the 
Sachems " that he should " preach against the profanation of their 
Chappel, some being so impious as to make a slaughter-house of it " [78]. 
In November 1712 Mr. Andrews was formally received "with all 
imaginable satisfaction ** by the Indians, who promised him " all civill 
and kind usuage," and expressed their thankfulness that one had been 
sent " to lead them in the way to Heaven, they being in the dark, 
full of dismal fears and perplexities, not knowing what shall become 
of them after this life " [70]. The Indians built a school-house, but 
were unwilling for their children to be taught any other than their 

SEW TORK. 71 1 

own language, " for it had been obeerved thnt those who undm'atooS 
English or Dutch were generally the worst people," beeause it gave I 
them an opportunity of learning the vices of the traders [HO]. With 
the assistance of a Dutch minister, school-books and portions of the 
Prayer Booli and of the Bible were provided in the Mohawli language 
[see p. 800}, and for a time a good impression was made, Mr. Anilrewa 
buptiKing fifty-one Indians in eix months and having eighteen com- 
municants [HI]. Ho also had some success among the Onidans, wito 
were settled 100 mtlua distant from the Mohawks ; in ^isiling them J 
he " lay several nights in the woods, and on a hear's skin " ; the I 
people "heard him gladly," and permitted him to baptize tbeir 1 
children [82J. 

But the traders tiindered the Mission, because Mr. Andrews exposed 
" their ill practices in bringing too much rum among these poor people," 
and " in cheating them abominably iu the way of traflick " [83]. The 
Drink Act having expired, the Dutch sold spirits wholesale, and the 
result was a corresponding drunkenness, at which times the Indians 
became ungovernable; but when sober they were civil and orderly, 
and if then reproved their common answer was, " Why do you Christians 
sell us so mnch rum?" [Hi]. The Society adopted a lie presentation 
to the King for the suppression of the sale of rum to the Indians, it 
being what most of them desired, but the new restrictions weie soon 
evaded [85]. The Indians now began to weary of instruction and went 
bunting, takmg the boys with them ; and some Jesuit emissaries from 
the French at Quebec and some unfriendly Tusoaroras from North , 
Carolina came and stirred up jealousies against the English. Prom 
this time the Indians would only mock at Mr. Andrews' efTorts, and 
at last absolutely forbad his visiting them, and left off attending chapel , 
and school [86]. 

Uy Governor Hunter the Society was assured in 1718 that Mr. 
Andrews' want of success was not owing " to his want of care or at- 
tendance," but that from the first lie was of opinion that the " ruothod I 
would not answer the ends and pious intentions" of the Society. The i 
Mission was therefore auspemled in 1719 [87]. 

From Mr. Andrews' accounts, the Indiitns were ejctremely poor; in 
winter they were unable for four or five months to " stir out for cold," 
and in summer they were " tormented with dies and muscatoes," and 
could not travel on foot " for fear of rattlesnaltes " [88], 

Their notions of a future state were that " those who live well, 
when they die go to Heaven," which they called " the other country, 
where is good eating and drinking Hcc. but those that live ill, when 
they die go to a poor barren country where they suffer hunger and the ] 
want of everything that is good," When they died they were buried 
with their hows and arrows, dishes and spoons " and all other things 
that they have necessary for their journey into the other country " [80^ ' 

When by continuance of the peoca and by intercourse with 
the English the Iroquois appeared to become more civilised, the Society 
appointed the Rev. J. Miln to Albany in 1727. The Indians at Fort 
Hunter, who formed part of his charge, received hini"with much 
respect and civility," and he found them "very well disposed to 
the Gospel," some having been " pretty well instructed in the grounds 
of Christianity by Mr. Andrews " [90J. The result of bia labours wns 



thus desciibed by the Commanding Officer of Fort Hunter Garrison in 
1736 :— 

*' I have found the Mohawk lodians very much civilized which I take to be 
owing to the Industry and pains taken by the Hev. Mr. John Miln in teaching and 
instructing them in the Christian religion. . . . The number of Communicants 
increases daily. . . . The said Indians express the greatest satisfaction with Mr. 
Miln. . . . They are become as perempter in observmg their rules as any Society 
of Christians commonly are. . . . They are very observing of the Sabbath, con- 
veneing by themselves and singing Psalms on that day and frequently applying to 
me that Mr. Miln may be oftcner among them." [Certilicate of Walter Butler, 
October 26, 1735 [91].J 

In April 1785 Mr. Henbt BaroiiAT, son of the second Missionary 
to the Indians, was appointed Catechist at Fort Hunter. Bom and 
educated in America, he soon acquired a knowledge of the Indian lan- 
guage, which helped to make him an efficient and acceptable 
Missionary, and on his return from ordination in England in 1788 
many of the Indians ** shed tears for joy " [92], Soon after, he reported 
'* That there grew a daily reformation of manners among the Mohocks 
[Mohawks] and an increase of virtue proportionable to their know- 
ledge ; inasmuc]i that they compose a regular, sober congregation of 
500 Christian Indians of whom 50 are very sen'ous Communicants " [98]. 
At Albany in 1740 he preached to " a considerable number of the Six 
Indian Nations," in the presence of the Governor and several of the 
Council of the Province, and the Mohawks made their responses ** in so 
decent and devout a manner as agreeably surprised all that were 
present " [94], The Missionary's influence over the Mohawks was seen 
in " a great reformation," " especrally in respect of drunkenness, a vice 
they were so intirely drowned in ' that at first ** he almost despaired of 
seemg an effectual reformation." By 1742 only two or three of the 
tribe remained unbaptized, and in their two towns were schools taught 
" with surprising success " by two natives, one of whom — Cornelius, a 
Sachem— also read prayers during Mr. Barclay's absence * [95]. 

The French nearly succeeded again in closing the Mission. In 
1745 their emissaries alarmed the Indians in dead of the night with an 
account that '* the white people were coming to cut them all in peices" ; 
this *' drove the poor creatures in a fright into the woods," whither 
Mr. Barclay sought them and endeavouied to persuade those he could 
find of the fahehood of the report ; but " the hye or six Indians who 
had been bribed to spread the report " stood to it, and said that Mr. 
Barclay, notwithstanding his seeming affection for them, was *' the 
chief contriver of the Plot, and was in league with the Devil, who was 
the author of all the Books " which Mr. Barclay had given them. Few 
at the lower Indian town believed them, but those of the upper one 
were '* all in a flame threatening to murder all the white inhabitants 
about them," and they sent expresses to all the Six Indian Tribes 
for assistance. Whereupon Mr. Barclay summoned the Commissioners 
for Indian affairs at Albany, who with great difiiculty *4aid the 

• Mr. Barclay ministered also to a white oongreeation at Fort Hunter — in Dutch and 
English. In 1739-40 he records that his charge had much increased hy new Bcttlers, 
chiefly from Ireland, who proved "a very honest sober, industrious, and religious 
people" [96J. 

NEW YORK. - 78 

etorm " [97]. In November 1745 the French Indians came to an open 
rupture with the English, and with a party of French " fell upon a 
Frontier settlement which they laid in ashes,*' taking about 100 
prisoners. For some time after they kept the county of Albany in 
** a continual alann by skulking parties," who frequently murdered 
or carried off the inhabitants, ** Irealing them in the most Inhumane 
and Barbarous manner." During this trouble the Mohawks declined 
active co-opeiation with the Enghsh and kept up a correspondence 
with the enemy, but their loyalty soon revived, never again to be 
shaken [98]. 

Mr. Barclay was transferred to New York in 1746, but the Indian 
Mission was continued by a succession of able Missionaries — Revs. J. 
OoiLviE (1749-62), J. J. Oel (1750-77), T. Brown (1760-66), H. 
MuNRO (1768-76), J. Stuart (1770-78), besides lay teachers, English 
and Native. Among the latter was Abraham, a Sachem, '* who being 
past war and huntnig read prayers at the several Mohock Castles by 
turns "[99]. The advantage of the Mission to the English became 
apparent to all during the wars in which the country was involved, the 
Mohawks joining the British troops, and being *' the only Indian 
nation " ** who continued stendily in our interest." 

During General Braddock's unfortunate expedition, a famous ** half 
Indian King " distinguished himself greatly, and twelve of the Mohawk 
leaders— six of them regular communicants— fell in the action at 
Lake George [100]. In 1759-60 the Rev. J. Ooilvie attended 
the British expedition to Niagara, in which all the Mohawks and 
** almost all the Six Nations," co-op6rated — the Indian fighting men 
numbering 940. He " oHiciated constantly to the Mohawks and 
Oneidas who regularly attended Divine service." Twice in passing 
the Oneida town Mr. Ogilvie baptized several of that tribe, including 
three principal men and their wives, who had lived many years together, 
according to the Indian custom, and whose marriage immediately 
followed their baptism. General Amherst, who visited the Oneida town, 
"expressed a vast pleasure at the decency with which the service of 
our Church was performed by a grave Indian Sachem." During the 
expedition the General always gave public orders for service among 
the Indians [101]. 

On the other hand, intercourse with the Europeans brought the 
Indians great temptation, which, when not engaged in war, they 
were often unable to resist. The effects of strong liquor drove 
them mad at times, so that they burnt their huts, and threatened 
the lives of their families, and at one period there were 55 deaths 
within six mouths, chiefly from drink [102]. 

On the arrival of the Rev. J. Stuaut he was enabled, with the 
assistance of the Sachems, to stop the vice ** in a great degree," and to 
eflfeot a great improvement in their morals [103]. There were other 
encouragements. When at home the Mohawks regularly attended 
service daily, and when out hunting some' would come 60 miles to 
communicate on Christmas Day [104]. 

The Schools too were appreciated ; one of the natives taught 40 
children daily, and Catechist Bennet had *' a fine company of lively 
pretty children" under his care, who were "very ingenious and orderly," 
and whom he taught in Mohawk and English ; and the parents were so 


gratified that they sent their chil<}ren for instruction from a distance 
of 80 miles. Mr. Bennet had some medical knowledge also, which he 
turned to good account [105]. 

Although the Missionaries' work had heen mainly among the 
Mohawks, some Converts were made of the Oneidans and Tuscaroras, 
and the Society had frequent correspondence with Sir William Johnson 
(Government Superintendent of Indian Affairs in America) and several 
of the Clergy with a view to the conversion of all the native races, for 
which purpose a comprehensive scheme was submitted to the Govern- 
ment by the Rev. C. Inqlis. In 1770, while Dr. Cooper and Mr. 
Inglis were on a visit to Sir W. Johnson, they were surprised with a de- 
putation of nine Indians from the lower Mohawk Castle, who " expressed 
their regard and admiration of Christianity as far as they could be 
supposed to be acquainted with it and a grateful sense of past favours 
from the Society and most earnestly intreated fresh Missionaries to be 
sent among them." Towards meeting their wishes the Society placed 
Missionaries and teachers at Schenectady, Fort Hunter, and Johns- 
town [106]. 

Efforts for a further extension were to a great extent fruitless in 
consequence of the poUtical troubles. The Mohawks and others of the 
Six Nations, "rather than swerve from their allegiance" to Great 
Britain, elected to abandon their dwellings and property, and join the 
loyalist army [107]. Eventually they were obliged to take shelter in 
Canada, where for fifty years the Society ministered to them [pp. 
139-40, 165-8]. 

While they remained at Fort Hunter the Rev. J. Stuart " continued 
to officiate as usual, performing the public service in tire, even after 
the declaration of Independence," notwithstanding that by so doing 
he " incurred the Penalty of High-Treason by the new Laws." But as 
soon as his protectors were fled he was made *' a prisoner and ordered 
to depart the province " with his family, within four days, on peril of 
being " put into close confinement," and this merely on suspicion of 
being a ** loyal subject of the King of Great Britain." He was, however, 
admitted to parole and confined for three years within the limits of the 
town of Schenectady, during which time his house was " frequently 
broken open by mobs," his ** property plundered," and ** every kind of 
indignity " oflfered to his person " by the lowest of the Populace." His 
church was also "plundered by the rebels," a "Barrel of Rum" 
was ** placed in the reading desk," and the building was employed 
successively as a "tavern," a "stable," and "a Fort to protect a Set 
of as great Villains as ever disgraced humanity." At length his farm 
and tlie produce of it were taken from him " as forfeited to the State." 
As a last resource he proposed to open a Latin School for the support of 
his family, * 'but this Privilege was denied." With much difficulty he then 
obtained leave to remove to Canada, on condition of giving bail of jt*4:00, 
and either sending " a Rebel Colonel " in exchange or returning to 
Albany and surrendering himself a prisoner, whenever required [108]. 

The losses to which the loyahsts were subjected during the war 
were manifold. The "King's troops" often plundered those whom 
they were sent to protect, while among the opposite party were some 
lost to all sense of humanity, who scrupled not to deprive " childien 
and infants " ** of their clothes " — even women in childbed had " the 


Bheeta torn from their berls ' ' [109]. The Clergj were spec!a4!y marked 
out for persecution by the lievolutionista. and the death of several 
was liastened thereby. The Rev. L, Babcock of Phihpsburg was 
detftioed in custody uearly eii months, and then dismissed sick in 
February 1777, and ordered to remove within ten days. "He got 
home with difficulty, in a raging fever," and died a week aft^r. 

According to Dr. Inolis and otherB, tlie Rev, E. Aveky of Rye was 
"mnrdered by tlie rebels" in "a most barbarone manner," on 
Nov. 3, 1776, " for not pvuying for the Coii{;rrees," " his body having 
been shot thro', his throat cut, and his corpse thrown into the public 
highway," but Dr. Seabliry seemed to impute his death to insanity 
occasioned by tlie losses he had Bustaiiied [110]. 

Dr. Seabuky himself "experienced more uneasiness" than he 
CDuId describe. On a charge of issuing pamphlets "in favour of 
Government," he was carried a prisoner into Connecticut by the self- 
styled " Sons of Liberty " in 1775, and on returning to hia Mission he 
was for a month subjected to daily insults from " the rebel army " on 
their way to New York. After the declaration of independency, an 
Edict was published at New York " making it death " to support the 
King, or any of his adherents. Upon this he shut up bis church, 
" fifty armed men " being sent into hia neighbourhood. Most of his 
people declared they would not go to church till he was at liberty to 
pray for ihe king. On the ariival of the British troops at Slaten 
Island, and of two ships of war in the Sound, the friends of Government 
were seized and the coast was guarded, and his situation became very 
critical. After the defeat of the rebels on Long Island a body of them 
fixed themselves within two miles of his honse, but by " lodging 
abroad," ^^'ith the help of his peojile, he avoided arrest. On September I , 
1776, it happened tliut the guard was withdrawn from a post on the 
coast, and the guard that was to replace it mistaking their route gave 
him an opportunity of effecting hia escape to Long Island. " The very 
next day" his house "was sun'ounded and searched, and a guard 
placed at it for several nights, till Mrs. Seabury, wearied with their 
impertinence," told them that he was fled to the [British] army, where 
ehe did not doubt but he would be " very well pleased to give them a 
meeting." They then vented their rage on his church and his 
property, converting the former into an hospital, tearing off the covering 
and burning the pcwa, and doing great damage to the latter. It is 
just to add that none of the revolutionists residing in bis own Mission 
ever offereil bim any insult or attempted to do him any injury ; 
indeed he Fays "the New England rebels used frequently to observe, 
as an argument against me, that the nearer they came to West 
Chester, the fewer Friends they found to Araoriciin Libirly : that is 
to Rebellion "[111]. 

Id the trials to which the Church and country were subjected it 
wae a> aatiitfaction to the Society to be assured that " all their Mission- 
aries " in the province, as well as the Clergy on the New York side of 
the Del a w.a re and many on the other, "conducted themselves with 
great propriety and on many trying occasions with a Firmness and 
tjtcadmess that have done them Honour" [112]. Such was the testi- 
mony of Dr. Seiibiu-y {December 29, 1776)— afterwards the first 
American Bishop— to which it will be fitting and sufficient to add 


the following particulars from a report of the Rev. G. Inqlis, dated 
New York, October 31, 1776 :— 

" . . . All the Society's Missionaries ... in New Jersey, New 
York, Connecticut, and so far as I can leai*n in the other New England 
Colonies,' have proved themselves faithful, loyal subjects in these trying 
times, and have to the utmost of their power opposed the spirit of dis- 
affection and rebellion which has involved this continent in the greatest 
calamities. . . All the other Clergy of our Church in the above Colonies, 
though not in the Society's service, have observed the same line of 
conduct ; and although their joint endeavours could not wholly prevent 
the rebellion, yet they checked it considerably for some time." But 
since May 1776 "violences " had "gradually increased," and this, with 
the delay of reinforcements and the abandonment of the province by 
the King's troops, reduced the loyalists "to a mosli disagreeable and 
dangerous situation, particularly the Clergy, who were viewed with 
peculiar envy and malignity by the disaffected," " an abolition 
of the Church of England " being " one of the principal springs of the 
dissenting leaders' conduct. . . . The Clergy, amidst this scene of 
tumult and disorder, went on steadily with their duty ; in their sermons, 
confining themselves to the doctrine of the Gospel, without touching 
on politics ; using their influence to allay . . . heats and cherish a 
spirit of loyalty among their people. This conduct . . . gave great 
offence " to the " flaming patriots, who laid it down as a maxim ' that 
those who were not for them were against them.' " The Clergy were 
** everywhere threatened, often reviled . . . sometimes treated with 
brutal violence." Some were " carried prisoners by armed mobs into 
distant provinces . . . and much insulted, without any crime being 
alleged against them . . . some . . . flung into jail ... for frivolous 
suspicions of plots, of which even their accusers afterwards acquitted 
them." Some were " pulled out of the reading-desk because they 
prayed for the King, and that before independency was declared." 
Others were fined for not appearing '* at militia musters with their 
arms." Others "had their houses plundered." "Were every 
instance of this kind faithfully collected, it is probable that the suffer- 
ings of the American Clergy, would appear in many respects, not inferior 
to those of the English Clergy in the great rebellion of last [i.e, the 
17th] century ; and such a work would be no bad supplement to 
Walker's * Sufferings of the Clergy.' " 

The " declaration of independency " by the Congress in July 1776 
" increased the embarrassments of the Clergy. To officiate publicly, 
and not pray for the King and royal family according to the liturgy, 
was against their duty and oath, as well as . . . their conscience ; and 
yet to use the prayers . . . would have drawn inevitable destruction 
on them. The only course ... to avoid both evils was to . . . shut 
up their Churches." This was done in most instances in the provinces 
mentioned. Mr. Beach of Connecticut was said to have declared 
" that he would do his duty, preach and pi^ay for the King, till the 
rebels cut out his tongue." The " Provincial Convention of Virginia " 
pubUshed "an edict " for the omission from the liturgy of " some of 
the collects for the King," and the substitution of the word " Common- 
wealth " for " King " in others. New York Province, " although the 


most loyal and peaceable of any on the continent, by a strange fatality ** 
became the scene of war and suffered most, especially the capital, in 
vhich Mr. Inglis was left in charge of the churches. 

Soon after the arrival of the revolutionary forces in the city 
(April 1776), a message was brought to Mr. Inglis that "General 
Washington would be at churcl), and would be glad if the violent 
prayers for the King and royal family were omitted." The message 
was disregarded, and the sender— one of the "rebel generals "—was 
informed that it was in his power to shut up the churches but not to 
make " the clergy depart from their duty." This drew from him ** an 
awkward apology for his conduct," which appeared to have been ** not 
authorized by Washington." May 17 was ** appointed by the congress 
as a day of pubUc fasting, prayer and humiliation," and at the request 
of the Church meriibers in New York Mr. Inglis preached, making 
"peace and repentance" his subject, and disclaiming " having any- 
thing to do with politics." Later on " violent threats were thrown out " 
against the Clergy " in case the King were any longer prayed for." One 
Sunday during service a company of " armed rebels " " marched 
into the church with drums beating and fifes playing, their guns 
loaded and bayonets fixed as if going to battle." The congregation 
were terrified, fearing a massacre, but Mr. Inglis took no notice and 
went on with the service, and after standing in the aisle for about fifteen 
minutes the soldiers complied with an invitation to be seated. 
On the closing of the churches the other Clergy left the city, but 
Mr. Inghs remained ministering to the sick, baptizing children, and 
burying the dead, and refusing to yield up possession of the keys of 
the buildings. During this period ho was " in the utmost clanger." 
In August he removed to Long Island, and after the defeat of the 
" rebels " there he returned to New York to find the city pillaged. The 
bells had been carried off, "partly to convert them into cannon, partly 
to prevent notice being given " of a meditated fire. On Wednesday, 
September 18, one of the churches was re-opened, "and joy was 
lighted up in every countenance on the restoration of our public 
worship." liut while the congregation were congratulating themselves, 
several "rebels" were secreted in the houses, and on the following 
Saturday they set fire to the city, one-fourth of which was destroyed. 
The loss of Church property, estimated at £25,000, included Trinity 
Church, Rectory, and School, and about 200 houses. But " upon the 
whole the Church of England" in America had "lost none of its 
members by the rebellion as yet" — none, that is, whose departuie 
could be " deemed a loss." On the contrary, its own members were 
" more firmly attached to it than ever." And " even the sober and 
more rational among dissenters " looked " with reverence and esteem 
on the part which Church people " acted. 

Mr. Inglis concluded by urging that, on the suppression of the 
rebelhon, measures should be taken for phicing the American Church 
" on at least an equal footing with other denominations by granting 
it an episcopate, and thereby allowing it a full toleration '* [118]. 

On the death of Dr. Auchmuty in 1777 Mr. Inglih succeeded to 
the rectory of Trinity Church — " the best ecclesiastical preferment in 
North America '* — a position which he was soon forced to abandon. 


'* Political principles and the side which people have taken *' became 
*^ the only tests of merit or demerit in America, '^ consequently ** in the 
estimation of the New Rulers " he laboured " under an heavy load of 
guilt.*' The " specific crimes, besides loyalty, laid to his charge ** were 
(1) the foregoing letter which he wrote to the Society ; (2) ** a sermon 
preached to some of the new corps, that same year, and published at 
the desire of General Try on and the Field Officers who were present " ; 
(8) " a visit he paid to a rebel prisoner,'* at the direction of the 
British Commander-in-Chief. The prisoner was confined on suspicion 
of a design to set fire to the city. After examining him Dr. Inglis 
beUeved him to be innocent and so reported, which saved the man's 
life, yet this was afterwards ** alledged against the Doctor as a most 
heinous offence.** ** Ludicrous as these things may seem to men not 
intimately and practically acquainted with American politics," he felt 
they were " serious evils." " For these and these only " he was " at- 
tainted proscribed and banished and his estate . . . confiscated and 
actually sold : to say nothing of the violent threats thrown out against 
his hfe." Notwithstanding that. *' popular phrenzy " had " risen to 
such an height " as to confound *' all the distinctions of right and 
wrong,** he hesitated to remove because of " the injuries his 
congregations would sustain," but eventually his position became 
untenable, and in 1783 he applied to be admitted on the Society's list 
in Nova Scotia. The request was acceded to ; but when he settled in 
that colony it was not simply as a Missionary but as the first Colonial 
Bishop [114]. 

(See also the next cliapter and the Statistical Summary on p. 86.) 


CHArrER sn. 

At the coniinenc-Gineiit of tlie American War the Society wan helping 
to support 77 Missionaries in tbe United States. But as the rebellion 
progressed nearly all of them were forced to retire from their Missions, 
many of them penniless, and for the relief of the dialressed among them 
and the other Clergy a ftmd was raised in England [1]. Eventually a 
few took the oath of allegiance to the Republic. Of the remainder 
eome were provided with army chaplaincies, others with Miasions in 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Canada." , "Some returned to 
England, a few of whom, entirely disabled, receivedli compassionate 
allowance from the Society. The severance of the American Colonies 
tram the mother connlry, while it almost destroyed the Church in 
the " United States," set her free to obtain that gift of the episcopate 
80 long denied. As soon as the peace was made {17B3), Dr. Samuel 
Seabuky, elected BiShop by the Clergy of Connecticut, went to 
England for consecration, which he at length obtained from the 
Bishops of the Soottish Chnreb at Aberdeen, on November 14, 1784. 
[See pp. 749-60.] On February 4, 1787, Drs. White and Pbovoobt 
were consecrated Bishops of Permsylvania and New York resjiectively, 
in Lambeth Palace Chapel, anil on September 19, 17tO (in-the same 
place), Dr. Madison, Bishop of Virginia. The episcopate thus estab- 
lisbed has so grown that in the United States there are now 76 
Bishoprics, with a total of 4,81 1 Clergy ; and Missions have been sent 
out by the American Church to Greece, West Africa, China, Japan, 
Haiti, Mesico, Brazil. Cuba, and Porto Hico {see p. b7l. 

In withdrawing from the Mission field in the United States in 
1785 the Society arranged for the continuanee of the galariea of the 
Missionaries then oBiuiating there, up to Michaelmas in that year, and 
undertook to provide to the utmost of its power for such as elected " to 
repair into any of the King's dominions in America." In making this 
announcement it was stated that 

"The Society . . . regrcl lheuaha|)py evauW vfliioliDonfiae llieir labours to tha 
Colonies remaining under His Majesty's Sovoreigatj. It is bo f»r from their 
thooghta to alienste Iheir affections from their brethren o[ the Church of England, 
now lliideT another Government, that they look bock with eomlorl at the good tbey 
faave done, for many yean poet, in propngnting onr holy religion, as it is protessed 
bj the Established Cliureh of England i and it is their earueet wish and prayer 
that their Keat may continue Co bring forth the fmit tbey aimed at. of pure religion 
and virtue ; and that the (cue members of oar Cfauroh, ander nhatever civil 
Ooveramenl Ihey live, msy not cense to be kindly affoctioned towards ns " [3]. 

The subsequent proceedings of the American Church show how 
nobly it has striven to fulfil this wish and prayer, and in the growth 
of that Church and its undying expressiona of gratitude the Souiety 
fiud ample reward for itu labours and encoumgement to fresh 


Tub Il[<iiiT lltv hAMCFi Skaelvih, nil. 
Conaeorated Bishop of Conneaticul, at AberdeeQ, od Noiembei 14, 1784. 

BuiiMART or BEsrt're m the rwrrBD states. 


oonqiiests. At the first "General Couvention" of the American 
Church {which was held in Chriat Church, Pliilatlelphift, Sept. 27^ 
Oct. 5, 171^5), au address to the Arcltbishops aod Bishops of the 
Church of England was adoptecl, aslcing them to consecrate Bishops for 
America, and conveying the following acknowledgment : — 

"All tlio Biehopi of England, with other distinguiahed chamelera, Hi well 
ecclesiastical as civil. coaourred ia [onning and carrying on tlie benavolent 
views of the Society tot Propagating tha Qoapel in Foreigo Parts; a Society to 
nhom, nodn Qod, tha prosperity of our Chorch is, ia an eminent degree, to be 
aflonbei). It i» our earnest wish to be permitted to make, throogh JOOT lordships, 
this just avknovledgment to that venerable Society ; a tribute of gratitude which 
ne rather take this opportnnily ol paying, as while they thonght it necessary lo 
withdraw pecnniary assistance from our Miuisterg, they have endeared their past 
favours by a benevolent declamtion, that it is far from their thought to alienate 
their affections from their brethren now onder another govetmnent -, with the pious 
wish that their (onner exertions may still continue to bring forth (he fruits they 
aimed at of pure religion and virtue. Oor hearts are penetrated «-ith the modE 
lively gratitude by these generous seuliments i the long sucoession of former 
benefits passes in review before aa ; we pray tliat our Church may be a lasting 
monoment of the nsefulnees of ao worthy a body : and that her Bons may never 
eesBe to be kindly afft-ctioned to the niembers of that Church, the Fathers of which 
have so tenderly watched over her infancy " [3]. 

Id the Preface to the American Prayer Book the " auraing care 
and protectiou " of the Society ia also recognitjed, and from generation 
to generatioD gratiltide flowB, warmth of expression seeming to increase 
rather than diminish aa time goes on. 

On the occasion of the Society's third jubilee, the President, Arch- 
bishop Samnerpj., March 28, 1851] submitted to the American Bishops 

" whether, in a time of cootroversy and division, the close commanion which binds 
the Churches ol America and England in one would not be atrikingfy manifested 
to the world, if every one of their dioceael were to take part in commemorating the 
(oundation of the oldeEit Missionary Society of the Unformed Church, a Society 
which, from its first small beginnings in NewKngland, has extended its operatlona 
into all parla of the norld, from the Qanges to IiQ,ku Huron and from New Zealand 
to Labrador. Such a joint Commemoration, besides manifesting the rapid growth 
and wide extenaion of onr Church, would serve to keep alive and diffuse a 
MisBioniiry epirit and so be the means, under the Divine blessing, of enlar^jing 
the borders of the Redeemer's Kingdom." 

No gift was desired, but only " Christian sympathy and the communion 
of prayer " [4]. The American Bishops cordially responded lo the 
invitation, and their answers (and others), so fall of gratitude to the 
Society and of brotherly feeling to (he Church at large, occupy 23 
pages of the Annual Report for 1861 [5], 

At the jubilee celebration in New York City (June 10, 1851), 
Trinity Church was " crowded to its utmost capacity, and more than 
2,000 peraona went away from the doors unable to find an entrance." 
The offerings amounted to S^.'i^^ for Diocesan Missions, and at the 
same time the vestry made a noble gift towards the endowment of the 
HinsionEtry Bishopric at Cape Pahuas, Weat Africa [C]. 

Al the request of the Society, made " with a view to a fuller and 
'more complete intercommunion between the distant porttonf of the 
Church," two of the American Bishops were delegated to take part 
in liie concluding aor\uc(:-3 of the jubilee year [7]. The Bibhop of 
Western New York preached at St. Jamts's Piccadilly, on June 10, 


1852, and the Bishop of Michigan in St. Paul's Cathedral on the 
following day, this being the first occasion on which the anniversary 
sermon was delivered by an American Bishop. In return the Society 
by invitation sent delegates to the meeting of the Board of Missions 
held in New York during the session of the General Convention in 
October 1852. The delegates (Bishop Spencer (fonnerly of Madras), 
Archdeacon J. Sin'clair of Middlesex, the Rev. E. Hawkins, Sec- 
retary of the Society, and the Rev. H. Caswall, Vicar of Figheldean) 
were instructed that the principal objects of the Society in sending 
them on this ** honourable mission " were (1) ** to show its apprecia- 
tion of the readiness with which the American Bishops sent the 
deputation to England"; (2) "to strengthen and improve . . . the 
intimate relations which already happily exist between the mother 
and daughter Churches, and which are the proper fruit of their 
essential unity"; (3) "to receive and communicate information and 
suggestions on the best mode of conducting missionary operations " [8]. 

The delegates were blessed beyond their hopes in their under- 
taking. They were " invariably welcomed by our American brethren.*' 
The General Convention declared that they would " aim in all proper 
ways to strengthen the intimate relations " between the two Churches, 
and that they ** devoutly recognise the hand of God in planting and 
nurturing through the Society " the Church in their country and 
" thankfully acknowledge the debt of gratitude " [9]. The action taken 
by the Society on the report of the delegation was — 

(1) To arrange for an exchange of publications. 
*(2) To express its hope that in all cases of the establishment of the 
Missions and the appointment of Bishops in territories independent of 
the British Crown, a full and friendly commimication may be kept ui* 
between the English Church Missionary Societies and the American 
Board of Missions. 

(8) To obtain the drawing up by the President of suitable forms of 
prayer " for an increase of labourers in the Lord's vineyard," and " for 
a blessing on Missionaries and their labours." (These prayers were 
extensively circulated by the two principal Missionary Societies of the 
Church, and by the representatives of other Communions also.) 

(4) To undertake the preparation of a manual for the instruction 
and guidance of its Missionaries in heathen lands. 

*(6) To refer to the Archbishop of Canterbury the question of the 
ancient Churches of the East. 

(6) To express its gratification at the success attending "the 
weekly collections in Church for ^Missionary and other charitable 
purposes in America," but to leave to the English Church the 
adoption of such measures as they may deem most expedient and 
effectual for raising funds on the Society's behalf. 

(7) To prepare a plan for securing the introductiont of Church 
emigrants to Clergy in their new homes [10]. 

It has been the privilege of the Society to be the chief instrument 
not only of planting branches of the mother Church in foreign 
parts, but also of drawing them together in closer communion. And 
although the hope expressed by the Bishop of Vermont was not 

• 2 and 5 were tbns modified «fier conference of the Society with the C.M.S. 
i The need of this wiU be seen by a perusal of pp. 818-9. 


realised for some years, it should not escape notice that it was the 
celebration of the Society*s Jubilee wliich occasioned the first suggestion 
of a Lambeth Conference [see pp. 761-2]. After the first Conference (in 
1867), in which the American Church was largely represented, a wish 
was expressed by many members of the Society to enrol the Bishops of 
that Church among the vice-presidents of the Society. This was 
found to be impracticable, and consequently the Society instituted in 

1868 an order of Associates in which persons who are not British 
subjects could be included. The Associates are not members of the 
Corporation, but hold an honorary position, with liberty to attend the 
Board meetings but without the right of votings and annually from 

1869 to the present time the Bishops of the Church in the United 
States ''in communion with the Church of England*' have been 
elected to the office — the appointment (as the House of Bishops 
declared at the General Convention of 1871) being gratefully accepted 
" with unfeigned satisfaction '* [11]. 

On three occasions since its withdrawal from the United States 
field the Society has shown its sympathy with the American Church 
by pecuniary gifts. At the reception of the two Episcopal deleeates 
by the Society in 1852 a sum of £500 was voted out of the Jiu)ilee 
Fund in aid of a plan set on foot by the Corporation of St. 
George the Martyr, New York, ** for the erection and endowment 
of a free hospital, with a chapel, jfor the temporal and spiritual benefit *' 
of the Church emigrants from England arriving at New York. 
Owing to delay in carrying out the plan the grant was not paid until 
1862, and the terms were then so modified that the money was 
" equally divided between the Anglo-American Church of St. George 
the Martyr and St. Luke's Hospital, New York " [12]. 

In 1870 the Society opened a special fund in aid of Bishop Tuttle's 
Mission to the Mormons at Salt Lake City, where there were 50,000 
English people, of whom 15,000 were baptized members of the Church, 
and in 1871 it supplemented the contributions thus raised by a grant 
of £50 towards the completion of a church and provision of school 
accommodation [18]. 

Similarly, in 1874, the Society granted £100 towards providing 
ministrations for some artisans, members of the mother Church, in 
Portland and other towns in the Diocese of Maine. The offering was 
made to Bishop Neely "as a token of brotherly and Christian 
recognition " [14], and this feeling has been reciprocated on every 
opportunity that has offered. The 171st anniversary of the Society, 
held in St. Paul's Cathedral on July 4, 1872, was distinguished by its 
being made the occasion for the public reception and first use of an 
alms-basin^ presented by the American Church to the Church of 
England, as " a slight token of the love and gratitude which " (they 
said) " we can never cease to cherish towards the heads and all the 
members of that branch of the Church Catholic from which we are 
descended, and to which we have been ' indebted,' first, for a long 
continuance of nursing care and protection, and in later years for 
manifold tokens of sympathy and affectionate regard." The gift 
originated from a visit paid to the General Convention in the previous 


October by Bishop Selwyn of Lichfield, who iinw teiulfred it, and in 
accepting it the Archbishop of C:iiiterbury said : — 

" I receive thisolTering at love from our sister Church beyond the Atlnntie, ajid 
I beg all of you wbo ore here present, aod all ChriatiaD people, to unite iu yoar 
prnjers to Jdmigbt; Ood that the rjehest bleaaing of Hig Holy Spirit may deECeDd 
upon our brethren who thus eipresH to ua their Christian love : that lor ages to 
come these two Churehcs. and these two great nfttioos, united in one worship of 
one Lord, in one Faith, as the; are sprung from one hlood.niBy be the inetroments, 
nnder the protention of our gracious Redeemer, ol b p reading His Gospeltbrongh out 
tbe world and securing the blessings of Christian ciTilisatioo lor the human 

At the 150th anniversary of St. John's Church, ProvidLmce (1873), 
Bishop Clark of BhoJe Island said that not less tlian glS.OOO or i>-20,00U 
were contributed by the Society to tliat pariah alone, and not much 
less than $100,000 on tbe whole to the churches in Rhode Island. 
The seed bo freely cast "seemed to yield a very inadequate return, and 
the wonder is that the hand of the sower did not fail and the faith and 
patience of our friends . . . become exhausted." But " in these latter 
days an aniplehar\-eBt has been reaped." (Thooffering on this occasion; 
£100, was given to the Society.) Within the previons ten years 
(1863-73J St. John's Parish (besides gifts to colleges and other insti- 
tutions) coiitiibuted jfI97,65a to Churcli work, induing ,<(20,i69 to 
Foreign MissioDB [10]. . 

In connection with tlie assembling of the Bishops for tlie Lambeth 
Conference in 1878 a Missionary Oonforenoe was held by the Society 
in London on June 28, on which occasion Bisliop Littlejohn of Long 
Island said : — 

"For nearly ttie whole of the eighteenllt century thia Society fvimWhed the imln 
jxmil of ronlacl. Iho only lind of tyrnfathy, between the Church of England anrl 
her chit drcmcaltered oi-er the waite places of the. New Wmld. The Church hereelf, 
BB bU o( UB now remember with sorrow, was not only iniiiEferent to their wauta, 
but. under a malign State intlnence, was positively hostile to the adoption ol all 
practioaL mettaurea calculated to meet them. Jf ii. ther^ore, vrith joy and 
graliltuic thai we, the representatives of the Anenean ChareH, ijrett tht venrrabtx 
Sodety on thia occation a3 the first Guilder of our etxlesiastical foandatioHt, uful 
lay ai her feet the golden sheaves of the hanieet from her planting. And whatever 
the tribute to be paid ber by tlie moat prosperous of the. coIoniaL Churches to-day 
It cannot exceed in thankful love and eameat goodwill that which we are here to 
offer. Verily in ihat comparatively narrow ooast belt along the Atlantio, which, in 
the eighteenth century boundeil the Obristian endeavours of this Sooiety, the little 
one bos become a thousand, and the siiiitl) one a etrnng nation. . . . And this, 
thank Qod. is the return we make this day for tbe seed sown by this Society b«dide 
some waters in the New World more than a centary ago. It ipeaks its own moral, 
and with an emphasis which not eren the most eloquent tongue eould rival- ■ ■ . 
May Ood speed the work of this Society in the fntnteaein the p»5t. ThegreatcBt, 
the most enduring, the moat tmitful of all Missionary organisations of Befornted 
Chriatendom, may it continue to be in the years to come, as in those -which are 
gone, the workshop of Churches, the treasury of needy souls all over the world, a 
chosen instrument o( the Holy Spirit, for upbuilding and guiding the Missionx of 
(he Holy Catholic Cliurch in all lands and among all peoples which as yet know 
not God and Jesus Oirist whom He baa sent to be the Saviour of the world" [17]. 

In thia year the American Bishops were formally thanked by the 
Society for " the hearl^ sympathy" which they had shown with its 
work during their acnoum in England, " and for the valuable services 
which they have rendered to its cause " [18J. 


In 1882 the DioceBan Convocation of Central Pennaylvania decided 
that a Church being erected at DouglaBsville should be recognised 
OS a memorial of the Society's "loving oare" [19]. [See aJso Hesolution 
of New York Diocesan Convention, 1872 [20].] 

The Centenary of the American Episcopate being an eveut which 
could not pass without the Society's congratulations, the following 
resolution was adopted in 188S : — 

" Thai tbe Societ; . . ■ Diinillul of the privilege which it has enjofed BiDCe ilE 
JDCorparation m the yeni 1701, of sending clergjiuen to miniBter in America, has 
great plcasnre in coDi^atulating the Protestant Epiacapal Oharob o( tbe United 
States on the approaching completion of a centurj since the consecration ol Dr. 
Sesbar; to the ollice of a Bishop, and the Bociet; hopes that the work of that 
Church, which has been bo Hignallj blcBt during the intpifentng jsars, may grow 
and prosper and continue to receive that highest blessing from God which has 
hitherto been vouchsafed to it " [1!1]. 

The resolution was conveyed to America by Bishop Thorold of 
Rochester, withu covering letter from the President (Archbishop Ben- 
Bon), and the General Convention acknowledged it in these terms ;— 

" At the close of tbe (Sret century of our existence aa a National 
Church, we aclinowledge with deep and unfeigned gratitude that what- 
ever this Church has been in the past, is now, or M'iQ be in the future, 
is largely due, under tiod, to the long- continued nursing care and 
protection of the venerable Society. 

" In espreseing this conviction we seem to ourtelves to be speaking 
not only for those who are now assembled in tbe great Missionary 
Cooncil of this Church, but for many generations who have passed 
from their eartUy labours to the rest of Paradise. We cannot forget 
that if the Church of England has become the mother of Churches, 
even as England herself has hucome the Mother of nations, the 
generous and tinwenried efforts of the Body which you now represent 
have been chiefly instrumental in producing these wooderft:! results. 

" That tlie venerable Society may continue to receive the abundant 
blessing of our Heavenly Father,and may bring forth more and more fruit 
to the Glory of God, and the spread of the Kingdom of His dear Son. 
is the sincere and earnest prayer of every Churchman in tbe United 
States" f-^j;. 

The Bicentenary of tbe Society was the occasion of many siuiiiar 
expressions of gratitude.* The Bishops of Albany and Kentucky ,t who 
were delegated by the American House of Bishops, took a prominent 
part in the celebration in London in 1!)00, the former preaching at the 
opening service in St, Paul's Cathedral on Saturday, June 16, and in 
Westminster Abbey on the following day, when the Bishop of Kentucky 
preached in St. Paul's. At the great meeting in Exeter Hall, on 
June 18, tbe Bishop of Albany presented from '■ The Domestic and 
Foreign Missionary Society " of the American Church an address,t in 
which the general feeling was thus happily summed up : — 

"Thankful as the American Church is lo-da? to the Mother Chnroh ot 
England for all •- her nursing care and protection ' in the centuries that are piist, 
the moat Usling debt of gratitude of all is owed to the Society for the Propagation 
of thfl Qo^el in Foreign Parts " [23]. [Fur SIntieliral Sitm-nary ii 

* Soe oddrcsoo^ froru the "MiHsionary Council* ot the Americmn Cbprcbi uid 
vuiooa Diocaiwn CoHTantious. 

t The Bishop ot Kentnoky, utith the Bisbopa of Misaiasippi and Miinow, «i^w^ ^»|^ 
port in Che Socioty'a AnniFerBary in 1887, held «l the tjma ol (.ta lAnv>i»i\.\i C.™.^w~*" 
lbeBi»bopn/.WiMiflsippipr«uehing Iha AnniTBCwry Sermon in SI. ¥»»V«\3^*V 





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mia bued od Infamutloii oiiitulnid in the Boctctj'i Ithmy, 




This designation includes Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the Canadian 
Dominion — the provinces of which are Nova Scotia, Prince Edward 
Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, North- West 
Territories, and British Columbia. Before 1867 Canada embraced 
only the two provinces of Lower Canada, or Quebec, and Upper 
Canada, or Ontario ; but in that year began the union of the various 
Colonies, and by 1880 the whole of them, excepting Newfoundland 
and Bermuda, had been consolidated into ** the Dominion of Canada." 
In each case a share of the Society's attention has been accorded 
almost as soon as needed ; but, excepting in Newfoundland and Nova 
Scotia, there was little British colonisation until at the close of the 
American Revolution. For many years after withdrawal from the 
United States the first seven Colonies named above, excepting 
Bermuda, constituted the chief field of the Society's operations, 
which, as will be shown, have been extended from the Atlantic to the 



Newfoundland. — The island was discovered by John and Sebastiau Cabot (acting 
under a CommiBsion from Henry YIl.) in 1497. First seen on the festival of St. John 
tlie Baptist (June 24), the site of tlie ratnre capital was designated St. John's ; but the 
island itself, called Prim<i Vista by the Venetians, took and retained the English name 
of Newfoundland. Nearer to Europe than any other part of America, the report of its 
prolific fisheries soon attracted attention, and the Portuguese, Spanish, and French 
resorted thither as early as 1500. Unsuccessful attempts to colonise tlie island were 
made by Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Humphrey Gilbert in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
and by others ; but in 1628 Sir G. Calvert, afterwards Lord Baltimore, obtained the 
grant of a large tract of land in the south-east of the island, with a view to forming a 
Homan Catholic settlement. Colonists were sent from Ireland in 1(>.S4, and from Eng- 
land twenty years later. The French established themselves at Placentia about 1()*20, and 
for a long period there was strife between them and the English settlers. At one time 
Placentia was besieged by the English (1C92) ; at others (1694 and 1708) St. John's was 
captured by the French. By the Peace of Utrecht the exclusive sovereignty of the 
island was m 1718 ceded to Great Britain, subject to certain fishery rights reserved to 
France, who also retained, and by the Treaty of Paris (1708) has continued in possession 
of, the small islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. 

In 1701 the English settlements in Newfoundland contained a fixed population of 
7,000, and in the summer about 17,000 people. For their spiritual welfare no provision 
existed beyond that afforded by the Bev. John Jackson, who, ahortly before the Society 
was founded, had been sent to St. John's, the only place where there was any public 
exercise of religion [1]. 

Ik April 1708 the Society took into consideration " the deplorable 
condition of Mr. Jackson,*' ** a painful minister in Newfoundland," who 
" had gone upon a Mission into those parts with a wife and 8 children 



upon the encouragement of a private BubscniJlton of £60 p. an. for 
S years," which bad come to an end. On May '11 he was adopted as a 
Missionary by the Society, £'S0 being voted him " by way of benevo- 
lence," and £50 per annum for three yeai-s as salary \li]. For lack 
of subsistence be was recalled by the Bishop of London in 1705. 
While returning he was shipwrecked and lost all his effects, and in 
his half-starved condition he experienced fresh acts of benevolence 
from the Society until, by its representations,* the Queen gave him a 
living in England in 1709 [3]. 

Soon after Mr. Jackson's retrall the Rev. Jacob RicEt was sent to 
succeed him by the Bishop of London, and Mr. Brown, with some 
other merchants trading to Newfoundland, memorialised tlie Society 
for three additional Missionaries, " promising that the people of the 
country " should " do something for them " [i]. But the Society did 
nob renew its connection with the island until 1726, when it began to 
assist the Bcv. Uf.nry Jones, a clergyman already settled at Bona- 
vista. where the people were " poor and unable to maintain their 
minister," and where he had established a Eichool " for the instruction 
of all the poor children." In 17!1U be reported that "the case of 
their church " was nearly finished, and " tbat a gentleman of London " 
had given them "a neat set of vessells for the Commonion, and a 
handsome stone ITont." By 1734 his congregation was " in a flourish- 
ing condition." Since his settlement he had baptized 114 persons, 17 
at Trinity. His ministrations were extended in 172ti to " a neigh- 
bouring harbour about 14 leagues from Bonavista," where the people 
were " very desirous of a Minister of the Church of England " [fi]. 

The inhabitants of Trinity Bay having expressed a similar desire 
and undertaken to build a church and contribute ;£80 a year, the 
Society added a like sum, and sent the Rev. R. Eillfatbiok there in 
17S0 [C]. Failing to obtain suftictenl local support, he was trans- 
ferred to New Windsor, New York, in 1782, but only to esjterience 
greater poverty, and to return in 1734 with "ladness to Trinity Bay, 
where the generahty of the people were " zealous and notwithstanding 
the great coldness of the winter," attended " the publick worship " [7]. 

In 1737 they " gratefully and humbly " thanked the Society " for 
thoir great favonr in sending a Missionary to be their sph'itual Director 
according to the usage of the Chiu-oh of England," and entreated an 
increased allowance for Mr. Killpatrick (then visiting England), " that 
together with their sniall contributions he may be able to Gubsiet his 
family among them." This request was supported by Conmiodoro 
Temple West, who " in one word, the most comprehensivB of all 
others," characterised Mr. Killpatrick as " a good Christian' [10]. 

■aid Ifi. JuJcxnn ib ui objecC of the Sooietj'g Smoor and compasaioi 

thorein ■aSsnid nmiic niireanonablo faurr^Khipii, and bein); a mui of good doBurl 
worthy to be recoioemleil li, lliu fnvoui of the Lord Keep " '" ' 
BsBfd the Bociety'a 
A Dect'ssarj to secui 

iH the Bav. 1. Fordyce. who laboured at St, Jnh 
uFk of Bulmiitteace he received a f^toity of idO Ire 
9, iLQd nue appoiatcd tu South Carolina {SfiJ. 

Ol opuiion in3b uio 

olatiom, and haTing . 

at good dosert he ia ^^^J 

;ted to comply with ^^^^H 

I of HiMionariUB [Sj. ^^^H 

1 from 1T30 to ITaB ^^^H 

the Sotiely for hin I 


Aided by a gratuity of i£10, Mr. Killpatriok went back to oontinue, to 
his death in 1741, his work at Trinity and at Old Perlican, 80 miles 
distant, where in 1785 he had begun service ** with near 200 
hearers" [11]. 

His successor, the Bev. H. Jones (who ten years before had 
officiated at Trinity) found there in 1742 ** a large and regular 
congregation*' [12]. In the summer there would be 600 people 
gathered there, ''all of whom sometimes attended the church " [18] 
— a habit which was kept up. "Poor people! they declare them- 
selves overjoy'd at my coming," wrote the Bev. J. Balfour in 1764 ; 
'' they all in General attend Church, even the Boman Catholics : 
But I cannot say, how much they are to be depended upon." In 
the winter men, women, and children used to retire into the woods 
and *' reside in lit'tle Hutts until seasonable weather/' and of the 
few famihes remaining in the harbour scarce any of them would con- 
descend to board the Missionary, even for ready money, lest his 
*' presence should check some favourite vice." Nevertheless they built 
him ** a Good Convenient new House " in the next year at a cost of 
i^l80 sterling [14]. Some parts of the bay were " lawless and bar- 
barous " (such as Scylly Cove) ; and at Hart's Content Mr. Balfour 
baptized a woman a<^6d 27 '' who was so ignorant that she knew not 
who made the world, much less who redeemed it," until he taught 
her [16]. 

On one occasion (in 1769), while returning from visiting his flock, 
Mr. Balfour was ** attacted by a German Surgeon " and a merchant's 
clerk. " I received several blows," he said, " This I did not in the 
least resent, but bore patiently, as our order must not be strikers." 
A few months later the Governor visited the Bay, and Mr. Balfour was 
offered " every satisfaction "he " chuse to desire." ** To advance the 
Beauty of Forgiveness " he ** chose to make it up, upon promise of 
Good Behaviour for the Future." However, the Governor obhged 
the offenders to ask Mr. Balfour's pardon ** very submissively, and to 
pay each a small fine ... to teach them better manners ; and very 
handsomely give them to know that they ought to be extremely 
thankfull for being so easily acquitted" [16]. 

Gradually Mr. Balfour ** civilized a gi'eat many of the middle-rank, 
and brought several of them off, from their heathenish ways, to a sense 
of themselves," so that in 1772 his congregation included nearly 
forty faithful communicants [17]. But it was still necessary for him to 
be " delicate in burying anybody . . . without knowing how they die." 
Once he ** stopped a corpse to be looked upon by the people at the 
funeral, in the Churchyard, where violent marks of murder were dis- 
covered." He took care that the man " should not be buried, nor stole 
away, that prosecution might not be stopped. The neighbourhood 
upon inquest brought in the verdict, a horrible and cruel murder." For 
this the man's wife was convicted at St. John's and condemned to be 
executed. The appointment of civil magistrates* followed with good 
results [18]. The Rev. J. Clinch, in making a circuit of the Bay in 

* Several of the Newfoundlaiid MisBionaries had the oiBce of magistrate addeil to 
their duties, e.g., the Bev. £. liongman of St. John's in 1754, the Rev. S. Cole of Fenyland and 
Bay Bulls in 1702, and the Rev. L. Anspoch for Conception Bay in 1802. The first- 
named was appointed in place of "Mr. Wm. Keene, the Chief Justice," who was 
** murdered for the sake of his mf)ney '* by ten " Irish Roman Catholicks '* [18<i]. 



1793, repoi'tud "'a Bpirit of Clirisiinnity " prevailing "through the 
whole": in moat of tlie settlcmenta aoiiie well-diaposed person read 
the Church Service twice every Sunday to the inhabitants aaaembled 
at Botno house, and at Scylly Cove a neat church had been erected by 
the people [19]. The Society was moved by the representationa of 
the Rev. Thomab and the inhabitants of St, John's to re- 
establish Church ministrations in the capital city in 1744. Mr. 
Walbonk was a chaplain of H.M.8. Sutherland, and while at St. John's 
in 1742 he ministered for four months to a congregation of 500 people 
in " a large church built of Pirr and epnice wood by the inhabitants 
in the year 1720." The buildinE was well furnished, and a poor fisher- 
man of Petty Harbour liad recently given " a decent silver Pattun and 
Chalice with gold." For many years the New England traders had 
been "endeavouring to persuade the parishioners of St. John's to 
apply to the Presbytery there for dissentin/j teachers, but they in- 
flueno'd by a great love for the Liturgy and Doctrine of the Church o/ 
England," had "rejected all their proposals and chose rather to 
continae in ignorance than to be instructed by Presbyterian Preachers." 
On their petitioning the Society for "an orthodox Episcopal clergyman," 
and guaranteeing i.'40 a year and a house for him, the Eev. W. 
Peaseley was transferred there from Bonavista. One of his first 
objects on arrival (1744) was to provide a school, for want of which a 
large number of children attended o. papist one [20]. His congre- 
gation, already numerous, continued to increase daily, insomuch that 
the church could "scarce contain them," and they hebavcd "with 
much decency and devotion." " One of the Modern Methodists " took 
upon him " to pray and preach publickly " at St. John's in 1746, but 
gained not one follower [21]. Through the labours of Mr. Peabi^i^i 
(1743-9) and Mr. Lanoman (1752-82) " the face of religion " became 
very much altered for the better, the people in general regularly 
attending service twice on Sundays [22]. 

By " the surrender of the garrison and all the inhabitants of Bt. 
John's, prisoners of war to the King of France" in 1762, Mr. 
IiANQUAN and his people were reduced to great distress. During the 
French occupation (which lasted from June 27 to September 16) most 
of " the Protefitant families " were sent out of the place- the death 
of Mr, Langnian's wife and his own illness preventing his removal, 
but not the plundering of his house— and the offices of religion were 
performed by four Romish priests [28, 24]. The French made a second 
attempt on the coast, under Admii'al Richerie, in 17U6. Landing at 
Bay Bulls, they proceeded through the woods half-n-ay to Petty 
Harbour. Discouraged at the impracticable character of the country, 
they then returned, and burned the Church and the RomaJi Cathohc 
Chapel, with every house in the harbour except a log hnt. The 
owners of this, a family named Nowlan, "owed the preservation of 
their cabin to the commiseration excited in the French marine by the 
sight of their infant twins, whom Nowlan held on his knee, when tbey 
broke in and put the affrighted mother to flight" [25J. Under the 
Rev. J. Harris, a new Church was opened at St. John's on October JsJ, 
1800, the Society contributing iliOO and King George HI. 200 guineas 
towards its erection. The Society's contribution was oonsidered by 
the people " as so unexampled an act of liberaUty" that they knew 



not "bow to espiesa" their gratitade "through the cbanntl of a 
letter" [26]. 

Still more notewoitbj instances of Royal favour were shown in the 
case of Placeutia. At this place the Rev, R. KiLLrATEiCK was detained 
three months on his return to Trinity Bay in 1734, and having 
preached six Sundays and baptized 10 children, he reported that the 
people of Placentia were " very much in want of a Miniater," 
" being regardless of all religion and a great many of them wholly 
abandoned to atheism and Infidelity " [27J, 

In 1786 the Society received a petition from the principal in- 
habitants, recommended by Prince Wilbam Henry (afterwards 
Wilham IV.) then Surrogate to the Governor of Newfoundland, setting 
forth the distressed condition of Placentia- for want of a, clergyman, 
and promising " all the assistance iu their power " for his support. 
The movement was mamly due to the personal exertions of the Prince, 
who contributed SO guineas towards building a church,* and " visited 
and exhorted the people fi'om house to bouse." Two years later, 
having left the Colony, be sent out a handsome set of Communion 
plate for use in the Church. The Rev. J, Harris, who was then 
placed in charge, found not more than 120 Protestants in the district ; 
nearly all the people (2,000 in winter and 8,000 in summer) being 
Roman Catholics. During nearly forty years' vacancy of the Mission 
in the next century the church fell into decay, hut on the representation 
of the Society in 1610 it was restored by tbe mimificence of Queen 
Adelaide, on tbe assurance that tbe " regular performance of Divine 
Service in tbe Church . . . and other religious ministrations in this 
district " would be secured for tbe future [28]. 

To Harbour Grace and Carbonear tbe Rev. L. CouaHLAii was 
appointed in 17(J(5 on the petition of the inhabitants, who had en- 
gaged to maintain him, but were unable to do so. Many of the 
Irish, who were "all Papists," attended cburcb when he preached in 
Irish; though for so doing numbers who went "annually to Ireland 
to confession " were put " under heavy penance." He also established 
a school, and baptized in one year no less than 68 adults; and by ITIi'J 
vice had been reduced and he had a large congregation and 160 com- 
municants [30]. Under the Rev. J. Balfoob the last number in- 
creased to 200 in 1777 [91]. But tbe generality of the inhabitants of 
this and his former Mission of Trinity Bay were, he said, " a bar- 
barous, perfidious, cruel people and divided into many sectaries" [32], 
Ou visiting Carbonear on Jiew Year's Day 1778, " with an intent to 
perform Divine Service to a congregation of 200 people, he found tbe 
door of the Cburcb shut purposely against liim. He sent for the key 
which was m)t delivered and so be withdrew, restraining the people 
from doing violence to the Cburcli on his account " [33]. Again, in 
Jannary 1785, whilst he was officiating in tlie same church, "one 
Clements Noel pointed to John Stretton, who thereupon suddenly 
mounted the pulpit behind Mr. Balfour ; who for fear of a riot, thought 
it best quietly to leave tbe place, though much hurt " by the "insult 
. . . offeredto the whole Chm'ob o[England"[34]. " III treatment " 

ei'lt.ilh.> cim-ecmtion [? dedipation] of the Cliurth wlii'n built," (he 


marked the remainder of his ministry, which was brooght to an end 
in 1792 by the compassion uf the Society [85]. His succesaors (Rev. 
G. J. Jbnner. 1795-9 [3li] aiirl Rev. L. Anspach, 1802-12) met with 
more favour, nnd the latter was privileged to witneBS a reformation 
denied to others. He too found the people degraded ; for the children, 
of whom tliere were S.OOO, were " most of them accustomed from 
their infancy to cursing and swearing . . . and to vice of every _ 
feind" [37]. But three years later (1806) he could not "apeak too 
highly of the kindness " he ret-eivetl " from every class of inhabitants" 
in his Mission, " and of their attention to religious duties " [38]. In 
1810, ft year after Mr. Balfour's death, he wrote of Bay de Verd : — 

"It iBplcBBing Id observe tbe abange which has Inken p)ace ot lute in inoBt 
parts ol thnt exteusiva didtrict including a population ot at leust 10,001) souU. ■ . 
Where Ihe Lord's Day was spent in profanation and vice, the Gospel soaroelj 
known, and tbe education at ohitdrpn greatly neglected, tba people now meet in an 
ordert.v manner, and schools are opened for the instruction of childrsn in reading 
1it(t Church Calechiam . . . improvements which could not have taken place bat 
for the liberal assistance from the Society. The unprecedented demand for the 
fitfrrhotfol Bibles and Prayer Books . . nhic^ noc; prevails from every part ot the 
Bay is a proof that Providence haa wrought a bleiaed change " (Stl]. 

In the discharge of their arduous and perilous duties the Mis- 
sionaries did not lack sympathy and support* from tlie Society, hut 
their number was too few to grapple with the work before them. 
At Plaeentia, St. Mary's, Fortune Bay, and Tre()aflsuy there were in 
1784 many EngUsh settlers who bad " never heard the word of God 
preached among them for BO yeara past," and the northern part of 
Trinity Bay to Cape St. John's was "equally destitute of the op- 
portunitieB of public worship " [41]. In one part or another the same 
state of things continued to prevail far into the present century. The 
Bev. J. Harris of 8t. John's, visiting Lamolm (? Lamaline) in 1807, 
baptized 75 persons, "one-third of whom were adults and many of 
fliem very old." He was " the first clergyman the majority of them 
ever bavt and the only one who had ever been in that place" [42]. 
On Iris way to Twillingate in 1817 the Eev. J. Lrioh visited Fogo, 
"^rhere he found a small Church, and the Service regularly performed 
hy an old man aged 78," who had a salary of i'lS from Government. 
" Mr. Leigh was the first clergyman that ever appeared on the island. 
The Children had been baptized by this venerable man and it was not 
deemed adviseable to re-baptize tbeni " [43]. Lay agents had long been 
employed by the Society with good effect in Newfoundland, and in 
182r it adopted ineaaureB for tbe appointment of Catechists or School- 
masters in the outharbours, for conducting schools and reading 
service and sermons on Sundays fJ I]. 

But an organisation without a head must necessarily be feeble, and 
especially was this the case in Newfoundland. Until 1827 the Anglican 
Church there had been entirely without episcopal ministrations, and 
up to 1881 (when the Society secured the appointment of an Eccle- 
siastical Commissary, the Bev. J. Leioh) it had been " altogether 

T>aria; the period lTKB-90 the salnriee o[ the Mi~hii 
nnlll in Che latter year the Bllmiriini^> tn each jnnn wns : 
bBcame n^eewary lo rnise tliie mint to £9.MI \vr iLmmn 
Jiilin'i (40J. Tbe average ikiiriiiul iillcmunce [runi tlie Suuiel 

nriefl were thrioe a 



deprived even of the very fonns of Cliurcb Government" [46]. In 
1827 Bishop J. Inolis of Nova Sootia visited the island, which two 
years before had been constituted part of his See [46]. He was 
received ** with every possible mark of respect," and among his 
''earliest visitors" was the Boman Catholic Bishop, Dr. Scallan. 
Newfoundland then contained over 70,000 inhabitants, of whom one- 
half were Boman Catholics, and '* the larger part of the remainder '* 
*' members of the Established Church." A large portion of the people 
were of English descent, and it was " only owing to the want of timely 
means for their instruction in the faith of their forefathers that a 
number of these " had " united themselves with the Church of Bome." 
So little regard had been paid to the internal improvement of the 
island, that in every part of it the paths were, until a short time 
previous to the Bishop's visit, ** in the same wretched state in which 
they were more than a century " before, and '* the people seemed 
totallv ignorant of the facility with which they could improve them." 
But tne English Clergy were doing much to smooth the way to church. 
Archdeacon Coster, by his personal influence and regular superinten- 
dence, had '' induced his congregation to make three miles of excellent 
road at Bonavista." Others did the same, and the Bishop obtained a 
promise from the different settlements in Trinity Bay that, under the 
Rev. .W. Bullock's direction, " a good bridle-road" should be made 
** to connect all the places " that " could be visited by a Clergyman."* 
But while ancient paths remained for improvement, an ancient race to 
which those paths might once have led had almost entirely passed 

The " Boeothick, or red, or wild Indians " had made the banks of the 
Exploits Eiver their retreat, and on his visit the Bishop saw many of 
their traces. When Cabot first landed in Newfoundland he took away 
three of "this unhappy tribe," and from that day they had always 
" had reason to lament the discovery of their island by Europeans." 
English and French, and Micmacs and Mountainers, and Labradors 
and Esquimaux shot at the B(Bothi^.k as they shot at the deer. 

The several attempts made towards their civilisation had proved 
utterly fruitless, except perhaps in the case of a young woman who 
with her sister and mother had been found in a starving condition by 
a party of furriers and brought into Exploits in 1823. Since the 
death of her mother and sister Mr. Peyton, the principal magistrate of 
the district, had retained Shanawdithit in his family. A Mr. Cormack 
was now (1827) " engaged in a search for the remnant of the race," 
but it was feared that Shanawdithit was "the only survivor of her 
tribe." The Bishop arranged for her instruction with a view to bap- 
tism and confirmation. 

As regards the settlers, it was found that " in all places where a 
school had been estabhshed for any time, the good effect was prominent." 

* How well this movement was followed np wiU be soen from the report of Arch- 
deacen Wix in 18S0 : ** On the road to Torbay, I was several days employed, before the 
setting-in of the winter, in company with a Roman Catholic clergyman, with nearly 100 
of our united flocks, who most cordially gave several days of grataitons laboar to the 
repair of bridges, the draining of swamps, and other necessary improvements in the 
ragged path between that place and the capital. We may b^eve, tlubt one of the 
greatest inducements to their undertaking this laboar was the superior facility which it 
would afford their clergy for visiting whem " [48]. 


Many settlements unsupplied with clergy kad indeed been saved or 
rescued from degeneration by the employment of schoolmasters. Thus 
the once lawless and barbarous SeyDy Cove was now *' a very neat little 
sefctlemeni,*' whose inhabitants with few exceptions were members of 
the Church. Since 1777 Mr J. Thomas had laboured here with 
results visible in adjoining stations also. 

On August 24 the Bishop landed at Halifax, ^* after an absence of 
three months during which, with constant fatigue and occasional 
peril," he had ** traversed nearly 5,000 miles," consecrated 18 churches 
and 20 burial grounds, and confirmed 2,3G5 persons, in the discharge 
of which duties he had " much comfort and encouragement " [47 j. 
It was, however, evident that a Bishop of Nova Scotia could do 
little to supply the wants of the Church in Newfoundland. On the 
other hand, the Roman Catholics had their Bishops and priests, who 
were zealous in intruding into the English Missions. Consequently it 
was to the Society *^ a melancholy consideration that in a Protestant 
population of many thousands " there were ** not more than nine clergy- 
men of the Church of England," that these were mainly dependent for 
their scanty support upon the contributions of the benevolent in tliis 
country, while it was *• in evidence that a great majority of the people 
would gladly avail themselves of their ministrations, await with anxiety 
their aj^proach," and in the absence of such were ** not unfrequently 
driven m despair to seek for rehgious consolation in the superstitious 
observances of a Popish priesthood " [49]. 

In the more remote parts no religious ministrations whatever were 
available beyond what the people themselves supplied. Such Arch- 
deacon Wix found to be the case in visiting the long-neglected 
Southern Coast in 1880 and 1835. In some of the settlements, as at 
Cornelius Island and Bichard's Harbour, two men* had long 
been in the habit of reading Divine Service to their neighbours 
regularly on Sundays. In other places, as in Bay St. George, 
** there were acts of profligacy practised ... at which the Micmac 
Indians ** expressed to the Archdeacon *' their horror and disgust, " 
and he '*met with more feminine delicacy ... in the wigwams of 
the Micmac and Canokok Indians than in the tilts of many of our own 
people "[60]. 

The chief obstacle to the progress of the Anglican Church m the 
island was removed by the division of the unmanageable Diocese of 
Nova Scotia in 1889, when the Rev. A. G. Spencer became the first 
Bishop of the See of Newfoundland including the Bermudas [51]. At 
the outset the small number of his Clergy, the poverty of the settlers, 
the rigour of the cHmate, all combined to cast a shade over the 
state and prospects of Beligion in his diocese. Little could be ex- 
pected from Colonial resources. Whatever was to be done could be only 
b^ means of funds from the mother country, and there was no proba- 
bility of obtaining these except through the Society. In this emergency 
the Societv, histead of insisting, as on ordinary occasions, upon local 
provision being made towards the suppoit of a Missionary, offered to 
allow stipends of j£200 a year to clergymen willing to proceed to New- 
foundland, also adequate salaries to such persons as the Bishop might 

• John Hardy, a former parishioner of " the Rev. Mr. Jolliffe of Poole," had done 
this for nearly 40 years in Newfonndlnnd. 


Relect in the island. The (^rvices of eight additional clergymen ^ 
securofl immediately '52\ and sach was the progress during Bishop 
Spencer*s episcopate that in 1844 there were in Newfoandland S7 
clergymen (nearly a threefold increase), 65 chnrches and other plaees 
of worship, and 80.000 Church memhers. A farther advanee had 
been made by the diWsion of the island into deaneries, the multipli- 
cation of parochial schools, and the foundation of a Theological 
Training Institution and a Diocesan Church Society — the object of the 
latter being to extend the Church and ultimately to establish it an 
the basis of self-support. One merchant contributed liberallj ** to the 
building of five churches in his vicinity and promised to complete a 
tower and steeple for the church at Twillingate at the cost of £700 from 
his private funds." A planter of the same place '* bequeathed his whole 
substance amounting to £2,000' to the parent Society (S.P.G.), to 
whose ministers he . . . felt himself indebte<l during fifty years for all 
the comforts of our blessed religion *' * [oS]. 

On Bishop Spencku's translation to the See of Jamaica he was 
succeerlud (in 1844) by Bishop Edward Feild. Previous to his leaving 
Enghmd the Rov. R. Eden, afterwards Primus of Scotland, presented 
him with a Church ship. In the Ilawk the Bishop passed several 
months yearly, visiting the settlements along the coast, binding np 
the broken, bringing again the outcasts, seeking the lost, and in every 
way proving himself a shepherd to his flock. In places possessing 
no building suitable for the purpose, the vessel was used for Divine 
Service, thus becoming in the fullest sense of the word a ** Church 
ship." t 

In recording his first impressions of the Diocese tlie Bishop said : 
** Never, I suppose, could there be a country where our Blessed Lord's 
words more truly and aflfectingly apply — *the harvest is truly plen- 
teous, but the labourers are few.' . . . Never did any countr}' more 
emphatically adopt your Scriptural motto, Traiisiens adjuva nos " [55]. 

On the Western and Southern Coasts the religious condition of the 
people was " distressing in the extreme " — thousands of Church people 
were scattered "as sheep without a shepherd," and the Bishop was 
** continually solicited, oven with tears, to provide some remedy or 
relief for this wretched destitution of all Christian privileges and means 
of grace." 

Measures were at once adopted by him with a view to raising the 
necessary funds by local effort, and every Church member in the 
Colony was urged to contribute 5s, a year to the General Church 
Fund [50]. 

In tcmdering the S.P.G. ** a renewed expression of . . . gratitude for 
the many invaluable bonefits " conferred by it " during nearly a century 
and a half, upon the Church in Newfoundland," the Diocesan Church 
Society in 1H49 expressed their belief that there was ** hardly a church 

* A limilar b;>qaoHt wan nuule at Twilliiij^atu in 1830 by " a boat's master," who after 
providing* for placinji^ the Ton Oommiuidments and the Creed in the Clmrdi there, left 
the rest of hip property to tho Society ** as the most likely to spend his money ... to 
the Khiry of God " [64). 

t Tho Hrt fok waH suiwrsodtid in 1SG8 by tho Star ; and the latter, which was wrecked 
on the Wont ('Oa«(t of Newfonudhind in Aui^nnt 1871, was replaced by tha Lavrock (73 
tons), presented by Lieut. Carling, then of the Royal Engineers, but who subjteqttently 
■erred for many years as a Soldier of tho Cross in Newfoundland. 

or parsonage- ho II ae in the Culuuy, towtti'da the ei'eitioii at which the 
venerable yooiety has not contributed " [57]- 

In 1848 the Bisho]! m,\de a visit to Labrador, the Northern part of 
which, commencing at Blanc Sablon, ia included in the Dioceae of New- 
foundland, and the southeiii iu the Dioceae of Quebec. Ilis voyage, 
which extended to Sandwich Bay, was one of discovery, no Bishop or 
clergyman of the Engliah Church having " ever been along this coast 
before," yet the inhabitanta were "almost all professed members of 
our Church and of English deacent." Included among tfaem were 
inany'Anglo-Eaijuimaux,"" also three diatinct Indian tribea—MicmacB, 
Mountaineera, and Esquimaus. The first two tribes were mostly Koman 
Catholics, but the Esquimaus owed their instmction and conversion 
to the Moravian Miasionaries.t The Bishop did not know " whether 
to be most pleased or perplexed by tJie earnest anxions desire of thu 
people to have a Clergyman among them." 

Daring his visit several Eaquimauxt were "admitted into the 
Church and married" [58]. 

On bia return &om Labrador the Bishop appealed to the Society 
for help in stationing three Missionaries there, each of whom " would 
have to visit nearly 100 miles of coast, and be the shepherd of scattered 
flocks." The Society at once guaranteed a grant for five years. In 
acknowledgment thereof the Bishop said (Nov. 23, 1&46) : 

" The Society's protuiee ot asaUtaucB is, as I BUppoxe it usually is, the first to 
oheerand enconrage mo. 1 have aa yet received no ceplj from the merthanla and 
per«ons more diiectly iuterestel in, and more respoDsilile for, tbe wrUbeing and 
weUdoing of tbe inliBbiUntB and fishers of that desolate iliore. The Chiiroh b; 
hei handiDaid is tbe Grat to care tor aud tbe first to help them. But now where 
are the . . . Misnionaries to make o( good effect, with God's bleasing, tho Sodety'a 
liberality?" [61.! 

Two men were anon forthcoming, the Rev. A. Gifpokd being 
plaued at Forteau in 1H49, where he laboured 10 years, and thii Rev. 
H. P. DisNiiiY at Battle Harbour in IHoO, Theii' first year's labours 
showed results by no means small. Mr. OtSbrd wrote : " There is a 
ilegree of simplicity and boldnesB in the increasing devotion of some 
of my people, which hiunan expectation could never have presumed 
upon in so short a time nor human endeavours ever deserve." In the 
summer &Ir. Disney sailed or rowed in a whaleboat many hundred miles, 
and daily was " incessantly occupied with teaching and preaching, 
visiting the sick, dispensing medicines. Sec." The number of English- 
men married to Esquimaux women was " very considerable," and this 
liSid prepareil the way for spreading Christianity among tbe nativea. 
The Esquimaux women and children who had been baptized during 
tbe Biahop's visit in 1848 were " anxious to receive instruction," and 

* " In tbe race o! miied blood, uc ADglo-Ewiuiranni, the Indi«n uhuBctetisliicH veij 
much diuppesj, and the children ore both bvely and comsly " [BS]. 

t The Moravian Mission in Labrador da(«a from ITTO. In ISaO it could reckon 
4 ehief stations, with 1.900 uatWe cunverts and GOO oonununiuuita [BO], 

t It ma; be noted here that about ISGl an E^qoimaui was bronght from 
'a Bay to Ko^land by Captain Ommaney, and, bf the liberality of the Admiralty, 

1, where he died a 

iihwed at St. Aaj^stine'e College, Canterbury. In Oct. ISdS 
erred to tho Theological loititulioD at St. John's, Newfoundland, 
■' ' ■' ■ - '— - '""" -'"" ■■' '-" '"■" "-'--•p wvote) 


the following June. "Wo miai him jfreatly" (tbo Biahop wtote), "he was 

gentle, kind, and anomiasiye; lo regular in his dovotioni, that he spoke liy bin aitii 
what he could not express by hia tongue " l'^^]- 


lit St. Francis Harbour Mr. Disney "had a large school, chiefly 
Esquimaux" [62]. 

In 1858 the Bishop '' saw and heard ** ample proofs of the zealous 
labours of these Missionaries. He was '* assured everywhere that a 
great change '' had ** been produced in the lives and habits of the 
people," and the condition and prospects of the Mission were such as 
to inspire thankfulness and hope. On this occasion what was believed 
to be '* the only church on the coast of the Labrador '* was consecrated 
at St. Francis Harbour under the name of St. John the Baptist. The 
Rev. G. Hutchinson came with the Bishop to carry on (for fourteen 
years as it proved) the work begun by Mr. Disney among the poor 
English and Esquimaux fishermen [08]. In 1859 the Society estab- 
lished a third mission on the Labrador coast, viz., at Sandwich 
Bay [04]. 

Up to at least the middle of the present century the natives and 
other inhabitants of Newfoundland had not considered it worth 
their while to prosecute the fishery to any extent on the so-called 
I^Vench shore, or to settle there — the operations of the French fisher- 
men, being assisted by their Government, were on such a scale as to 
exclude competition. Nevertheless English families migrated there 
from time to time and scattered themselves widely in remote 
settlements. Between 1848 and 1858 the Bishop had visited at inter- 
vals of four years most of the settlements, which could only be done 
from the sea in a boat, and that during less than six months in the 
year. In St. George's Bay a Missionary of the Society had been 
stationed some time, and in consequence there had been a ** groat . . . 
improvement in the residents." But it was not till the end of 1867 
that the Bishop learnt that in the White Bay district there was a 
large population professing themselves members of the Church of 
England. His first visit to them in 1850 disclosed a " sad state of 
rehgious destitution." " Poor people ! " (he wrote) " the fan* faces 
of the children would have moved the admiration of a Gregory and the 
destitute, forsaken condition of all would move the compassion of any- 
one who believed they have souls to be saved." Some families ** ha<i 
never before seen a clergyman and never been in any place of wor- 
sliip." At Bear Cove during the administration of baptism 

" sad and struiige were tlie discoveries made by the iiuestion whether the child or 
person (for some were 15, 10, and IH years of age) liad been baptized or not; of all 
it was answered they had been baptized ; but some, it appeared, could not tell by 
wliom, some by fisliernu»n, s(!veral by a woman - the only person in the settlement 
mnd she a native) who could read correctly. One woman (marri<Ml) was baptized, 
liypothetically, with her infant. Twenty-one in all were admitted, tlie majority 
with hypothetical baptism. Both of the women who came to be married had 
infants in their arms ; one of theui had three children. Not one person in the 
whole settlement could r«'ad correctly, except the woman before mentioned; her 
husband (a native of Bay of Islands), h little. He had, however, l>een employed to 
marry one of our present couples, which he confessed to me with some shame and 
confusion of face, saying, ' he had picked the words out of the book as well as he 
oould make them out,* but he did not baptize, because ' that reading was too 
hard * ; in fact, he could scarcely read at all, he left the baj^tisms therefore to 
his wife. . . . He in(|uirod also whether he ought to be christene*!, having been 
baptized only by a fisherman, though as he said, with godfathers and a godmother. 
Here was confusion worse confounded; and shame covered my face, while I 
endeavoured to satisfy him and myself on theiic complicated points. The poor 


mtui was eviileall; in eoraeat, and I gladly did all in mj power to relieve his mind. 
And pliiue him and hiB in a more satisfantoc? state. Bat how Bud that aue who 
had bapt[xed ind mtu-Hed othere, atiould liim tnlf apply to lie bnplized and murilad, 
bi'ing now the talher of ait children 1 " {Bishop Feild's Juiirnai.) 

At Sea Oove a father bvoiight three ohihlreii to hu received, nil of 
whom had been baptized by lay handB. Two of them, he said, " had 
been very well baptized," i.e. "by a. man who could read well." 
When asked, in the service, " By whom was this child baptized ? " he 
answered, " l!j one -foeeph Bird, and a fine reader he was." " This 
Bird," says the Bishop, "who on account of hie fine rc-ailing. had 
beon employed to baptize many clrildren in the bay, was a servant in 
ft fisherman's family " * [!>(>]. 

To the service of the poor iuhabitantB of this remote country the' 
Rev. H. Temi'Lk devoted himself for about fom'teen years (186J:-771, at 
first " living with the fishermen in the various settlements, eating and 
drinking such things as they " could " give him " [68-9]. In 186fi he 
wrote : " No maniud Clergyman could subsist npon tlie present income : 
neither could I estabhsh a residence or coutinne housekeeping above 
a month or two in the year." The Society enabled him to prooure a 
decked boat, in which he visited every cove and harbour in the bay. 
From February to December he had ■■ no settled home " ; all these 
months he continued moving " week hy week, residing with the 
varioQS families and supported by them in turn." Every man able 
to fish contributed according to hia means, and some were " even 
witlinRtodenytheraselvesnecesaarieBinorderto increase" Mr. Temple's 
comfort [70]. His work was abundantly blessed, and within three 
years the people generally had become "zealous for the worship of 
God"— few of them willingly snfTering "their places to be vacant at 
the doily service " whenever it was possible to hold it [71]. 

In the Bay of Islands, a locality almost as unhappily circumstanced 
as White Bay, the Rev. Ulkic Rule, in tlie same spirit of self-sacri- 
fice, rendered similar service for eight years (ie(i5-78) [72], 

How grateful the people were for the ministrations of the Church 
will appear from such incidents as the following, related by tlie 
Rev, J. MoiiKToN on visiting Plate Cove in 1857 : — 

" I oould not . , , have tiuiKd tuy viiil l>vlli!r ; fur it ku haiipeoed thai atl the 
uiBD had jusit couiu in Irom the Eishing-grouiul. lUi hoar after 1 had sorvioe in one 
at the houseii. and christened twn children. There ate buttonr Proteila«t lamilieu 
reifdiag id this nettlement ; bat I had be«n for some time anilane to pay them a 
vilit to encourage them, having heard that daring the winter one of the poor 
uommhnd refid the morning and evening prayer evarj Sand»y; also prayers 
•very Friday evening during Lent— she being the only person in the little 
eommnnity who could read— aad the place being foar milus liistant from Hei\ ClilT, 
it WM inipoioiible for these poor people to walk down to Church. . . It was 
impOBaihle at this tituv to ivtillc tn Indian Arm for swamps : and though it viai the 
bewbt of the fisliing. nne iniiu Irnri) iikih of the four housos wua spat^ to raw ina 
to the Utt«r place, whil« thu \vs\, vrail U' iplit and sslt their fiah, whieh they had 
AeUyed on acooaotot prayers. .Vtidiio i;ratefiil were thcj, that they farther oDered, 


' Both in IfewIouiiJliiiid and L^bndoi 
there wow no pioapeet ul the aervicea oE a. 
it wu qoite a giutom to take ohildieii to t 
nptain of n v«»«l. Soinetimet n Tntlii-v 
llu Bishop uuii uilli oav iu~1,iiilu uf liuiil baptisni wai ftaqneutly reaoiled to wlisn 
iur);ymui bdug (ortlicotDinK. In >ome puia 
le ilork of some fiahing eitablisliment or the 
hvmilil baptiEfl Ills own chDdren; and it. 1 


Another Missionary, tbt: Rev. T. A. Goode of Chatmel, wrote : — 

'Faacy a crew oF faui bandB rnwiDg againBl winij and tiilotoiiv uiilee — aniglit 

iod a day— tor the Clertjjnifta to bury the dead 1 I have aeon this mure than onoa 

loue here; siid I have gone with them when I thoaght we were riakini^ aur 

lives" E7i]. 

Though it was impossible to supply the waiits of this poor diocese 
unaided bj the Society, the Bishop ivaK modest in hie demands, ever 
seeking to relieve ita funds as soon as possible [75]. As a result of his 
efforts the local contributions of the people in Newfoundland for 
Church purposes, which in lBi4 " were wretchtxllj sinall " (not more 
than £S00 a year), had reached £2,530 per annum in IHIJi, while in 
the same period the number of Missionaries was increased from 
twenty-four to forty-six, of whom sixteen were supported without 
any help from the Society. 

The progress made during Bishop Fefld's episcopate was thus 
summarised in au address presented to him in October 1B75 by the 
Church in St. John's City on his departure for Bermuda : — 

" Tbiilj-onL' ycAis liave passed aiiiue jou aesumed the apirilaal supervision of 
IhtH dionese, and none ol uGoan be uDinindful of the vast banetltayoa have been 
instrumental in coofening upon our Cliuroh during that long period ; jour own 
coDiistent lite ol selt-itcnial and sjmpatb; hag done much lo BUpporl and obeer 
your clergy amidst their many toils and privations. 

" When jon entered upon jour Episcopate our EcDiesinatical SjBtfim woi 
unorgaiuKed and feeble. Now, Synodioal order and unity prevail. 

" Tbeo, «c hud only about twelve olergymen in the colony ; now, upwards of 
fifty are labouring therein, whilst Churches and I'ursouagea have been luultiplit.'d 
in a like proportion. 

" A College tor the Educalion ol Candidate!! for the Ministry has, by your 
I'lertiona, been adequately and penimntnlly cndonod. 

" Separate Seminaries for Hoys arul (lirls have been eiitablibhed, mid are in 
Hufwesatu] operation. 

" Distinct Orphanages for destitute children of both sexes have been founded 
under your auspices, and are effectively conducteil. 

" Out beautiful Cathedral was designed and partially built under your oare, anil 
llie ncceSBsr)' funds for its completion are in process of collection. 

" A Coadjutor Bishopric has b«en created solely through your disinterested 
Hsaislanoe and the services of a divine ' eminent for his piety, and conspicuous for 
his abilities, have been secured tor that important office. 

" For the future support of the Episcopate, an endowment has been provided, 
and many a desolate settlement on our ruined shores has, year after year, been 
:inlely indebted for the ministrations of religion, to the visitations made bj jou and 
your Coadjutor in the Chureh Ship. 

" That thu Altniglily has permitted you Lo be His instrument in effecting so 
tuaob good and tor so long a time, that He has preserved yon through so many 
labours and dangers, and (until recently) has upheld you in health and strength, 
hKS been a canse to us of wonder, and of gratitude lo God. 

lerely hope that a temporary sojourn in a more genial olimale than 
that of a Newfoundland winter may prove benefloiul to your impaired health, and 
wo pray that you may be pennitted to return from Bermuda in renewed vif^riur, and 
long be spared to your grateful Hock " [76]- 

ot Coadjutor Bishop from ISDT to ISTH, and of 
Bd, and wiut aiti^cee.iod in 1879 by Dr. L. Jones, 
Society, at the request ot the Diocesan Synod, 




It; pleased God Uint this hope should not be realised. On June 8, 

1876, at Bermuda, Bishop Feild passed to his rest [77]. 

" The mention ot Dr, Feild " (said the Iiiooeaan Synorl) " remindB ae ol tlie 
BVMiBl debt we nwe to jimr Society in relation to tlmt hoi; uisn, nhose righl^uui 
life ftnd ceaaeiess labonre huTe causeil hig name to he hononred by all people ol 
ererj danomiDstion, and hifl memory to be held ia Teiienttion bjeverj ChnTchtnan 
in the diooeee. Tonrds his annual income jonr Society largely oontribated iind 
. . . your eympathy . . . aheered him in bia diffioulties and eacoureged him in hin 
kb-iiira" {Synod Addreas. JR77i [77a]. 

At this time the Society was assisting in tlie support of !)(! 
Missioaaries iu Newfoundland at an annual expenditure of about 
£4,0fJ<l. Without this assistance, the Syno<l declared, " the work of 
our Church would be paralyzed" [78]. The completion of the 
episcopal endowment — to which the Society had given £2,000 in 
1870- -now rendered the Bishops of Newfoundland no longer depen- 
dent for their support on an annual subsidy of i^SOO winch, up to 

1877, had been contributed by the Society [79]. [Since then much has 
been done towards rendering the diocese self-supporting, the Society's 
grant for 18D3 being £'^,SO0.] The Missions planted and fostered 
by the Society iu Newfouudiand have effected a great reformation iu 
the land. PtaceH "sunk in heathen darkness" have become Christian 
communities [80], and the influence of the Church of England on 
the Colonists generally may be gathered from the fact that in 1880 
thousands of persons belonging to the various religious bodies in St. 
John's joined in hauling atone for the completion of the cathedral. 
Roman Catholics and Dissenters vied with English Clinrohmen in 
helping forward the work [81]. 


By a Gre which broke cot* in St John'aon July 8, 1892,tvo-third9 
of the city were destroyed in less than twelve hours, and ten thousand 
people were rendered homeless. Towurds ri'licviug the distress and 
repairing the losses, which included the Cathedral, the Bisliop'g resi- 
dence, and other Church property, the Society opened a special fund 
which realised £g,fiCOt [82]. 

The clioir and transepts of the Cathedral, sulSoiently restored for 
Divine service, were re-dedicatad on St. Peter's Day, 1895, but the 
nave walls are still (1900) in rtiins. It seemed a happy omen that the 
one window of the Cathedral which escaped destruction was a repre- 
sentation of the Resurrection. Li 1890 a Cathedral Chapter waa 
appointed, the Bishop himself being the Deau [83]. 

The collapse of the Union and Commercial Banka in St. John's, 
on December 10, 1894— a greater calamity than the fire— brought 
disaster and ruin upon the Colony. The Clergy were among the prin- 
cipal sufferers, and would have been penniless but for the prompt aid 
of the Society. The phenomenal misfortunes of the people drew 
liberal sympathy from all parts of the world, and almost every clergy. 

* The fire wils (AUbeil by a mnn lighting his pipe in t, stable. 

t Eighteen □( the Amecimn lU.S.) and thirt; o( the English. Colonin,! rlic.i-ceea, 
besides Qrest Britain and Ireland, shotred their aympitby by placing a sam ol £17,1TS 
(»1 together, indudiog the SocioIj'b Fuud) ^ ■■ — ■ ■ ■ 


man became a relieving oflSoer and doled oat sugplifNi to hii Btaniqf 
parishioners. Though the financial crisiB was passed in I8869 ths 
shock to the commerce of the island had not been entirely Oferoonie 
even in 1899 [84]. 

Whatever measure of prosperity may be in store tot Kewfcwmdland, 
the Clergy will always suifer much from isolation. In some pmishes 
nothing is heard for months of the outside world, but the futhfiil 
Missionaries follow the daily round of duty — teaching, training, ooin« 
forting the sorrowful and visiting the sick. Their reports, especdaDj 
in the last ten years, are of uniform tenor and wiUi few stftrtfiiiff 
incidents. They tell of diligent work performed often amid perils ana 
always with rough surroundings [85]. One clergyman wrote in 1886 
from Burin, after having been almost frozen : ''Thexe is more then 
enough work for two men in this Mission, but so long as I enjc^good 
health I only feel a pleasure in doing what I can " [8ff). 

The Jubilee of Canon Collcy, of Avalon, celebrated at TopsaO oa 
St. James' Day, 1899, was interesting and unique, as he is toe only 
(Anglican) Missionary during the last two centuries who has laboaM 
continuously for fifty years in Newfoundland. When in 1877 he left 
Hermitage Cove, after twenty years' isolation, there was '^ not one 
Protestant Dissenter in the whole Mission," a district extending over 
MM) miles of coast 80a]. 

As a rule Newfoundlanders attend church well, and fifty or sixty 
men at an early celebration of the Holy Communion is not an nnoom- 
moil sight : ** If we can get up early all the week for our work *' (thn 
say) *^ wo should not grudge doing the same for God*8 work on ttda 
day *' |h7]. Some, when removed beyond the reach of a dlergvmaii« 
have become " the hi^h priest " of the family, reading the Onoreh 
Services regularly twice on Sundays. ** The True Story of a Prajer 
r>o()k " (told in the Gospel Missionary for 1806) records instances of 
this kind extending through two generations and over a period of 
ni'arly forty yiars '8HJ. In the payment of their ** Church daes ** and 
the erection of tboir churches the congregations also set a good 
example. At Broad Cove in 1894 seventy poor men boilt a ohnnhi 
not a penny having been paid for labour, and in Burin district three. 
new churches were completed in the same year at only a slight 
expenditure on labour. Again, at Norris* Point, though the people 
had lost four-fifths of their savings in the bank crash of 1894, Hid 
though a new church which they had succeeded in raising in 1896 
was then destroyed by a cyclone, they rebuilt the exterior of the 
church within two years [89]. In this and several similar instances 
the Society assisted in the completion of the building by a grant from 
the Marriott bequest. From the same source ^1,0(X) was granted in 
1897 for the Theological Institution of the diocese, " Queen's CoUege," 
(X'500 for enlargement of buildings and £500 for endowment) [90]. 
The training of the students of this valuable institution*^ inolodes 

Eractical experience in Mission work, gained by assisting in the neigh* 
ounng parishes on Sundays and in more distant parts daring the 
summer vacation [91]. In places such as Labrador, where a residoit 

* About onO'half of the Clor^y ^^^ ^^^ seired in the diocese have beeo tmined fai 
the College. 

NEWFOUNDTjAND (with northern LABRADOR). lOlb 

priest cannot always be provided, especially in the winter, school- 
masteis and others licensed as lay readers baptize privately, condact 
services, sometimes perform marriages, and itinerate along the coast. 
The appointment of a travelling schoolmaster for Labrador in 1884 
proved so successful that ten years later ignorance on the Labrador 
was not so great as in Newfoundland. The teacher, Mr. Dick, followed 
the fishermen from place to place for hundreds of miles, holding school 
in their shanties or huts, the ages of his pupils varying from five to 

Missionary meetings have become a regular part of the work of 
many parishes in Newfoundland. With the means derived therefrom 
many of the Clergy have been enabled to visit distant parts of the 
Mission field, ministering to the scattered people [93]. In 1898 the 
Rev. T. P. Quintin, while thus visiting Labrador, discovered " a band 
of Missionaries " at Rigoulette, consisting of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany's officer, his wife, and three daughters, who had been doinf? 
noble work for the Church for seven years, holding services, classes, 
&c,f with beneficial results. When other sources failed, the young 
ladies took their sledges, went into the forest and cut a lot of wood 
and sold it for the benefit of their charitable work [94]. 

In 1895, for the first time in twenty- three years, Flowers Cove 
Mission, which is partly in Labrador, hod the services of a resident 
priest, the Rev. W. Weaver, who resigned the Mission of Trinity and 
volunteered for the post [95]. In this year the captain of a stranded 
ship was astonished to find that the Church of England could muster 
three clergymen (two from Quebec diocese) working on such a dreary 
coast as Labrador, and who in their ordinary work had chanced to meet 
near the ship [96]. 

In 1898 the Rev. L. Dawson, then Assistant Organising Secretary 
of the Society for London Diocese, spent his summer holiday in visiting 
Newfoundland and Labrador, with the object of learning the nature of 
Church work there and administering the Holy Communion in certain 
places where only deacons were in charge. The welcome and 
hospitality which he received showed that similar visits from other 
English clergymen would be also appreciated [97]. 

In the summer of 1899 the Rev. S. M. Stewart, the Society's 
Missionary at Flowers Cove, the largest and hardest Mission in the 
Diocese of Newfoundland, made a voyage of discovery between the 
settlements on the Labrador. Rounding Cape Chidley, he penetrated 
into Ungava Bay, where he found some 200 Eskimo living in the 
most degrading heathenism. The few days at his disposal he employed 
in teaching them, through an interpreter, the rudiments of the 
Christian faith. On his return he offered himself to the Bishop of 
Newfoundland for work among the Eskimo [97a], and in 1900 he 
commenced a Mission* to them under the auspices of the Colonial 
and Continental Society [976]. 

In response to a petition from the Diocesan Synod, the Society in 
1899 agreed to suspend for a time the further diminution of its annual 
grant, which had been gradually reduced from £4,000 in 1897 to 

* Mr. Stewart has the honoar of being tho first clergyman of Newfoundland to go 
forth as a Uitaionary to the heathen. 


jei,918 in 1899. About ;((45,000 per annum are raiaed in iha dioeew 
for Church purposes, in addition to i((l 1,000 for edaoational piupoaes, 
and this from a population depending almost entirely on a preoiricyas 
industry. The diocese is now trying to raise the Clergy Sostentation 
Fund* to $50,000. The introduction of a new Diocesan AaaesBment 
Act (1898) has produced encouraging results in the matter of self- 
support. The progress towards eelf-support is best shown by the 
fact that the Society's grant of £4,000 in 1877 supported 86 Mis- 
sionaries and its present grant of i^l,918 helps to support 49. The 
stipends of the Missionaries do not average more tlukn J{W)0 per 
annum from all sources [98]. 

NoTK. — The French colony of St. Pierre is viiiied by the Biihop of Ni 
luider a conunission from the Biohop of Ix)ndon. For the biiiaU Kngliih iwmHiiiiii^, 
consisting mainly of members of the staffs of the Tarioas oabla fMMniwmiiM and tiMir 
families, a consecrated chnrch and an English clergyman have been prondad [M]. 

* The Society aided the effort by a grant of £1,000 from its BicenteiiMy Fond in 
Miiy. 11M)1. 

(For Statin fical Stnttwary seep. 102.) 



Tuj& Bermudas or Somors Jslaiids, situated in the Western Ailaatio Oomb, 
680 miles from North Carolina, 780 from Halifax, and 800 from the neaietl Wast 
Indies, consist of about 100 small islands, some 10 only beine inhabited. The group 
wus discovered in 1515 by Juan Bemmdo, a Spaniard, but no settiemmfc WM 
formed there until 1609, when Sir George Somers was wrecked on one of its iimlms 
reefs, while conveying English colonists to Virginia. This led to the Yirginift Oonauij 
obtaining a concession of tho islands from James L, but soon afterwards they sold uism 
for £2,000 to *' The Company of the City of London for tho Plantation of the Somen 
Islands." Representative goyemment was introduced into the Colony in 1690: bill in 
1084 the Charter of the now body of adventurers was cancelled, and since tnen the 
Govemorb liavo invariably been appointed by the Crown. 

In 1705 a Mission Library and books for his parishionera ware 
voted by the Society to the Rev. T. Lloyd on his being appointed to 
Bermuda by tlie ]3i6hop of London [1]. Assistance towards the support 
of a clergyman was solicited in the same year (by the Bianop of 
London) [2], and again in 1714 (by or on behalf of the Rev. — King) [8j 
and in 1715, but not granted. On the third occasion the applica- 
tion was made by the President and Council of Bermuda, wlio» 
'* believing that nothing keeps the Memorials of God and Religion in s 


_ e more than the Publiok Worship, and ordinance of God's 
Dul; admin is tercel, and, seriously considering the ill consaqnencee 
to any people for want of the same," heartily offered their " present 
case to [the] Venerable Society" "for their BeriouB consideration 
and assistance." In the islands were "nine Churches, which not 
being far distant from one anotlier it was thought that three Ministers 
could supply them all, and therefore by an Act of Assembly "provision 
wan made for such number (yiz., £40 per annum, with house and glebe 
lauds worth another £S0}, but there being " but one Minister in the 
Island the Rev. Andrew Auchinleck,"* they asked the Society to 
enconrago Missionaries to Bermuda as in other parts of America, 
adding that they would " always think it an honour to receive theu 
commands and in all things joyfully concur for promoting religion 
and virtue," The petition was supported by Mr. Auchiuleck, who 
slated tliat lie had " for some years past been obliged to [make] many 
tirearsome journeys in the island," and had "constantly read prayers 
and preaced in several Churches in this island to people that bad 
been brought up under Dissenting Teachers . . . particularly under 
one Mr. John Fowles who had been teacher bette [better] then :-)0 
years, yet in a little time" Mr. Auchinleck "found them ready to 
conform," and he now had " good congregations," which in numbers 
■' liaily increased" [4]. The opinion of the Society at the time was 
that it was " not oonsistfint" with its "rules '' "to send any Missionaiy 
to Bermuda " [5], and up to 1822 it continued to regard the colony as 
able to provide for its own spiritual wants. In 1621 the Bev. A. Q. 
Spenckb, having removed to Bermuda from Newfoundland in search 
of health, was employed in one of the vacant parishes by the Governor, 
on whose representation of " the deplorable situation of the islands 
. . . and the inadequacy of the provision made for the Clergy," the 
Society in 1822 extended its aid to the Bermudas for the support of 
Mr. Spencer and of the Bev. George Cortab, " who had for years 
struggled through the many ditliciilties of bis charge with exemplary 
attention to itR duties" [G]. In 1^23 an allowance was made for a school- 
master [7]. On hia transfer to Newfoundland in 1824 Mr. Coatar 
left in hia two districta congregations "numerous and attentive," and 
in Devonshire parish the number of communicants was " nearly equal 
to the third part of the white population." His work among the 
negroes was disappointing. Tlieir masters wilhngly assented to their 
attending church on a week-dnv. and at Urst " considerable numbers " 
come ; " but when the novelty had passed away it was not possible to 
form any congregation" [H]. 

A few years later the Church obtained a great and is sting 
influence over the coloured population. The Hev. A. O. Spenceh and 
ilie BiGhop of Nova Scotia, both Missiouarioa of the Society, were 
foremost in effecting this change. When the Bishop visited the 
islands m lu2(t the population numbered 10,G12, of whom 4,D4H 
were white, 722 free negroes, and 5,242 slaves. " A very large pro- 
portion of the inhabitants" were "uK^mbers of the Established 
Church," but although a small glebe Ijad been allotted to each 
parish many years before, the whole provision for the Clergy waa so 

inted bj the Society to South Cuolinit En ITOfi, Vm 


LusuflScieDt that " the Clmrcbea were very badly supplied . . . four 
and even six of them " had " been pommitted to the oare of a single 
Clergyman for many years together." '' During the adniiniatralJon 
of bir William Lumley . . . au Act was passed by the Colonial 
Legislature forming S parishes into 4 livings, and allotting 
from the public treasury glJOO" (= i?1.15) " to each of i Clerj,'jmc-n 
... in those ])arisb(.'S and a like sum for the ninth parish, lliat of 
St. George." With "other advantages, arising from glebe, sub- 
scriptions and fees." the salary was made up to £'200 for each 
I'lorgymau. Each pariah was provided with a, " respectable Church " 
built of stone and whitened, and surrounded by beautiful Church- 
yards " inclosed witli walls as white as snow, adorned with cedar 
trees and some of them covered with roses and geraniums." Where 
he found only three Clergymen (Messrs. Spenceb, Looaa.'and 
Hoabe) the Bishop left six, and the Sunday before his leaving 
Bermuda "divine service was performed in every C'linrch in those 
islands, a circumstance almost unknown tliere." In each church 
also Confirmalion was administered - tooverl,200per8onsinthe wholu, 
"many of whom were seventy years old, and some more than 80 
and among them were more than 100 blacks." Throughout the 
Colony " the zeal of the Clerfiy and tlie excellent disposition of tlm 
people excited his admiration." No Bishop had ever been seen heforis 
on the islands, and " the inhabitants seemed ready to welcomo such 
a visitor with primitive affection, "t 

The negroes, of whom about 1,200 huA been baptized, were 
"domestic rather than plantation slaves and treated very kindly by 
their masters." They required religious instruction, and were 
"anxious to receive it iu connexion with the Estabhshed Church," tn 
which their masters belonged, and there was " a readiness on the part 
of the Masters to acquiesce and even to co-operate in any reasoniible 
method of aflbrding it." As a step in this dii-ection the Bishop " laiil 
the foundation of ten temporary schools," and authorised the em- 
ployment of a catechist in every district, and made represeutations to 
Government on the subject [9]. Within a year fourteen schools 
were at work— seven being fur the colom'ed children— and it was then 
thought that the Bermudas were " adequately supplied n-ith means of 
rehgioua instruction." Under the superintendence of Archdeacon 
Bpencer the schools "assumed a conspicuous feature in the religinus 
concerns of the diocese " [10]. 

On his second visit to the Bermudas (in 18S0) the Bishop was 
struck with the great advance which the Church had made. " The 
Society," he said, had " been successful in the mtroduction of Uie 
National system of education"; and. although four years before there was 
" not a coloured person in the islands receiving regular instruction " in 
connection with the Church, more than 700 of those people, of various 
ages, were now in the enjoyment of that blessing. " The moral 
inHuence of this instruction" had " chocked the prevailing vice among 
the people of colour by inducing them to desire the benefits of legal 
marriage " recently extended to them by the Colonial Legislature, and 
" the httle pilfering which was common in every part of the islands " 



had "greatly diminished." Persons who "formerly considered it a 
a thing of course tli&i u large portion of their pouUry would be stolen 
from them " had in the last three years " not lost a fowl." 

Beferriiig to a coiiGrm»tioii of negroes at ^Vaiwick. the Bishop says 
of on« of the candidates : " At an early hour " Archdeacon Spencer 
" manumitted a slave who had been for some time under his iiistruc- 
tion. Scon afterwards he baptized him ; at ten o'clock he married 
him : and at t^leven the same person was couSrmed." At Pembroke 
on Ascension I'aj " ueai-ly "200 com miinic ants attended at the altar," 
ftnd the Jtishop delivered a Charge to the t!lergy, twelve being present 
— a fourfold increase. Such a number had never been in the ialauda i 
before. I 

So eagerly were tbe ministrations of the Church sought after by the 
negroes that a general enlargement of tlie buildings was called for. 
At one pbice nine tenths of thone who attended service " were without 
aooomraodaiiou," and " if Church loom be not provided for the people 
of colour" (wrote the Blflhop) " all our lahoui-s in their behalf wilt 
lead to their early separation from the Estabhshed Churcli "' [11]. 

The granting of " immediate and complete emancipation " to the 
slaves of Bermuda, "without the intervention of the offered apprentice- 
ship " (the course generally adopted in the West Indies), called for J 
ailcUtional exertions for dispensing religiou.i instruction to the coloured j 
population. | 

By means of the Negio Eduealion Fund [^i-e p, 1!Jj] the 8oi-iety 
" readily attended to the call, and greatly assisted the benevolent 
object.'" Aid from thissonrce began in IH.tS [12], and two years later 
Archdeacon Spencer reported that "the best effects have been pro- 
duced by the Society's grants," and "that the local Legislature haa 
been extremely liberal ... in aiding tlie several parishes to enlarge 
their Churches for the coloured parishioners " [13]. 

By the subdivision of the Diocese of Nova Scotia in 1839 Bermuda 
became attached to the See of Newfoundland,* then founded and placed 
under charge of Archdeacon Spencer as first Bishop, to whose support 
the Society continued to contribute [14]. Between this time and his 
troindation to the See of Jamaica in 1843 " the labours of the 
exemplary clergy of these islnnds" (Bermudas) were signally blessed, 
the candidates for confirnintion having " increased in more than a 
double ratio"; and tbreu Bumanists "intelligently embraced the 
doctrines of the Churcli of England mainly through the mstru- 
mentality of Dr. Tucker" [1/3]. It is noteworthy that in 1626, when 
the first Bishop visited Bermuda, tliere were said to be " only 2 Iloman 
Catholics in the islands " [IGj. 

The Bermudians continued to be " very liberal in their support of 
the Church and its institutions," and probably did " as much in this 
W!iy in proportion to tlieir means as any colony" [17]. Referring 
to the erection of four new cburL-bes in the islands in 1849, 

t powers sod 

• In IBil Ott Srticlj- 
joriwlirliou IS Bisliop ia 
npurstina of BeimaiU I 

for BiBlxop Feilil a. legal opinion oM 
nta]. mve yeiaa later the Bixlioi 

e Diorese ol N'Rronndlsiid end it* union with tlie 

as to form ■ new ColonimI See, anil offered to reeini Uie £900 ului 
BiTad uiDuidlT (rom Bi'rnxDdn. The Sodety regarded BDob ui unngc 
hh dsurBble,'' ftoil coiiiniuuioteil with the Colonial Office on the Babfecl, 
did not take plaoB, though the Bee of Naman waa fonnded in ISUl [Itfrj. 


Bishop Feild stated that though *' the whole white population of 
Bermuda does not exceed 5,000 . . . they have built nine handsome 
churches, without any foreign aid/' and '' each of the nine parishes 
has to maintain its own church and to enlarge it when necessary." 
At this Visitation the Bishop ''was particularly pleased with the 
increased intelligence and interest displayed by the coloured popula- 
tion/' and added, " the schools built by the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel for the coloured poj^ulation, at the tune of emancipation, 
have proved an inestimable blessmg " [18]. 

The Bev. Dr. Mubbay, who had witnessed the transition of the 
negroes from a state of slavery to one of freedom and responsibility, 
reported in 1850, after 25 years' experience, that the result of the 
Society's efiforts in Bermuda had been '* very remarkable." Time was 
" when not one in a thousand could write his name or read it if • . . 
written." Now there was not one per cent, of those bom since 1880, 
and of a fit age to be taught, but what were able to read and write, &c. 
Where the marriage tie had been so generally disregarded that ttiere 
were probably not a dozen couples '' united in lawful wedlock," the 
reverse was now the case. And a *' meagre," ''unintelligent," and 
apparently " fruitless " attendance at Divine Service had given way to 
crowded congregations, who joined " in the Litiurgy and psalmody with 
understanding and apparent affection," "the great mass of the 
coloured people " being " steadfastly attached to the Church " and 
furnishing hundreds of constant communicants in place of the " very 
few " of former years. In everything tbat regards moral or reUgious 
purpose the coloured people of Bermuda "might compare not 
disadvantageously with any people of the same origin in any part of 
the world "[19]. 

The work and claims of the Society have obtained general and 
lasting recognition in Bermuda. Every parish there joined in cele- 
brating the last jubilee [20], and a substantial contribution to the 
Society's funds is still made annually [21]. 

In 1856 the Rev. Dr. Tucker of St. George's voluntarily resigned 
his Missionary salary from the Society, as he had provided a church, 
school, and parsonage on a destitute island in his parish [22]. 

On the death of the Rev. J. F. Liqhtboubn in 1870 the entire 
support of the Church was left to local resources. 

(For Statistical Summary see p. 192.) 


Nova tiooni. was discoveied b; tlie Cabotx, under the Bntiliali King Ueni; Vll., 
jn IIBT. The Fri-iidi bv^n to uoloube it in ISDS, 1>ut iLeii ■etllemanu iu 
I« Codie, ot AcKdiu se tbcy i'«iled the tonntiy, were moBtljr deatioycd in ItilB bj an 
I'^Qllliih iliip frum Vir^luiH. In 16'21 (ha territarj wu iLBsI^ed by Junes L to Sir 
William Aloouider, and received the uume of Nom SootiA, nhioh included the proiincu 
HI.* knDWn u New Brnnawick. FosHeasion tor tbe Englieh was obuined abont lese-il 
b)' David Eiik^ n Hugaenot refoKee, wbo cBplutfTl Fort Royat* (the oapiUi); bnl if 
I»H9 the colon; viu teslorrd to Ftanoe. Duiiag the tset bail of the ITth oeatniT it 
poHHtfd ILroDgh Hevoral <:bangoa ol gciveriiniont — English and Frencb ; bnt in L71& it 
ma flaMy snrrendpred to Qre&t Britsin by tbo Feue ot Utrsait. In 17GH the two 
istuidl of Caiw Bioton and St. Jobn (non Frioce Ed«»Td Ixland}. which also had been 
settled bj the French, »nd the (onner of which had been held by the Kngliah from 
171S to nil, both beoiune peramneatly Uiitiah poBBeBBiona. Friuoe Edward IiduDd, 
umaied to Nova Scotia iu Vita, waa conatitntod a aeporate Colony in ITTO. Duiiug the 
wore till] pieMnoe of the French Acodiana in Nova Stotia waa oonsideind duigurons to 
English intenals, and in consequ:niae tbouBiuida of thctn were expelled in ITBB. After the 
neaoe many ol the eiilei retonied to the colony, Thfi auweaa oT the Engliali lad to the 
Micmao Indiana ^^bnryiiig the bati^but" and formally accepting in 17(^1 George IlL 
liliiteadot Ihe French King) "as their Father and Friand.'^ PrevioDBlj; bo this they 
tuul oomiDiited fearful baibaritiea upon the coloniata of Nova Scotia, and in the FrBnoh 
Governor'H boose at St. John were foand nianv Englinb «oalpa hnug aa tio^liiea. 

In January 1711 Colonel Niubolaoii laid before tbe Society an 
addresB " From tbe (^entlemeu tliat compose the Coiuicil of War al 
Annapolis Koj'al in Nova Scotia praying tbat Ministers may be sent 
over to convert tbe Indians m tbe said conntry." Tbd addross, 
with " Beverol other papers and letters concerning tbe eame 
boeinees," were " refer'd to tbe Committee " for " opinion " [1], and in 
the following year a MiBsion among tbe Indiana in New Yorlt Province 
waa renewed [see pp. 07-70] ; but nothing further ia recorded of Nova 
Sootia until 1727, when the Bev. BiOHAiti) Watts, then about to go to 
Annapolis as a Chaplain to the Forces, prayed the Society for "an 
allowance for teaching tbe pour cbUdren Diere," The Society voted 
him £10 ayear^which was doubled in 17S1 — and sent a supply ol 
Bibles, Prayer Books, and tracts for Lis school, which was opened at 
Easter 172U, and in which be taught fifty children. At bis own charge 
he built in 1737 a " school house for the good of tbe pulilick and 
especially for tbe poorer sMt," in Annapolis, " and appointed it for that 
use for ever with other necessary conveniences." Two years later, 
tlie chaplaincy having determined, be removed to New Bristol, in New 
England L2], 

While at Annapolis Mr. Watts in 172U reported tbat the people 
lit Canso " were generally bent to address tbe Society for a Minister," 
and he offered his services to the Society for that place, ■' there being 
no other Minister of tbe Oburcb of England in that whole Province 
or Government [Nova SuotiaJ besides himself." The Society awaited 
a commuuicatiou from tbe people tbeutselves, but nothing came unlil 
1736, when Mr, Edward How, a Caiiso merchant, petitioned for an 
allowance for a school, " great numbera of poor people," chiefly fisher- 

Liina|H>lia lt<>ya1, 


men, soldiers, and labourers, "being very desirous of having Uieir 
children taught and instructed in the principles of Christian reUgion,'* 
a work which no one had been found to undertake until the arrival of 
the Rev. James Peden, ** Deputy- Chaplain to the Forces there," in 
October 1785. Mr. Peden had taken fifty poor children under his care, 
and for his encouragement the Society granted £10 a year, which was 
continued up to the end of 1743, when, as he had given " a very in- 
sufficient account of the state of the school." the allowance was 
withdrawn [8]. 

The circumstances under which the Society's connection was 
renewed with Nova Scotia are set forth in the following letter from the 
Commissioners of Trade and Plantations to the Society : — 

" Wliitohall, AprU 6th 1749. 

"Sir, — Uis Mujusty having given directions that a number of persouti 
should be sent to the Province of Nova Scotia, in North America: I 
am directed by my Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to desire 
you Vi'iil acquaint the Society for rroi)agating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
that it is proposed to settle the said persons in siz Townships, and that a particular 
spot will be set a Part in ouch of them, for building a Church, and 4(K) acres of 
land adjacent thereto grunted in perpetuity, Free from the payment of any Quit 
Bent, to a Minister, and his successors, and 200 in like manner to a Schoolmaster : 
Their Lordships therefore recoumiond to the Society to Name a Minister and 
Schoolmaster for each of the said Townships, hoping that they will give snoli 
encouragements to them as the Society shall think proper, untill their lands canbe 
so far cultivated as to afTord a sufllcicnt support. 

" I am further to acquaint you that each Clergyman who shall be sent with the 
Persons who are to Form this first settlement, w411 have a grant of 200 acres of 
land, and each Schoolmaster 100 acres in Propriety to them and their heirs, as also 
30 acres over and above their said respective quotas, for every Person of which 
their Families shall consist; that they will likewise be subsisted during their 
passa^^'c, and for twelve montlis after their arrival, and furnish'd with Anns, 
Ammunition, and Materials for Husbandry, Building their houses, dc, in like 
manner a.s the other setlers. 

'* Their Lordships think proper that the Society should be informed that (except 
the Garrison of Aimapolis) all the inhabitants of the Said Province, amounting to 
20,000, are French Koman Catholicks, and that there are a great number of Priests 
resident among them, who act under the Directions of the French Bishop of 

'* At the same time their Lordships would recommend it to the consideration of 
the Society, whether it may not be advisable to choose some amongst others, of the 
Ministers and Schoolmasters to be sent, who by speaking the Freuuli language may 
be particularly usefull in cultivating a sense of the true Protestant religion among 
the said inhabitants, and eilucatinji their children in the Principles thereof. 
*• I am Sir your most obedient humble servant 

" JouN PowNAi.L, Sollr. and Clk. of tlie Ileports." [4]. 

It afforded the Sot-ictv " much satisfiictiou to observe " that the 
Commissioners . . . **shew'd so just and ntccssary Kegard for intro- 
ducing and supporting true Religion among the People to be settled *' 
in Nova 8cotia, *' at the same timo that they were consulting in 
so great a Dc«i;ree the civil and commercial Interests of that Colony 
and of Great Britain." To further ** the pious and laudable intention " 
a special meeting was held on April 7, attended by the two Archbishopa 
and ten Suffragan Dishops, at which the Society undertook to supply 
(as settlements were formed) six clergymen and six schoolmasters — 
including some able to speak French— and to provide them with '* the 


highest salary* allowed " hy it, as well as gratuities* ** to facilitate the 
first settlement," and (with the aid of the S.P.C.E.) " proper hooks.** 

The Commissioners were asked '' to consider this assistance . . . 
in its true light as an approbation and an encouragement only of this 
excellent design," it being ''the very best " the Society's circumstances 
allowed, and *' indeed . . . beyond ** its *' ability, for besides this large, 
new expence for the support of Religion in this new settlement, the 
constant, annual, necessary charge in providing for Divine Worship 
and usefull instruction, that the people in the numerous and extensive 
Colonies of America may not sink into Atheism, or be Perverted to 
Popery," already exceeded ** considerably £8,600 a year, while the 
certain annual Income ** was not " so much as £1,000.'* 

It was assumed that the " Chaplain setled already at Annapolis 
Boyal " was ** resident and constantly " performed ** his duty there," 
and the hope was expressed that early care would be taken by the 
Government '' to build churches and to erect comfortable houses for 
the Missionaries," and to assist them in clearing and cultivating their 

With reference to the "great danger" the new settlement was 
"like to be in," "of being perverted to Popery by the number of 
French Papists, the Vigilancy of their Priests and the activity of the 
Bishop of Quebeck," the Society submitted for the Commissioners* 
consideration ** whether the barrier against this bad religion and bad 
government would not be rendered stronger by making some Pro- 
visional allotment of a number of acres towards the supporting a 
Bishop of the Church of England there, when the importance of this 
hopeful! and growing colony shall require and the wisdom of the 
Government shall think fit to place one in that country." Also 
" whether it might not be of considerable service to the Publick " if 
the Commissioners were " to assist the application that the Society 
made some time since to the Government for the appointing of 
Bishops ... in our Colonies in America in such places as shall be 
thought most proper " [5]. 

It was not until most of the American Colonies had been lost to 
England that the Government thought fit to appoint a Bishop for any 
of them ; but when that time came Nova Scotia was selected as the 
seat of the first Bishopric. [See p. 751.] 

Within a fortnight of the receipt of the Commissioners' letter the 
Rev. William Tutty, the Rev. William Anwyl, and a schoolmaster 
had been appointed by the Society to accompany the first settlors from 
England [6]. The necessity of this provision will appear from the 
following abstract of a letter from Mr. Tutty, ** dated from Chebucto 
Harbour in Nova Scotia Sept. 29th 1749 acquainting that on the 
2l8t of June they arrived safe on that Harbour ... he was on board 
the Beaufort man-of-war with the Governor thro' the kind recommen- 
dation of the . . . Bishop of Lincoln." They had **met with many 
difficulties arising chiefly from the Perverseness of the present settlers, 
which thro' the wise conduct of the very worthy Governor, with the 
assistance of Hugh Davidson Esq., the Secretary, and of Richard 
Bulkeley Esq., the Aid-de-Camp," were " in a great measure sur- 

* At that time £70 salnry and X50 gratuity in the case of each Misiuonfury, and C15 
ftoiiyy and £10 gratuity iu the case of each schoohnabter. 


mounted/' and the Colony was ''so £eu: advanced " that Mr. Tatty 
hoiXHl *' neither French treachery nor Indian omelty," nor, "worse 
than hoth, even the Perverseness of the Betlers ihemselveB*' woald 
*' he ahle to prevail against it. The old Inhabitants, both the French 
and Indians," were '' Bigotted Papists, and under the absolute 
Dominion of their Priests*'; they a<;knowledged ''obedience to our 
King of Great Britain,*' but it was " a mere verbal acknowledgement,*' 
to judge " by their present Prevarication, and past behaviour, and the 
efifect of Fear alone ; The Indians of the Pen Insula came frequently 
with their Wives and Children " among the settlers on their arrival, 
" traded with them, and seem'd not in the least dissatisfied with their 
settling in the Country ; But they disappear'd all at once, on a summons 
to Chiginecto from their Priest " who endeavoured " to stir them up to 
Airms, and appear'd as he did in the late War at the Head of them 
about Minar ; but as an officer with 100 men" were posted there no 
great danger was " to be apprehended on that side.*' Of the new 
settlers from " Old England," the "lower sort" were "in general a aett 
of most abandoned wretches ... so deeply sunk into almost all kinds 
of Immorality " as to " scarce retain the shadow of religion '*; there 
were "indeed u few goo<l men amongst them," and the officers behaved 
"with great decency" in general, and seldom failed "to join in {ho 
Publick Worship." 

The "settlers from New England" made " great Pretentions to 
Religion," and were '\justly scandahz'd at the barefac'd immorality of 
the others "; but if they were " to be judged from their commercial 
dealings, the externals of religion" were '*much more prevalent with 
them than the essence of it." This, Mr. Tutty said, was " the true 
disposition of the Inliabitants of Nova Scotia," and in order to amend 
it, to bo^in with the " Old Inhabitants," he proposed " that some French 
Bibles or Testaments at least, ^vith a plain comment upon them, 
should be sent over to be distributed among the French," who would 
"gladly read them, if not prevented by their Priests; and if some 
French Protestants were induced to come over with an able Missionary 
of the same Nation ... a few years would make a great alteration 
for the better, both in their Religion and Loyalty." To further this 
scliemo Mr. Tutty recommended to the Society " theBev. Mr. MoBEAU, 
some time since Secular Priest and Parocliial Minister in France, which 
lie quitted for the sake of a good conscience, and came over and join'd 
liimself to the Church of England, and after some . . . time, married 
and embark'd with the new setlers for Nova Scotia." For the 
Indians nothing could be done for the present, as they had just 
" commenc'd hostilities" against the Colony "in a base barbaroaa 
manner," and were " running blindly upon their 0%^! destruction." 
"As to the new setlers," Mr. Tutty would "oppose himself to stop 
the torrent of Immorality thro* God's Assistance with all Ida 
might." The Governor ordered him to " beg . . . that some more 
Missionaries might be sent them." " Good Schoolmasters " were also 
" much wanted," the " chief hope " of the Colony being "among the 
rising generation." The number of inhabiiants "in the town of 
Halifax" exceeded 15,000, "excluding the soldiery." Since his arrival 
Mr. Tutty had baptized '20 infants, but " the Blessed Sacrament" had 
not been administered because Divine Service had " hitherto been per- 


form'd ill the open air," but as soon aa " the Govemour's dining room " 
was finished, it was " purpos'd to make use of that " till a church was 
erocted ; one was being framed at Boston " capable of holding 000 

The Society at once laid out i'oO "in puichasing French Bibles and 
otliQr proper books " * for the Colonists, and submitted to the Commis- 
sioners of Trade &e. a. representation of its" present low circumstances," 
with an abstract of Mr. Tutty's letter [7]. The Commissioners replied, 
March 5, 1760, "that hanng bad last year so great an instance of 
the goodwill of the Society, towards the Infant Settlement of Nova 
Scotia," they would " be far from pressing them beyond what the 
cause of Religion " might " require and the oircumstancea of the Society 
. . . admit." They also bad sent a large supply of Biblesf to the Colony, 
audit was design 'd that the next setUement should "consist chiefly of 
ForeignProtestants" [8]. MeanwbiieMr. Tutty reiiortedtDec.6, 1749) 
that if the new Colony went on " with such success as it has begun it 
must Infallibly in a few years eclipse ^1 the other Colonys in North 
America." On Sept. 2, 1760, St. Paul's, Hali&:(, the first English 
Church in Nora Scotia, was opened ; the inhabitants of that town 
then numbered 4,000 (exclusive of the military), and Mr. Tutty had 60 
regular communicants. During the next year the population rose to 
6,000, over one-half being professed members of the Church of England, 
and between 800 and 400 actual communicants. These included many 
Germans, formerly Lutherans and Calrinists. whose conformity having 
been promoted by a Swiss Minister, Mr. Burger, that gentleman 
was ordained and appointed to their charge in 1751. In that year Mr. 
Tutty wrote : " The Colony in general is much amended, and the 
behaviour of the worst among them is less profligate and abandoned." 
Between Churchmen and Dissenters there was " a perfect harmony," 
and "the most bigotted" among the latter seldom failed to attend 
Church " every Sunday morning " [Q]. 

Mr. Anwyl's conduct being unsatisfactory, the Society decided to 
recall him, but he died in February 1760, before the decision was 
taken [10]. In his place the Rev. J. B. Mouead was appointed to 
minister to a settlement of French and Swiss Protestants, which he 
began to do on September 9, 1750, in the French language [11]. 
In 1752 his congregation was increased to 1,000 {800 adults) by 
the arrival from Montbelliard of " SOO Protestants of the Confession 
of Augsburgh," who conformed to the Church, receiving with the 
''greatest satisfaction" copies of the Book of Common Prayer in 
French — " kissing his band and the books for joy" [12]. Most of 
the French and Germans, witli a few English, in all l.GOO persons, 
onder Mr. Moreau's charge, removed to Lunenburgh in 1754. There 
every Sunday they assembled themselves together for service " in the 
open parade," and more than 200 of the French and Germans were 
"regular communicants " [13]. 

• The S.P.C.K. n>-Dperatpd wit)i thp SoFiety in piovidinK books on thia oociuion [Sa]. 

t ThsFraDoh Bibiea HDt b; the CommiBBioaera, " bitving tlie Ooiiem form of pnyur 
unnex'd to them," nlmost ocoiuiinDer] a wihiani ftmoDg the CanforoiUtg ; bat the Swuis 
laidera " having eiaminod Uis Entfliih Liturgy with great attention . . . thought II 
in all niBpeota preferable to uy homan comuoaitioii and , . . determined conatantly 
to oae it '^ : and th'iy aucreedcd in rfmoving " the Prejadioet of thiui weak Bretlin-n " 
in moat iustancea [B6]. 



Over his flock Mr. Moreaa exercisad a ''godly diadpliiie.'* On 
Easter Dav 1757 he ** pm to pablick Penance one of the Conffie- 
gation who had been one of the Chiefs in a Conspinej • • . •g^"^ 
the Government." " After an humble prostration of hiinaolf in the 
Church the Penitent rose up and homblv asked pardon of God. (rf 
the King and of his Christian brethren." After an exhociatian 
from the pulpit to a sincere repentance and amendment of life, he 
was re-admitted to the Holy Communion, 149 others oommnnicmting 
at the same service '14*. 

Ministrations in Lunenbur^ih and Halifax* were continued in three 
languages for ii'.any years, and notwithstanding the great diffienlftieB 
arising from the diversities of language and creed, the Bev. P. BiyaeliiiB 
in 1770 and the Rev. P. De La Boche in 1775 numbered 120 Oemuui, 
50 French, and 80 English-speaking persons among their eomma- 
nicants " [15'. 

Mr. De La Roche r^ndertrd good service also by *' publishing weeUj 
in the Gazette a Practical Commentary on the New Testament ** ** tar 
the benefit of the imleamed " in the Province [15a]. Besides eerrii^ 
his three European congregations, Mr. Moreau so extended hie 
operations that in 1764 he could report the " success of his hiboan 
in bringing over the Indian savages to our holy religion having bi^fcized 
several of their children.*' These Indians bd^ved "with gramt 
decency in religious ceremonies." Most of them understood French, 
and had bc^en under the induence of the Roman Catholic FriestSy 
who had taught them the •• jrros^-st absurdities ** "16\ 

The Rev. J. Ben NET. an itinerant Missionary, also made some good 
impressions on the Indian^. He had several long conferences with 
them, and was ** instruuK-ntal in keeping the Savages quiet '' in the 
interests of the English '17 . 

The Rev. T. Wood of Halifax and Annapolis Royal &'c. obtained 
considerable influence ov^rr the Indians. In August 1762 there died at 
Halifax M. Maillard, a Roman Catholic Priest, Vicar-Genezml of 
Quebec, and •* Missionary to the French and Indians," *' who stood 
in S3 much awe of him that it was judged necessary to allow him a 
salary from our Government." The day before his death, •* at his own 
request Mr. Wood performed the Office for the Visitation of the Sick 
according to our form [Anglican] in the French Language in the 
presence of all the French whom Monsr. Maillard ordered to attend 
for that purpose." At his funeral Mr. Wood ••i^erformed the 0£Soe of 
burial according to our form, in French, in the presence of almost all 
the gentk-men of Halifax and a very numerous assembly of French 
and Indians * ]1^*\ The respect showTi to Mr. Wood by M, Maillard 
had so good an effect on the Indians that they expressed a dedre 
*' to join in the service of the Chunh of England in the French 
tongue, with which they were bo well pleased that they . . . begged *' 
for a monthly service. The use of ** the sign of the' Cross *' in the 
English baptismal service gave the Indians and the French Neutrals 
partictilar satisfaction. As most of the Indians in the Province imder- 
Btood their own language only. Mr. Wood devoted from three to fbor 

* Bj IVyj the Germans aX Halifax hud been " so intermixed and iin«rmaiTied with 
the other inliAbitant& " that all of them »iioke English much bctu-r than thej 



hours daily to acquiring it, and with such succeBS that in 1767 he was 
able to ofliciate in Mickmack, which he first did publicly in Julj/ of 
that year in St. Paul's, Halifax, iu the preseuce of the Governor, 
moat of the army and navy officers, and the inhabitEiBts. 

"On thia oooauiou the Indiam Bung an Anthem before and otter Serrioe. 
Before the Serrioe begun, an Iiulian Chief citme forward from tho rert, and 
kneeling down . . , pra/ed that the AlmiKbtj God wonlld bless His MsjeHt; KJDg 
Gcorgt the Third, their lawful King and Gavernor, and all the Bo;b1 Family: ha 
prayed also tor . . . tho Oovemor, and for Prosperitf to Hia Majesty's Province. 
He then rost up. and Mr. Wood . . . explained his Prayer in Eaglish to the whole 
GoogregatioD. Upon which hia Ezcellenoy tuned to the Indians and bowed to 
them. When Senice was ended the In/iian> thanked God, the OoTemor, and Mr. 
Wood, for the oppoitunit; the; had at hearing Prayers again in their own 

Soon after, Mr. Wood ofSciated at the marriage of the daughter of 
Thoma, the hereditary king of the Mickmacks, and entertained the 
Indians at his own house. By the next year he liad made good 
progress in n Mickmack translation of the Prayer Book and a 
Mickmack Grammar [19]. 

Mr. Wood's labours among the Europeans at Aimapolis and 
Granville were uo less successful. He visited the district in 1753, 
and again in 1762-3, when he found *• more than 800 eouls, without 
either Church or Minister, whose joy was universal and almost 
inconceivable at the hopes he gave them of being appointed their 
Missionary " {see p. 865} [20]. In an appeal for an additional clergy- 
man the inhabitants of the two places said in 1770 :^ 

"Wo . . . having bean educated and brought up (al least the greater number 
of as) in the Congregatioual way of Woralilp. before we came to settle in Nova 
Scotia, and therefore we should liave chosen to have a Miniator of that form of 
Worship, EeCUed among an : but the Bev. Mr. Wood by his preaching and 
performing the other Offices of his Holy function occasionally ainongsl as in the 
several districts ot this County halh removed our former prejorlices that we had 
against tho fot-uia of Worship of the Churah oi England as by Law established, and 
hath won UB unto a good Opinion thereof; inasmuch as he bath removed all out 
scruples of receiving the Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper In that form ot 
adnunislenng it, at least many of us are communicants with him and we trust and 
believe many more will ^oon be added." 

This representation was addressed to tlieir former pastor, the Rev. W. 
CiABS, who also had conformed and was then a Missionary of tho 
Society at Dedh&m, Massachusetts [21]. (His transfer was not, how- 
ever, effected.) In the next few years Mr. Wood " baptized several 
whole Famihes " of Dissenters [221. 

The same spirit manifested itself elsewhere. Di the Cumberland 
district under the Ber. J. Eagleson the number of Dissenters 
who regnlarly attended the Church service in 1773 nearly equalled 
the full Church members [23]. After three years' work in the Windsor 
Mission (1776-9}, where he had " found the lower orders of the people 
nearly to a man Presbyterians or Fanatics," the Kev. W. Ellis 
reported :— " The Dissenting interest declines heyond my expectation ; 
all bittemesa is entirely over, and although some still profess them- 
selves Dissenters, they are often at Church, and which is more, send 
their children regularly to Catechism " [24]. Bo much Indeed was the 
Ohuioh of England respected in the province that in the General 
Aasembly Dissenters joined in passing a law f'jr her establishment and 


for finishing the parish church of St Paul's, Halifai, yMA in 17M 
was *' frequented by all denominations,** among whom hannonj 
universally " prevailed ** [25]. Tliis was partly doe to the ministnrm 
the Rev. J. Bretntok, who in 1770, out of a total population of SJmK^ 
*' including the army, Acadians, and fishermen," coold lekim 4,000 
as being in outward conformity with the Churoh of England, aad wM 
that many ai the '' Protestant Disaenters . . . attend the Chnsoli and 
occasionally use its Ordinances" [25a]. In JuneofthisTnr**tlieGhm, 
with the Dissentmg Ministers, and his Miyesty's Gooneil, ml Se 
House of Assembly/* all attended Bt. Paul's Ghnich, Halibx, io oile- 
brate the anniversaiy of the first Foreign Auxiliary Oommiilee oC Ike 
Society, which was instituted at Halifta in 1769 [26]. 

During the eight years of its existence [see p. 7591 tfaia ^ Oene- 
sponding Committee** rendered great assistanee in ttie aeMment 
of Missions, and by their representations many dertitaie dia"* ^ 
were supplied with Missionaries earlier than would oUierwiM 
been the case [27]. Generally there was a great deaize fat the 
tions of the Church, and infwts were '' brought to Halifci' ^ 
from a distance of " 40 leagues '* [28]. 

In 1771 the Committee expressed to the Society 

" their great satisfaction in the vigilant and assiduous Applicationa of the zemealive 
Missionaries to all the duties of their Functions and Trusts, and that by ObA aood 


lives, prudent and exemplary Conduct, they have gained a geneiml 
considerably served the pious and ezoellent design of their Miaainna, tlW' 
of Beligion in general, and of the Established Ghuroh in paitioolar hj an 
of its Members, and that by their Moderation and patient labora a very 
harmony subsists among the members of the Church of England and thoeeof i 
Denominations/' (Signed by the Governor, the Chief Justioe,and the Saontaiyol 
the Province) '29\ 

At the request of the Governor of ** the Island of Bt John,*' Inow 
Prince Edward Island], Mr. Eagleson of Cumherland spent elevea 
weeks there in the autumn of 1778, visiting Charlottetown, St. Pefcer*av 
Stanhope, Tracoady, and Malpeck or Prince Town, " at iriiioh pkeee 
he read and preached, baptised twenty-nine children and mairied 
one couple," " a number of well-disposed persons " rejoicing " in the 
opportunity of hearing a Protestant clergyman ** " for the jfint time 
sinc^ St. John's was made a separate Government " [80]. The Mod 
work done by him in the Cumberland Mission was intenrap4ea bj 
his being '* taken prisoner'' in November 1776 "by a body of tn 
Rebels and carried into the Massachusetts" his house being ''plun- 
dered his property destroyed and his person insulted " in eonsequenea 
of bis loyalty. After sixteen months' imprisonment he effeotod Ua 
CFcape ** at the peril of his life " [81]. An attempt made to Kea^pime 
him in 1781 he evaded by fleeing to Halifax through the snow and 
woods [82]. Long before this Halifax had become the chief Eefage 
for the loyalists from the insurgent American Colonies. "Many 
wealthy and large families" from New England arrived in 177S-6« 
and the refugees continued to pour in until by 1788 there were 8^,000 
(including 5,000 free negroes) settled, or rattier trying to eetUe, in itfae 
province [88]. In many instances the trial failed. The Biahop of JIov* 
Scotia in 1844 stated that he had 

** Ifttely been at Shelbame, where nearly ten thou$and of them, ohielly from Kev 

Tork, kTid oompiisiDg roan; of my fatlier'a parishioner!, attruted bj the b«ant7 
>nd Becutit? of a most noble harbotir. were tempted to plant themselvea, regArdlMS 
of the important cunt of aoj aonotr; in the neigliboorhood tit for onltivBtion. 
Their meana were soon eihaoatod in boilding a t^pocious town at great expenae, 
ai)<I vainly' contending againal indomitable rocks: and in a fen jears the plac« 
ivaa reduced to a tew hundred familiea. Man; of them* returned to their native 
conntty, and a large portion of them were redncpd to poverty. . . . Someffnotthe 
Ttral emigrants ore still living. I visited these aged memben of the Churoh. 
The; told me that, on their first arrival. linee of women could be seen aicting on 
tlie TDcke of the shore, and weeping at tlieii altered condition " [31}. 

The peculiar situation of the unhappy fugitives, many of whom 
iiad " been obliged to leave their friends, part of their familiea, and 
most of their subatonce behind them "justly claimed the attention of the 
Ber. Dt.Bbeynton. who strove " to soften and alleviate their hani^- 
ment by every civiUty and conaolation in bia power "'[US]. Among 
thoBe be&iended was the Bev. -7. Bailey of Pownal borough, Masst^ 
ehnaetts, who, having undergone " the most severe and oruel treatment 
from the rebela of New England " [see p. SO], arrived at Halifax in 
1779 with "nothing remaining except two old feather beda without 
any appendages " ; both he and his hmily were not only " destitute of 
money," they had "not cloathing sofficieut to appear among the very 
lowest classes of mankind." " But through the humanity of private 
persons {more especially of Dr. Breyuton) and by a vote of t,'60 
currency from the Assembly of the Province " they were " in dome 
measure reheved "from their distresses and found " their spirits again 
reviving " [86]. 

During an epidemic of smallpox in 1776, so fatal in those times. 
Dr. Breynton promoted inoculation by preacliing on the subject and 
raising a subscription towards inoculating the poor, and was thus 
"instrumental in sa^-ing many hves in the pro^iuce; the example 
being . . . followed aU aver the colony - and the New Engliind 
people, formerly the most averse to inoculation," became "perfectly 
reconciled to it . . . practising it with much success in every dis- 
trict "+[87]. 

Numbers of the refugees, though Dissenters in New England, 
" constantly attended the service of the Church since their arrival at 
Halifax," so that the church was " too small to hold the congrega- 
tions," and many formerly " rigid Dissenters " became " regular com- 
municants " [38]. Dr. Breynton also records the administration of tlie 
Holy Communion to " Boron de Seitz's Hessian regiment, amounting 
to aooat 600," whose "exemplary and regular behaviour " did them 
" great honour " [89j, Both on the coast and in the interior settle- 
ments daily sprang up " where scarcely a vestige of human cnltivation 
and resort existed before," and some years elapsed before the exiles 
could raise sufficient provision for their own families [40]. For the 
sQpply of their spiritual wants dependence rested mainly on the 
Society, and the Society could the more easily meet the first demands 
seeing that many of its Misaionuies bad been ejected &om the States 
[see p. 79], and were in need of employment, and that the British 

* In ITSe the Rev. Dr. W. Walter recortsd tbat foar.fllthB bad returned bo the 

t This treatment prodnced oppoaite n 

peared iu ^moat every bou '" ^ 

i-it«n who took It in tbc •■ 

A Annapolis in 1798, "Smallpoi ap- 
•en died by inociiliitioii while the old 


Oovemmeut promised to co-operate " in ftflEmding ta Wm M^mtjli 
distressed and loyal subjects" in North America "tha mfluu ol 
religious instruction and attending the Public worship of Almiglitj 
God " [41]. The lands reserved by Government for this porpoM in 
Nova bcotia amounted in 1785 to 80,150 acres, distriboied unflOff 
thirty-four townships, 18,150 being glebe lands and 12,000 aehool 
lands [42]. [See pp. 119, 121]. Pecuniary assistance also mm ocn- 
tinued by Government for a long period. [See p. 121.1 

Among the refugees were many negroes, and perhaps no grcatar 
proof of the reality and value of the Society's work among the dttVM 
in the United States can be found than m the fact that the Nota 
Scotia Missionaries discovered that ''many hundreds" of ttiBnii» 
"adults, children, and infants," had "been baptized, and soaaaa c( 
them " were " constant communicants," and that others showed 9r% 
docility and a desire to receive the truths of Ohristianity " which mn 
highly commendable [48]. In one year 40 were hapiiEdd by Dr. BnfB- 
ton at Halifax, and 125 (81 adults) at Shdbume b;^ the Ber. O. PAimui. 
who also married "44 couple " [44], while at Bigby (onder fhe Bar. 
R. Vietk) the black communicants in 1786 outnumbered the whttea |y 
81 to 17 [45]. In the Shelbume district 1,162 negroes wem Ai- 
tributed in 1700-1, 850 at Birchtown, where a school was estafaiUdiel 
for them [40]. By 1818 "several permanent establishmeiili of 
negroes " had been formed in the neighbourhood of HalifuE* oca- 
sisting of escaped slaves brought by Her Majesty's ships, but aUhoB|^ 
lands were given to them these people were then for the most part 
** wretchedly poor and ignorant " [47]. 

Especially was this the case at Sackville, where tlie Bev. J. H. 0. 
Paksons '' frequently visited them in their log huts," and ** prowled 
upon them to have their children baptized " [48]. 

On the other hand at Tracadie there was at that time a compem- 
tively flourishing settlement of negroes in charge of a native Besderg 
Demsy Jordan. They were ''temperate*' and " indasfcriou.'* 
Their farms were ''in a state of tolerable cultivation.*' f?Most c( 
them " had ** a few cattle and a small flock of sheep, and iheir hnto*' 
assumed " an air of decency." " Persons of all ages " were " pnnetoal 
attendants on the performance of the services of this Gateohist," who 
was " well qualified for the trust " which he held, and ** fiedthfol in die 
discharpje of its duties."* 

With the Society^s assistance they built a church, and in 1887| 
although reduced to " very straitened circmnstances," they undertook 
to assist in erecting a school house, and to contribute £20 a jmt 
towards the support of a schoolmaster. They then numbered fintj- 
two families, "containing IGO children." So well had Demsy Jordu 
profited by his early training in Now York that he ** maintained hta 
attachment to the Church through every trial and brought up hie 
family in habits of attention to her ordinances." He died m 1859 at 
the age of eighty-nine, after nearly twenty years* blindness [40]. No 
race seemed to have escaped the attention of the Society. The settle- 
ment of a body of Maroonst at Preston about 1796 brought them 

* Ihrevious to the eBtabliiliment of a Bcbool by the Society in 1788, tliA dmom «I 
Tracadie were " exceedingly indolent," and tbeir condition was " very wxetelMd " [48aji 
t See ** Jamaica,'* page 238, 


tinder llie enre of the Missionaries. The Kev. B. Gray, who actod ag 
Cliaplaiu to them, baptized fifty-five in fourteen nionthe, tnenty-aix 
being adults. Tbey nuniberod between 400 trnd 500, one half being 
CliriBtians, and the Society aent them a supply of Bibles and Prayer 
Books, In 1799 the Governor of Nova Scotia iiifomieil the Society 
that nineteen of the Maroon schoiara yiho were being educated at 
Boydvillo, " were examined publicly in the Churoh on Easter Sonday," 
and " repeated the Catechism, Creed, Lord's Prayer, and Command- 
mentii with admli-able precision, and read all the Lessons and 
Responaes during the service very correctly " [60], " At the par- 
ticular request of the inhabitants " the Rev. T. Shbeve of Lunen- 
bnrgh visited Petit Riviere in 1818, and preaclied to a congi'egation 
of !)00 peraoBB, of whom he baptized Bisteeii. ■■ Not one half of that 
congregation had ever before heard a Minister of the Church of 
England, nor seen a Common Prayer Book, being mostly Presby- 
terians from the North of Ireland." Kfany afterwards repaired to 
liunenburgh for Holy Communion, and took steps to erect a church 
in order to obtiiin a resident Missionary [■'jl]. In 1H21 we find a 
Welsh colony at New Cambria and a body of Highlanders at 
Antigonish and Bemsheg proRting by the ministrations of the 
Society's agents, For the latter, Mr. Anderson, the schoolmaster at 
Merigomish, acted as Catechist, explaining the Scriptures "chiefly by 
translating Sermons into Erse," and those people, though then not in 
communion with theChurchof England, were "well affected to her "[52]. 

In the island of Cape Breton a Mission wan begun at Sydney in 
1785 hy the Rev. Banna Cossit. On his first coming the people 
" expressed great satisfaction " at the prospect of a Mission, but the 
majority of them were " French and Irish Roman Cathohcks," chiefly 
storekeepers and fishermen. There were also " some Indians of the 
Romish persuasion"; only two persona had ever received the Holy 
Communion according to the Church of England form. Within two 
years that number was increased sevenfold, and on Christmas- Day 
1789 a church was opened |.G8]. 

On August 1'2, 1787, the Rev. Ghahleb Inglis, formerly 
Missionary of the Society in Pennsylvania, was consecrated (at 
Lambeth) the first Colonial Bishop. Until 1793, when Upper and 
Lower Canada were formed into the See of Quebec, the Diocese of 
Nova Scotia comprised the whole of the British possessions in 
North America, from Newfomidland to Lake Superior, a territory 
DOW divided into ten Bishoprics and demanding more. Bravely, 
however, did Bishop Inglis strive to do the best for his huge 
diocese. Hia first tour of visitation was made in Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick in 1788, during which he travelled 700 miles, and 
confirmed 625 persons. The kind treatment which the Bishop met 
witli everywhere, and the good disposition both of the clergy and 
laity to comply with his exhortation, showed how agreeable the 
appointment of a Bishop had been. " By his judicious conduct and 
zealous exertions" ho awoke the people " from that torpid state in 
which he found them respecting religious matters, and making the 
proper external provisions for the due administration of the public 
worship," " Scarcely was there a Church finished throughout the Pro- 
vince" whenhearrived.butsoon Churches began to rise in many places. 




At Granvillo application for a resident olei|yinan was rapported by 
Dissenters, who unanimouslj gave up their " Ifoeting Honae" ** tor the 
sole use of the Established Church, reserving oxdv their own pews *' 
which they designed to occupy, and the boilding received the 
appropriate name of Christ Church [54]. 

A similar spirit was shown in one of the Gnysboro distriets, wheie 
''a chapel of ease" was opened by the people and named Union 
Chapel, '' from the circumstance of their having, tho' bred of difGarant 
denominations, agreed to join together in one congregation and to use 
no other form but that of our Church '* {i.e. the Liturgy of the Church 
of Euyland)* [55]. 

The times were such as to impel the sober-minded Dissenters to 
seek rest in the bosom of the Church. During the last decade of the 
18th century Nova Scotia was distracted by " the prevalence of the 
enthusiastic and dangerous spirit among a sect . . . called New 
Lights/* whose religion seemed " to be a strange jumble of New 
England Independency and Behmenism.*' They weremoattronhlesotne 
in the districts of Annapolis, Granville, Wilmot and Aylesford. Both 
Methodist and New Light teachers " in their struggles for pre- 
eminence '' excited among the people *' a pious firenzy." Over all the 
Western Counties '* a rage for dipping *' prevailed and was ftequentlj 
performed ^^in a very indelicate manner before vast coUeotioiis of 
people." Hundreds of persons were ** rebaptized," this plunging being 
deemed absolutely necessary to the conversion of a sinner. The 
teachers were mostly ''very ignorant mechanics and oommon 
labourers " who were ** too lazy to work.'* The Clergy, who were 
caused '* a great deal of uneasiness and trouble," "exerted themselves 
to the utmost to keep their congregations free from the contagion." 
At Granville and Annapolis ''multitudes" attended the Bidiop's 
exhortations and " went away with favourable impressions of oar 
Church " ; and Mr. Viets ofDigby reported in 1791 that there was "no 
other sort of public worship " than that of the Chui-ch *' in his MissioDB 
or in the vicinity," and "all other denominations" were beooming 
" more and more reconciled to our Church."t Many of the poor. 
ignorant people so neglected their temporal concerns in following the 
rambling preachers that they became " much distressed for the Dare 
necessanes of Hfe," which seemed to have "cooled their zeal and 
abated their frenzv " [56]. 

At Granville there was still in 1828 a variety of fanatical teaohers, 
but by the exertions of the Rev. G. Best the Church was strengthened 
and ''a respectable congregation" was gathered from "the New 
Lights themselves " [57]. 

* Tlic inhabitantB of Guysboro at this time were so poor that it was with diffUwilty 
that their clergyman, tlie Rev. P. De La Boohe, could obtain a subKigtenoe among them. 
Redidence there was not, however, without its compensutions. In May 1793 Hr. Do La 
Koohe reported " that where there is a scarcity of tlio sons of ^scolapias there is a 
scarcity of burials. The only one they had there was obliged to leave," '* as he ooold nol 
get a hvelihood." During the previous five years Mr. De La Roche had buried <mly 80 
l>er»ons, while the baptisms numbered "229 besides adults and parish ohildreii'* — a 
result of the ** liealthiness of Ihat country wliich makes amends for tlie poverty off 
it •• ;.66a]. 

t See also remarks of Mr. Justice Halliburton of Nova Scotia, in his Speech al tha 
^nduu Moettn^ of SJ?.G., June 28, 1881. 


In 1807 the Society represented to the English Government that 
the lands reserved for Church purposes were '* sometimes granted awaj 
afterwards, the reservation not conveying title/'* and that the incomes 
of the Clergy were ** so inadequate " that there was " no prospect of a 
sufficient succession unless further encouragement " was given. It 
was found also that there was a decline rather than advance towards 
self-supporting Missions, the inhabitants exerting themselves only when 
they hked then* pastor, which was more often the case with " Native 
American " clergymen than with those sent from England [58]. 

With a view to raising an indigenous ministry the Society in 1809 
began to found Divinity Exhibitions at the University of King^s 
College which had been established at Windsor in 1789. [See p. 776.] 
It was to this institution that the Bishop looked for help in meeting 
sach an emergency as arose in 1795, when four of his sixteen Clergy 
were removed by death. One of these, the Rev. T. Lloyd of Chester, 
lost his hfe *' by a very imprudent resolution *' *' to walk on snow 
shoes from Chester to Windsor, a distance of 80 miles, through a 
dreary rocky wilderness, without an inhabitant." He was caught 
m a terrible storm, and a search-party '* after exploring their way all 
night by the help of a candle, found his body frozen hard as a rock,*' 
14 miles from the town which he had left two days before [59]. 

The Exhibitions of the Society, increased as they were from time 
to time, proved of inestimable value to the Church, and without 
them it would have been impossible to have maintained and developed 
the Missions [60]. In the education of the masses the Society led the 
way by introducing into Nova Scotia in 1815-16 the '* Madras " or 
National system of education, which rapidly spread throughout the 
North American Colonies. [See p. 769.] 

Bishop ChabiiES Inglis died in 1816, after more than 50 years* 
service to religion in North America [61]. His successor. Dr. B. 
Stanseb (another laborious Missionary of the Society), was permitted 
to dohttle episcopal work. Having met his Clergy and "with the 
utmost difficulty " '* performed the offices of visitation, confirmation, 
and ordination " he returned to England in 1817 in broken health, 
and did not see his diocese again. For seven years the Church was 
deprived of episcopal ministrations, and it was only after '* repeated 
apphcations" on his part that " His Majesty's Government *' ** per- 
mitted " him to resign [62]. Meanwhile in the Northern and Eastern 
parts of the province alone there were settlements comprising in 
the whole 10,000 inhabitants without a resident clergyman [68]. 
During this time Dr. John Inglis did all that was possible to be done 
by a Priest and Commissary to supply the place of a Chief Pastor. At 
Halifiax he devoted " from four to seven hours a day to the sick and 
afflicted," '* Presbyterians and Methodists '' as well as Church people 
having *'no scruple in sending for him "[64]. In 1825 he became 
the third Bishop of Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, New- 
foundland and the Bermudas were formally constituted a part of his 

* The Church eventually suffered "great loasea" of Chnrch and School lands 
through the intnision of squatters ; yet (though as recently as 1881 some of the glehes 
were still of little value) much benefit has accrued to the Church from this source in 
many districts fftSa]. 


cbarge. Returning from consecration in England, be landed at Halifax 
under a salute of twenty-six guns from the frigate Tweed and Fort 
Charlotte and amid the ringing of the church bells [65]. 

His first Tisitation (1S26) extended to New Brunswick, Prince 
Edward Island, Cape Breton, and the Bermudas, involving a journey of 
S.OOO miles by sea and land, frequently accompanied by difficulty and 
danger; 4,3G7 persons were confirmed, and 44 churehea consecrated, 
arrangements were made for the erection of many more cbiircbes, and 
overywliere as be went the Gospel message was preached, both to 
" devout attentive and anxious hearers," and to others who were little 
better than beatben [6C]. On this subjeot be wrote : — 

" It in an uiihapp7 mistake, hut prevalent in England, nnd ooe irliiah tluabtless 
has diminislied Ihf resourcea ol the Societj, to Buppose that the lahonre □( our 
Cln'g)' are not ot a Missionary cbaraoter. In the neighbourhood of the towns there 
are Eettlements whiah oannot be visited with pffeet, unleos the Missionary is read? 
to endure all the tolls and privations to which primitive professors were subject. 
Those whom the; visit are often as much without Ood ia the world, as the remote 
trilws nho have never heard the sounds of salvation " [6TJ. 

Of the Miaaionaries he said : '■ Tbey are respected and beloved — 
Kualous in their labours exemplary in their lives and entirely devoted 
to the duties of that sacred profession which they adorn"; and in 
1831 he spoke of them as '• not unworthy to be ranked with the 
most distinguished individuals that bare borne that bonourabte name," 
i.e. of " Missionariea " [68]. 

The spiritual destitution existing in the diocese became more and 
more manifest aa the visits of the Bishop and his Clergy were extended 
to the remote and neglected districts. It might have been thought 
that Nova Scotia, having been a British Colony for such a long period, 
could not be much in want of Missionaries, but even up to 1831 the 
settlements along the coast to the eastward of Halifax for over 100 
miles had not " one resident Minister of the Gospel," All that could 
then be done for them and for other destitute places was to send, per- 
haps once in a year, a Missionai^ " willing to aubmit to more than 
usual toil and privation" to visit settlement to settlement and bouse 
to house. Whenever persons competent for the office could be found, 
they were appointed Catecbists and scboolmasters [(]9]. 

TheBev. J. B[JBNyE&T(in 1821) was the first Missionary to attempt 
to visit the whole of tbe settlements along the S.B. shore [70]. 

In 18!i4 the Bishop visited this district TheEev. J. Stevenson, 
ivho had been laliouring there, went before him to prepare the people ; 
hut to do this be had on one occasion to pass at night two miles through 
tbe woods, often crawling on his hands and knees. Among those con- 
firmed at Fisherman's Harbour was an Englishman upwards of 80 years 
of age, who was supported chiefly by tie benevolence of one of tbe 
poor families. " So bttle did be expect such a visit that he concluded 
the Bishop in tbe neighbourhood must be of the Church of Home ; and 
when be was first spoken to, said, with much good feeling, that he was 
too old to change bis religion and forsake the Church of hia fatbei-s. 
He was greatly delighted when be found we were of tbe same Com- 
monion, and gladly received the rites which he had long despaired of 
obtaining" [71]. 

In 1836-8 Mr. Stevenson found preparations hemg made for 


the erection of two charches in places which had been previously 
'* shrouded in almost heathen darkness and had seen three genera- 
tions rise and fall without any stated ordinances of Christianity." 
At Sheet Harbour, on the death of the Society's Catechist, his place 
was supplied ** by one of the Presbyterian Deacons *' who still adhered 
** to the offices and forms of our Liturgy. This denomination having 
no provision of its own for public worship, in the absence of an Officiat- 
ing Minister," had, " with the consent of their Minister adopted the 
service of our Church," for which they entertained ** great reverence 
and admiration." 

Most of the inhabitants of Beaver Harbour also — descendants of 
Dutch Presbyterians — had conformed to the Church.* 

The people at Taylor's Head were quite illiterate, but so desirous 
of instruction that they frequently attended a minister ** from place to 
place for three or four successive days." Only one of them— a 
woman — could read, and she consented '' to teach a Sunday School, 
and read the prayers and a sermon " [721 

Many other instances of attachment to the Church were reported 
by the Bishop and Mr. Stevensonf [78]. 

In 1848 thirty-nine persons were confirmed at Marie Joseph, where 
ten years before the people were little better than heathen. 

'*The attention of all," said the Bishop, *' was most becoming and widely 
different from the want of feeling exhibited in this place when I made my first visit 
to it. The principal magistrate was absent, but had requested that his house, and 
all be had, might be used for our convenience. . . . The bam which we used [for 
fiervice] w&s his. . . . He arrived in time to be confirmed and receive the Lord's 
Sapper for the first time and appeared deeply affected. ... He promised imme- 
diate exertions to Becure the erection of a Church, in which all around him will 
take great interest " [74]. 

A similar change was effected at Margaret's Bay by the exertions 
of the Bishop and the Bev. J. Stannage [75]. 

While the spiritualities of the Church were being increased her 
*' temporalities *' were being lessened. In 1888 consternation was 
caused by the proposed withdrawal of all State aid to the Church in 
North America. The Society, supported by the local Colonial autho^ 
rities, succeeded in effecting an arrangement securing the payment for 
life of three-fourths of the original salaries to all Missionaries employed 
previously to 1888 [76]. 

During the next few years the Church suffered further loss by the 
confiscation of the glebes and school-lands in Prince £dward Island,^ 

* Their example was followed hy their co-religionists at Salmon River and two neigh- 
bouring settlements in 1846 Wd], 

t In the house of a shoemaker at Barrasawa, Pictou Mission, 874 persons (children 
moetlj) gathered by him, were baptized between 1888-69. " Hoping; almost against 
hope " he had kept his own children 12 years waiting for Church baptism, and he had 
to wait another 26 years before he could receive Confirmation [78a]. 

X Extract from " The Royal InstnictionB to the Governor of Prince Edward 
Xsbiud dated the 4th day of August 17G9 " :— " Sfct. 28.— Ton shall be careful that the 


ud tho schooMandfl in Nova Scotia,* and the withdrawal of the Govern- 
ment annual grant to King's College, Windsor. An attempt was also 
made to suppress the College, in order to found a secular University, 
but the Archbishop of Canterbury, as Patron, refused his consent to the 
surrender of the Charter, and the institution still continues its good 
work. [/See pp. 776-7.] The establishment of a Diocesan Church Society 
in 1887 had the effect of eUciting more support from Churchmen in 
Nova Scotia. Alluding to the wants of his diocese in 1888 (which then 
still included Newfoundland and New Brunswick), the Bishop said 
nothing could be more affecting than the deep sorrow which the emi- 
grants showed when they lamented their separation from the joy and the 
consolation of the ordinances of their Church which were once their 
portion in their native land : — 

" This feeling is strongly manifested by the affectionate regard with whioh they 
receive the occasional Yisits of a Missionary in their soattereid settlemente ; they 
surround him in the house where he is lodged ; they follow him from place to 
place, often for many miles, that they may gather comfort and instruction from the 
repetition of his prayers and his coansel. I have been followed upon such an 
occasion by a little vessel, that all her crew might be present at every serrioe thai 
was performed along an extensive line of coast ; they sailed when I sailed, and 
anchored when I anchored, that they might land and join in worship with their 
brethren, in many different harbours " [77]. 

Three years later, when his charge had been reduced by the forma- 
tion of Newfoundland into a separate See [1889], the Bishop thus 
reported the progress which had been made : — 

" From the first settlement of these colonies, which we now occupy, the Church 
has been cherished within them by the Society for the Propagation of the GkMpel, 
to which, indeed, we are indebted, under the mercy of the Most High, for the 
existence of the Church within our borders, and, indeed, throughout the whole of 
this extensive continent. It was well said to his Grace tiie Archbishop of 
Canterbury, by a pious agent from the Church in the United States of Amerioa, 
when visiting England, that * this venerable Society might point to the present 
prosperity of that branch of the Church, and challenge any other liissioiiary 
Society to show equal fruits of its labours.' But these fruits are, happily, to be 
seen here also. Many of our Clergy have been fostered by the Society almost 
from their cradles— they have been assisted in their education, cheered in their 

Churches hereafter to be built within our said Island, be well and orderlvkept; and 
(hat, besides a competent maintenance to be assigned to the Minister of eacn Orthodox 
Church, a convenient house be built at the public charge for each Minister ; and yon 
are in an especial manner to take care that one hundred acres of land, for the site of a 
Church and as a Glebe for a Minister of the Gospel^ and thirty acres for a Schoolmaster, 
be duly reserved in a proper part of every township, conformable to the directions ana 
conditions annexed to our Order in Council of the 26th of August, 1767, hereinbefore 
referred to" [TTo]. The alienation of these lands was prayed for by the House of 
Assembly of F. £. I. by addresses to the Throne in 1880 and 1882. I^o reply being 
received, a third address was presented in 1884, which produced an order from the 
Secretary of State Oct. 80, 1884, for the sale of the lands, and by a Colonial Act (which 
received confirmation in 188Gj 9,880 acres were sold, and the proceeds of the sale — ^£4,000 
currency — were " applied to purposes unconnected with the Church " [77^1. 

* The Nova Scotia school lands were reserved (together with other lands, for 
Churches and Clergymen) when grants were made by the Crown upon the settlement 
of townships or parishes in the province. Previously to 1889 thov had *' been considered 
as appropriated (even without a special grant) to the schools of the Society, conducted 
upon the principles d the Church of England." But about this time it was contended 
" that although Uie Church and Clergv lands are reserved for the Church of England 
and the Ministers thereof, the school lands may be appUed for purposes of general 
education," and Bills were brought into the provincial Jji^slatnre, founded upon thia 
assumption, "appropriating all school lands not actually occupied by the Society's 
•ohoolmasters to the support of general education " [77c.] 

KOVA SQCmiL. 128 

Uboon, and sustained in their trials and privations. Their flocks have been 
enoonraged and assisted in every good work : in the building of Ghurches, the 
support of Schools, the wide circulation of the BiUe, the Prayer-Book, and 
innumerable books and tracts full of holy instruction, under every variety of 
oondition that can be seen among the children of mortality. And have these 
beneflts been diminished at the present time ? Far otherwise. Never were ihe 
eurtions of the Society so great as they now are ; never was tiieir assistance more 
readily «nd more liberally afforded; and while they give in laith, ihej trust that 
their barrel of meal and their cruse of oil will not be pennittod to fail, until the 
whole earth shall be refreshed by the heavenly rain. . . . 

" In the last fifteen years it has been my happiness to consecrate . . . 119 
Churohee and Ghapels. . . . Many others are in progress " [Letter to his Clergy, 
AprU 16, 1841 [78].] 


Up to 1844 " the erection of nearly every Ghuroh in Nova Sootia '* 
(then 150 in number^ had been ** assisted bv a grant *' from the 
Society [79]. In his visitation of 1844 the Bishop met with instances 
in which one poor man had oontribated sixty, and another eighty 
days' labour towards the building of their churches* [80]. 

By the formation of New Brunswick into the See of Fredericton in 
1845 the Diocese of Nova Scotia was reduced to its present limits. 
In addressing the Society in 1849 the Bishop and Clergy of the latter 
province said: " The praise of that Sooietv is in all the Churches ; the 
g^teftd sense of obligation to her is in all our hearts ; the fields now 
ripe for the harvest in this vast continent were first sown by her 
hands ; and the pious remembrance of her services is dearly cherished 
by all sound Churchmen " [811. While on visitation in this year 
Bishop John Inglis was struck down with fever at Mahone Bay, but 
his anxiety to finish his work was so great that he could scarcely be 
restrained from calling his candidates to receive confirmation at his 
bedside [82]. He died in London on October 27, 1850, a few days after 
his arrived, in the 50th year of his ministry, and was buried in Battersea 
Churchyard [88]. 

The portion of the income of the Bishopric hitherto provided by 
the Imperial Government terminated with the life of Bishop John 
Inglis, but the Society, which from the very first had annually con- 
tributed to the maintenance of the respective occupants of the See, 
was now mainly instrumental in procuring a permanent endowment 
for the future Bishops [84]. 

During Bishop Binnet's episcopate (1851-87) a Clergy Endow- 
ment Fund of £30,000 was raised (the Society contributing £1,000 in 
1860), and a ^eat advance was made towards self support [85]. 

By a decision arrived at in 1886, after a prolonged controversy, the 
Sodetv's aid to Nova Scotia (apart from Prince Edward Island) was 
from that date limited to the payment, during their ''efficient ministry," 
of certain clergymen (then nine in number), with whom the Society 
had a moral, though not a legal, covenant. 


Of the *' privileged *' clergymen, referred to in the preceding para- 
graph, the last, the Rev. B. Avery, died on May 8, 1900 [86]. 

* At Si. Margaret's Bay, in 1866, fiO fishermen walked 24 miles *' to lend a hand " in 
fMciing a ohnroh for a settlement of white and coloured families [80a]. 


To Prince Edward Island the Society has continued a small 
grant, which has been gradually reduced from il200 in 1892 to £80 
in 1901, and will entirely cease at the end of the latter year. In 
appealing against the recent reduction, the Bishop stated (in 1897) 
that, while the Island is the most thickly settled area in the Dominion 
of Canada, it is the Province in which the Church is weakest [87]. 
His Lordship has, however, since admitted the wisdom of steadily 
reducing aid as the need for it diminishes, and he expresses his "regret 
that this policy was not pursued, as regards this diocese, from the very 
first.*' Had this been done, and the spirit of self-help been earlier 

*' not only would our financial position to-day bo much more satisfactory than it 
is, but a very great many Churchpeople from having to pay for the services of the 
Church, and the maintenance of a clergyman, would have taken such a deep 
interest in her welfare, and learned to love her in such a fashion, as would have 
made them insensible to the blandishments and invitations of those bodies of 
separated brethren by whom they have been led astray, and are now hopelessly 
lost to the Church." 

The Bishop added, *^ The Society may be well satisfied with the result 
of its generous and long-continued assistance to the oldest Colonial 
See of the British Empire *' [88]. Until recently the extent of that 
assistance was not fully realised in the diocese. In addition to the 
grants from the General Fund for Clergy, a considerable sum has been 
paid from the Society's " American Colonial Bishops' Fund " for the 
support of successive Bishops of Nova Scotia, in the form of an annual 
allowance (from 1787 to 1900), in addition to an endowment grant of 
j^8,200. In 1892 the diocese was formally notified that the annual allow- 
ance (now £2QS. 106.) could not be guaranteed to future holders of the 
See. But no action was taken by the Synod until 1898, when, after a 
further reminder, it was resolved to raise an additional ;^50,000 for the 
Bishopric Endowment Fund, in order to make up for the anticipated 
loss of the said allowance. At the same time the Bishop submitted a 
proposal for the division of the diocese, and the Society was asked to 
give an endowment grant and to transfer the allowance of £208. lOs. 
to the proposed new Bishopric ** in perpetuity." 

But the Society felt that the case of Nova Scotia was not one for 
further assistance, either as regards the existing Bishopric or the pro- 
posed new one, especially in view of the stronger calls and claims from 
other parts of North America [89]. 

{For statistical Summary seep. 192.) 




New Brunswick. — The territory now known by this name was formerly reckoned as 
a part of Nova Scotia (discovered by the Cabots in 1497 [see p. 107] ). The French, who 
held it in the early part of the 18th century, called it New France. A few families from 
New England settled there in 1761 ; in 1763 it came into the undisputed possession of 
Great Britain, and by the settlement of disbanded tr6ops and refugees from the United 
States in 1788 &o. the British population had increased to 800 in 1785, when it was dis- 
connected from Nova Scotia and made a separate colony. 

In tiie summer of 1769 the Rev. T. Wood, the Society's Missionary 
at Annapolis [see pp. 112-18] visited the settlements on the St. John's 
River, New Brunswick. 

Before leaving Annapolis he held a service in the Mickmack 
language for the " neighbouring Indians'* and others from Cape Sable 
&o., and reaching "St. John's Harbour" on July 1, on the next 
day, Sunday, he ** performed Divine Service and preach'd there in 
English in the forenoon and in Indian in the afternoon to thirteen 
Indian men and women who happen 'd to arrive there in their way to 
Passamquoddy." After service he " told them to sing an anthem which 
they performed very harmoniously." An Indian girl was then baptized. 
In the evening ** many of the French inhabitants being present," Mr. 
Wood held service in French, the Indians also attending, many of 
them understanding that language. 

Four English children were also baptized at St. John's Harbour, 
but at Maugerville, v/here he *' had an audience of more than 200 
persons " he ** christened only two," as most of them were Dissenters. 
A like number received baptism at Gagetown and Morrisania ; in the 
former instance the children were ** twins* . . . bom in an open canoe 
on the River, 2 leagues from any house." Mr. Wood's tour extended 
" even to the Indian village of Om>Alk." When Captain Spry, the head 
engineer of the party, and Mr. Wood arrived at this, ** the farthest 
settlement upon the River," 

** the Chief of the Indians " (>^Tote Mr. Wood) " came down to the Landing place 
tnd Handed us out of our Boat, and immediately, several of the Indians, who were 

* "Joseph and Mary, children of John and Dorothy Kendcrick " 


drawn oot on the occasion, discharg'd a toUcj of Mndnby 
Hignal of receiving their Friends ; the Chief thai ««[ 
to the other Chiefs, after, Inviting as to their Coandl 
thither, the rent of the Indians following : jnst before we i 
HiJoted with their Musketry drawn ap as before, wi 
relative to Monsieur Bailie, the French Priest, who tbe Gofcmmant 
present thought proper to allow them and finding them uamaj tfiat ttqrhai at 
Friest among them for some time past I told them that tbeGovaiiior hadonplafid 
him to go to the Indians to the Eastward of Halifax and tharafon had mbI Mtli 
officiate with them in his absence : They then seem'd wdl cooQi ~ 
their desire I begun prayers with them in Mickmaek, fhrnj all 
behaving very devotely ; the Service concluded with an AnlhiHn and Ilia 
snd altlio' there were several among them of the three diffsnaA Tribal 
viz. the Mickmackfl, Marashites, and the Cariboos], "tiiej aloMMt all of 
ijndf;rKtood the Mickmaek language and I am folly ooovineed IhI I baa 
among them two years ago . . . and no Popish Priert had bean aDowad ta 
been with them, that the greatest part, if not all of fhem, by flda timat bad'fai 
in a great measure if not altogether Protestant and the Engliah Tnliahitanii tm 8L 
John*H Kiver are of the same opinion *' [1]. 

No further nteps appear to have been taken an behalf oCtlK 
Anglican Cllnirch to provide for the religions wanta of New B#aia- 
wick until 1788, when, along with other lojralisi refngeaa from fl» 
United States, Missionaries of the Society began to anm. Om of 
these, the Rev. John Satbk of New England, "pitehed upon" 8k 
Jolin's River '' merely on account of a maltitnde of his bUoir 8iiStm% 
the manag(;inent of whose concerns he freely nndertook, TriJhmiiJWT 
compensation, having found them nnsettled, and many <oC fhmk 
unsheltered and on the brink of despair, on acconnt of the Aolajiil 
allotting their lands to them." With the intention of nlfiiMlri|y 
K(;ttling at Fort Howe, Mr. Sayre stationed himself Ibr the Triwtnr of 
1788 at Majorvill, whore he ''officiated in the meeting hoiiM of tke 
Congregationalists, with their approbation, to a very nomeionB ooi^Ea* 
nation, consisting partly of Refugees and partly of old 8etilaca«** hIm 
wore "in general Independents, on the plan of New Bngland.'* B^ 
the American Revolution Mr. Sayre had ''lost his ott^ so aanolto 
iiave had even a change of garments for either himself or his imijt* 
and his circumstances were so ** peculiarly distressing *' aato odUlbr 
relief from the Society. lie died in the summer of 1784 [2]. 

Meanwhile, in 1788, " at the point of land in St. John's Hjacboar," 
the refugees had " built more than 500 houses, mostly finuned, irfthiif 
ten weeks,** and the Rev. John Beabdsley, from New York PrminneL 
had erected a shelter for his family at Parr, whence he madt 
excursions up the St. John's as far as St. Anne's. SetUementa irara 
also forming at Gagetown, Burton, Port Roseway or Shelbama^ and 
Amesbury, and in 1784-5, the Government having made some proviaioB 
for four Missions in the province, Mr. Beardsley was tfanafiansd 
to Maugerville, the Rev. S. Cooke ^from New Jersey) to St. John'ii^ 
and in 1786 tliree New England Missionaries—the Revs. J. SoOiTilk 
S. Andiirws, and R. Clarke respectively to Eingstoni St. Andrawlife 
and Gagetown [8]. 

Mr. Cooke met with a friendly reception from the people al 
St. John's in Sep. 1785. About 18 months before they had " par- 
chased an house 80 ft. by 28 for a Church," but from the diffiooligr of 

* Now oaUMl " St. John." 


raising the money and from other causes " it had remained un- 
finished. By his personal application to the principal inhabitants 
over £90 was raised in "three days' time '* for the improvement of 
the building until the people's circumstances should enable them to 
build ** a proper Church," to be " a credit and ornament to the place.' 
Some distant settlements were visited by Mr. Cooke in 1785. At 
St. Andrew's, the capital of Charlotte County (60 miles from St. 
John's), for want of a Missionary there were many unbaptized 
children. The " repeated invitation " of some of the people, supported 
by the Governor, induced Mr. Cooke to visit them, though at an 
inclement season. On his way he landed at Campo Bello (Nov. 18), 
where he performed Divine Service, and " baptized a woman about 
40 years of age," with her infant and five other children. On 
Nov 16 he reached St. Andrew's, where, on the Simday after, " he read 
prayers and preached to a very respectable congregation, and baptized 
13 children." In the course of the week others were brought to him 
from different parts of the neighbourhood, and, including 10 at 
Digdequash, he baptized in all during this tour 78, of whom 8 were 
negroes. The number would have been much greater had not the 
rivers been frozen and prevented the children being brought from the 
higher settlements. He represented that if a clergyman were 
stationed at St. Andrew's the majority of the settlers, though '' of the 
Kirk of Scotland," would probably conform. At St. John's in four 
months his baptisms numbered 82, including 6 blacks, and on New 
Year's Day 1786 he had 25 communicants. ** The weather being 
iheil cold to an extreme, he could not expect the people, especially the 
women, to attend : but going warmly cloathed himself he stood it 
tolerably well " [4]. 

In 1786 Mr. Cooke removed to Fredericton. Within " the nine 
months " that he had officiated at St. John's he had baptized there 
and in Charlotte County 158 persons, 18 of whom were negroes. 
The communicants at St. John's had grown from 25 to 46 ; he left 
behind him *'a decent well-finished Church, though small, and a 
very respectable, well-behaved congregation." At parting ** there 
were few dry eyes in the Church " [5]. 

Under the Rev. G. Bissett (from New England) enlargement of 
the building became necessary, and ^500 was allotted by Government 
for this purpose. A ** Charity Sermon " preached by him on 
Christmas Day 1786 realised £86, besides private donations, and in 
the next year was instituted '* the humane and Charitable Society " 
** for the relief of the poor," which it was thought might ** probably 
supersede the necessity of Poor rates." In 1788 the congregation 
wrote to the Society ** with the keenest sensations of heartfelt grief," 
being "persuaded that no Church or Community ever suffered a 
severer misfortune in' the death of an Individual than they experienced 
from the loss of this eminent Servant of Christ, this best and most 
amiable of men," Mr. Bissett [6]. 

By Governor Carleton the Society had been previously assured 
that the appointment of Messrs. Cooke and Beardsley had given 
"very general satisfaction," the latter especially being "much 
esteemed by the people," and he pleaded for more ** men of merit " to 
fill the other Missions [7]. 


At Maugerville " a respectable oongregation of orderly people, of 
differeDt denominations . . . having no settled Minister of tueir own, 
concurred " with the Church Members in desiring Mr. Beardsley*8 
appointment there. Although these settlers had been '* stripped of 
their all by the RebeUion *' (in the United States), they were forward 
in erecting a small church, which they named Christ Church, and 
they promised to do all in their power to render his situation com- 
fortable [8]. With Government aid (£500) a new church was built in 
1788, which was '* esteemed an elegant structure." Mr. Beardsley in 
1788-9 extended his Ministrations to Burton and other settlements 
on the St. John's and Oromocto rivers and the Grand Lake, some- 
times baptizing as many as 140 persons in six months [9]. The 
work grew also at Maugerville as the people became '' zealous in 
their attention to God*s Word and Sacraments," and in 1792 he had 
63 communicants. In finishing the Church here in that year a pew 
** with a canopy over it," was reserved for " Governor Carleton " and 
**his successors " [10]. 

At Fredericton (formerly called "St. Anne's") a Mission was 
begun in Aug. 1787 by Mr. Cooke preaching ** to 60 or 70 people in 
the King's Provision Store," the ''only place in which a oongregation 
could be accommodated." The people then were few in number and 
" poor to an extreme." The congregation in the first year seldom 
exceeded 100, and *' he had only 14 Communicants on Christmas 
Day," when he first ** administered the Lord's Supper *' [11], Govern- 
ment aid for erecting a church here also was freely bestowed, but 
many years passed before the building was finished,* it having been 
planned on a scale beyond the people's means [12]. 

In August 1788 the Bishop of Nova Scotia visited New Brunswick, 
confirming 55 persons at Fredericton and 95 at St. John's, where on 
the 20th he held his Visitation. Two years later Mr. Cooke, acting 
as Ecclesiastical Commissary, '* held a Convocation of the Clergy 
of the Province at Fredericton." All attended except Dr. Byles, who 
was ill, and of all it was reported they are *' diligent in their 
missions and their churches encrease and flourish " [18]. 

In 1795 Mr. Cooke, accompanied by his only son, was returning 
from Fredericton to his home on the opposite side of the river, on the 
evening of May 28, when a squall of wind overset their canoe and 
both perished. ** Never was a Minister of the Gospel more beloved 
and esteemed or more universally lamented. . . . All the respectable 
people ... of his parish" and **of the neighbouring country went 
into deep mourning " for him [15]. 

St. Andrew's, Charlotte County, received a resident Missionary in 
the Rev. S. Andhews (of New England) in 1780. A •* considerable 
body of people of different national extraction" were then living there 
'* in great harmony and peace," being '* punctual in their attend- 
ance on Divine Service " and manifesting " propriety and devotion.*' 
'* The Civil Magistrate had regularly called the people together on 
Sundays and read the Church Liturgy and sermons to them since the 
beginning of the Settlement " [16]. A church, built chiefly with the 

* In July 1789 Mr. Cooke reported that. " an addition of 4 CompanioB of Soldiera to 
the garrison " had obliged him to give np the King's Provision Store and to ol&oiato in 
thA Church though in a very unfinished state " [14]. 



Government allowance, was opened on St. Andrew's Day 1788, and 
named after that Apostle [17]. Aa many of Mr. Andrews' con- 
gregation were Presbyterians his communicants were few, but moat 
of the people were in the habit of bringing their children to him for 
baptism, and during nine months in 1791 he baptized lOU, including 
le at one time on the island of Campobello [Ifl]. Several other country 
towna were visited by him, and the results of his labours were soon 
visible, but more particularly in 8t. Andrew's [19]. Jn 1793, aa he 
was travelling in a distant part of the pariah, he was " invited to a 
lonely house, where he found a large family collected and in waiting 
for him. After proper examination he baptized the ancient matron of 
the family, of 82 years, her son of 60 years, 2 grandsons, and 7 great- 
grandchildren." In all, 150 persona were baptized by him in thia 
year [20]. 

The two other earlier Missions — viz., Gagetown under the Rev. 
R. Claree and Kingston under the Rev. J. Scovu,, also embrauod 
enormous districts with a scattered population, whose morals (in tlie 
ease of Gagetown) had become "much corrupted" [21]. All the 
Missions enumerated were wisely shepherded and showed excellent 
results. The Church in New Brunswick indeed was fortunate in 
having as her pioneers men who had already " witnessed a good con- 
fession," who were accustomed to "endure hardness," and who com- 
bined with an apostolic zeal, discretion and general good sense. By the 
fiishop of Nova Scotia the Society was assured in 1792 "that the 
diligent and exemplary conduct of their Missionaries" had "made 
them much respected and esteemed by their people": their con- 
gregations nourished; communicants Increased; and churches were 
"every day raising and applications made for new Missions," 
Reaching Frederieton on July 20, the Bishop "adjusted several 
things with the concurrence of the Governor, whom he found . . . 
disposed to do everything for the benefit of religion and the better 
accommodation of the Missionaries," im:luding the rectification of 
mistakes made in laying out Church glebes. At Kingston 142 
inhabitants of Belleisle petitioned for a " Minister ... to oFEiciate 
among them, as they hod already built a small Cliurch at their 
own expense. All that could then be done was to desire Mr. Scovil 
to allot them a portion of his time, though his parish . . . might 
find employment for three Missionaries." At Sussex Vale was one of 
three Indian schools estabhshed in the province -the others being at 
Woodstock and Sheffield. The Bishop examined two of the schools, 
which included white scholars. " The Indian children behaved well and 
learned as fast as the white and were fond of associating with them." 
Those &t Sussex Vale " repeated the Catechism very fluently and by 
their reading and writing gave good proofe of the oare that had been 
taken of their instruction," and the Society adapted their teacher. In 
the Woodstock diatiict there were 150 Indian families residing. Moat 
of them had been inatiucted by "Popish Missionaries," but their 
prejudices wore off ; many of them regularly attended the Church of 
England service, and " behaved decently," and Mr. Dibblee thought that 
aa he was now in Priest's Orders they would bring their children to 
be baptized and put themselves under his caru : hitherto they had 
only considered him "as Half a Priest," Mr. Dibbtee wa, 




beloved b^ the Indians and respected by the WhitM." He was able te 
coQverse in the Indian language, and the Sooiety Bopplied him ivUi 
Mohawk Prayer Books. " But the moet remiucfcable o e oumm ea" 
was that the Indians were seriously disposed to cultivate land 
and relinquish their wandering mode of life— the cause being a 
failure of their game in hunting, which had reduced them to gnat 

Some of them had already commenced cultiyation, and the Bishop 
'* solicited Governor Garleton to grant them lands, tox onltue iridba 
he promised to do." In his way down the river firom Fiederiotoii fhs 
Bishop consecrated four new churches, and confirmed 777 persona [18^ 

After another \'isit to the province in 1798 the Kshop re p ort e d; 
"The Society's Missionaries in New Brunswick maintain iheir nwulgood 
character, being of exemplary life, diligent in the discharge of ttisir 
clerical Duty and generally esteemed by their pariahionera ; theeoB- 
gregations in as flourishing a state as can reasonably be expeeM, 
the number of Communicants encreased, and Fanatioiam on tin 
decline *' [28]. But two years later all of the Missioiiaries and ** Boms 
of the laity also" lamented *'in strong terms the fanaticism " that 
abounded and ''the many stroUing teachers" who nm about fhs 
country bringing '*by their preaching and conduct the greatest 
disgrace both on religion and morals," and exciting "a fepixil cf 
enmity to the Established Government ** [24]. 

Yet, in spite of all difficulties, the Missions progressed in both 
the town and country districts. At Fredericton in 1816 the ehueh^ 
''a very large and handsome structure," was "constantly filled 1^ 
a devout and attentive congregation," there being 800 Ghnm 
members and 100 regular communicants [25]. GQie Duilding iroold 
have been more useful but for the system of letting pews as " pri^afcs 
property," which operated '* almost as an exclusion 9f the lower oocdsis 
from the Church " [20]. 

In 1817 the Society introduced the National system of ednoalioii 
into New Brunswick. As early as 1786 it had commenced the fe- 
mation of Mission Schools [27], but now a Central Training Institation 
similar to that established at Halifax was formed in St. John's. The 
movement received much local support, and the *' National '* qfatem 
soon spread throughout the Province, many Dissenters "eagedj 
embracing these means of education and expressing no objeotion to 
learning tlie Church Catechism'' [28]. 

Of equal, if not greater, importance has been the aid afibided hj 
the Society for the education of candidates for Holy Orders. Hitherto 
the supply of clcr^^ymen had been far from adequate to meet the wanti 
of the coimtry. From Woodstock to Grand Falls, a distance of nearij 
80 miles, there was in 1819 a district inhabited by disbanded soldieESf 
among whom there was ** no Christian Minister of any denomination ** 
" and no religion whatever." For the payment of their military allow- 
ance it was necessary that an oath should be administered. A justies 
of the peace, **a good old Churchman,*' went up for that porpoas* 
but ** it was with the utmost difficulty and after half a day's ssueh 
that a Bible could be found." On hearing of this the Society sent a 
supply of Bibles and Prayer Books &c. and appointed two sdhool- 
masters for these people [29]. Many other districts were in a similar 


condition. Soon after assuming the government of New Brunswick 
Sir Howard Douglas, "in his desire to place the Established Church " 
" on a more respectable footing and in his anxiety to extend the bless- 
ings of rehgion throughout its remote districts, in the due administra- 
tion of the sacrament and the spiritual superintendence of the regular 
Clergy," addressed a circular (1825) to the members of the House of 
Assembly '' and other characters of influence and respectabihtv " 
inquiring of them the best method of effecting this object, and asking 
for a general report of the state of religion in their several districts. 
The answers showed that for the whole province, containing a popula- 
tion of nearly 80,000, there were "but sixteen resident Clergymen 
scattered over a space of country of upwards of 27,000 square miles, 
and twenty- six Churches," some unfinished [80]. 

The opinions upon the utihty of employing Visiting Missionaries as 
suggested by the Governor were in ** general ftivourable," and although 
there were instances in which the writer was biassed by dissenting 
interest, ** in no case " " was the measure opposed." The spirit of 
the province at this time was ** undoubtedly a Church spirit," "its 
own acknowledged members" forming ** a majority over any single 
sect " and being " staunch and true " * [81]. 

The next step taken by the Governor to meet the religious wants 
of the settlers was the promotion of the erection of churches [82] 
and of an institution where clergymen might be trained. The estab- 
lishment of King's College, Fredericton, in 1828 was chiefly due to his 
exertions, and the Society readily co-operated in extending the blessings 
of the institution by providing scholarships for the training of candi- 
dates for the ministry [see p. 777] [88]. 

Foremost in promoting the erection of churches was the Rev. C. 
MiLNEB of Sackville. His practice was to work with the people, 
and where any backwardness was shown he "walked with his axe 
io the forest and shamed them into exertions by cutting down the first 
tree " to be " used in the building." The churches at Sackville, 
Amherst, Chediao, and Westmoreland owed their erection chiefly to 
his influence and labour. Finding the expenses arising from horse- 
hire and ferries in serving his districts, more than he could afford, he 
purchased a boat " and often rowed himself, in storms when no person 
would venture with him." Once, on his way to church, while crossing 
a dangerous river, his horse's leg got fixed in the ice, from which he 
freed it by cutting a passage with a small pocket knife. But in doing this 
" his hands and arms . . . were completely frozen, Uke solid masses of 
ice, to his elbows, and were with great difficulty recovered by immersion 
in spirits " [84]. 

In 1825 the province suffered from another element. On October 7 
about one-third of the town of Fredericton was burnt, and on the same 
evening what was then described as ** the most extensive and 
destructive fire perhaps ever heard of" took place at Miramichi. 
•• Whole forests in the neighbourhood were in one continued blaze," 
and there being a hurricane at the time, " the devouring element spread 
with wonderful velocity, and . . . a most hideous, roaring noise." With 

* "The loyalty" of New Brunswick was attributed by Archdeacon Best in 1827 to 
thai "general feeling" in favour of the Church of England which existed there " to a 
degree onlmown in any other pcurt of British America" [81a]. 


the exception of a liousc or two the whole of Newcastle and Douglas 
Town was destroyed. Many lives were lost, some by rushing into the 
river. The anniversary of the event was " observed by all denomina- 
tions as a day of humiliation, fasting and prayer ** [85]. 

For quite ten years there had been an entire absence of episcopal 
ministrations in New Brunswick owing to the illness of Dr. Stanser, 
the second Bishop of Nova Scotia, but 182G brought with it an episcopal 
visit from Bishop John Inglis, when 19 churches were consecrated 
and 1,720 persons were confirmed [86]. 

All that could be done for the advancement of the Church in New 
Brunswick by a non resident Bishop that did he, and cheerfully he lK)re 
his share of the privations involved in visiting this part of his large 
diocese. In 1885 we hear of him being welcomed in the wilderness 
'* with torches and bonfires ** at Stanley, where a congregation of 60 
persons gathered together in a wooden shed for Divine Service. The 
Bishop ** preached tlie first sermon that was delivered on this spot and 
endeavoured to adapt it to the occasion, and to the place where only a 
few months before, the untamed beasts of the forest were the only 
occupants" [87]. This year's visitation occupied two months, every 
toil being "lightened " by a well-encouraged hope " that, through the 
blessing of God, this portion of the Gospel vineyard " was ** in a state 
of progress and improvement." The Missionaries, *' exemplary in 
their lives and conversation," were ** labouring faithfully through many 
difficulties," and to him it was '' a dehghtful task to share in their 
labours and their prayers " [88]. Their labours at this period must 
have been great, for there were only 28 clergymen to serve eighty 
parishes, and more than half of these parishes were without a Church 
building. With a view to meeting these deficiencies and ultimately 
to supporting the entire establishment from local sources, a Churon 
Society was formed for New Brunswick in 1886 [89]. One of the 
earliest members of this institution, the Hon. Chief Justice Chipman, 
bequeathed £10,000 to it at his death in 1852, and already by means 
of its grants 27 churches and stations were being served which would 
otherwise have been left unoccupied [40]. 

In 1845 the province was erected into a diocese, and the inhabitants 
of Fredericton hailed the appointment of the first Bishop (Dr. J. 
Medley) ** as an event, under the blessing of Divine Providence, 
calculated to have a deep and lasting influence in ameliorating the 
spiritual and temporal condition of this Province." They also assured 
the Bishop of their *' fervent desire to co-opera to " ** in advancing the 
interests of Christianity throughout this infant Colony." At his first 
service in the cathedral ** 150 persons communicated, among whom were 
some coloured people who had walked six miles to be present " [41], 
One of the first objects of the Bishop was the erection of a cathedral, 
and generally ** the increase of Church room for the poor." He ** stead- 
fastly resisted the advice of those who wished to deprive the cathedral 
of the advantages of seats free and open to all " [42]. 

The example of the cathedral with its daily service and frequent 
communions has been most beneficial to the diocese. In the majority 
of the churches seats are now ** firee to all " [48]. 

Within two years [1846-7] the number of Clergy had been raised 
from 80 to 44, but still in passing through the oountry there was 



"inoiinirnl evidence of its spiritual deHtitation " — " separate and lonely 
graves scattered about on farms or by the rondsiilc, without any mark 
of ChviBtian or even common sepulture." "Men and beasts" were 
"niiaigled together." "our brethren , . . committed to tbeearth without 
sign of aalvation, without any outward token of Christian fellowship, 
or B. future resurrection " [44]. 

Every year made the Bishop " more fully senHiblo of the great 
advantages " bestowed on the country by the Society. "Without its 
fostering aid it would be absolutely impossible in many of the country 
Missions to maintain a Clergyman ... in ordinary decency." Even 
sectarian [jreachers, taken from tlie lowest ranks of the people, were 
" unable to maintain themselves long in any one place " [46]. 

In 1^02 he presseil on hia 9oek the fact that since 1795 the Society 
had contributed £200,000 towards the maintenance of the Gburoli 
among them. Hisapjieiil to relieve the Society from the burden of 
further support met with a prompt response from the Clergy, who. 
though many of them were poor, gave nearly £1,000, and the Bishop 
added £800 [46]. 

That the Society's expenditure had borne good fruit was shown by 
the Rev. 8. Thoubon of St. Stephen's, who in summing up forty years' 
progress in one district said : " Contrast the state of this county 
(Charlottej as respects the Church when I came to it in 1821 with its 
state now. Then there were no Church huildings—save one in St. 
Andrew's and one imperfectly finished here ; now it has one in every 
pariah, save Deer Island; nine parish Churches and three Chapels, . . . 
Five of these parish Cburohes were got up by my brother and myself." 
These new churches were "handsome and convenient huildinga 
and well filled by devout worshipping congregations " and aU through 
the county " heartfelt religion " had sensibly inoreased and "many of 
the besettmg sins of new rauntries " had " greatly diminished " [47]. 

The King's Clear congregation at this time included "several 
families of coloured people," descendants of negro refugees. Before 
the opening of the Mission " they were all Anabaptists," but now were 
" exemplary and consistent members of the Church " [48]. It should 
be added that between 1786 and 1800 only three years pasBe<l without 
the baptism of negroes having been mentioned by the Society's 
Missionaries at one or other of the following places : Sfaugerville, 
St, John's, Fredericton, Gagetown, St. Andrew's, and Woodstock. 
The blacks who took refuge in New Brunswick at the time of the 
American Revolution were not numerous, but wherever they settled 
the Missionaries appear to have sought them out. The number 
baptized in the period referred to varied from two or tliree to twelve 
in a year. On one occasion 88 (25 adults) were admitted at Mauger- 
viUe [49]. 

In 1822 the school for children of persons of colour at St. John's 
had "succeeded beyond expectation" [49a]. Another negro settle- 
ment in the neighbourhood (Portland parish) was formed about 
1825, Sir Howard Douglas, "desirous of giving permanency to 
their title of occupation," yet " apprehensive of the cousequencea that 
might result from conferring on them in their present degraded state 
the elective francliise and other rights incident to the possession of a 
freehold," granted them leases of resen'ed lands for 99 years. Their 



*' truly deplorable " coudition moved the Society to grant anallowanoe 
for a scboolmaster for them [50]. 

The Bishop stated in 18G8 the Society had ** fostered and aBsiated 
ever}' Mission in the whole country, till we have learned (and in all 
the towns we have learned) to sustain our own Church by onr own 
unaided exertions *' [51]. The need of such help will be seen from the 
fact that New Brunswick, compared with some parts of Canada, is Yetj 
poor ; the value of the Crown glebes* bestowed on the Church is 
extremely small, and the immigrants having been chiefly Scotch and 
Irish have mostly gone to swell the ranks of the Presbyterians and 
Roman Calholics. Still the Anglican Church, with •* the benevolent 
and constant aid " of the Society, has not only been enabled to hold 
her own [52] but to tell of accessions from those of other denominations. 

A striking instance of this occurred in 1870, when a colony of 
i')anish immigrants — Lutherans -who had been ministered to for five 
years at New Denmark by one of their own persuasion, were at their 
own request admitted into the Church of England. Their cateohiaty 
Mr. Hansen, received ordination from Bishop Medley, and at the first 
confirmation held among them ** their joy was unbounded." In com- 
pliance with their home customs, the Bishop when confirming called 
each candidate by name [58]. 


On the retirement of Mr. Hansen in 1895 some difficulty was ex- 
l)erienced in finding a successor who could speak both English and 
Danish, the former language being used by the men and the latter by 
the women. The Bishop of an American (U.S.) diocese, however, relin- 
quished a Danish candidate for Holy Orders (^^r. C. F. Maimann) in 
view of the needs of New Denmark. In 1897 Mr. Maimann*8 charge 
constituted probably " the only Danish Anglican Church in Canada." 
The parish numbers nearly one hundred famihes. All are Ghnidi- 
people, Dissent having in vain tried to gain an entrance among them. 
Beady money is seldom seen at New Denmark ; business is transacted 
on the old Indian plan— trading; and the people contribute to the 
Church in produce and manual labour [58^]. 

Fredericton in IhOS was stated to rank still (as in 1848) ''among 
the poorest dioceses." Consequently, while the older Missions are 
becoming self-supporting, it has been ditticult to re-open past neglected 
spots and to occupy new settlements. A few years previous to 1894 a 
clergyman discovered a small community in his district, some members 
of which had given up being Churclipoople " because none came near 
them." But one woman called out to her mother that her longing 
prayers were at last granted, a clergyman having indeed come to 
see her before her death. In another settlement a woman had never 
ceased sending her subscription to the Diocesan Church Society, while 
waiting year after year, hoping against hope, " for a clergyman to 
baptize her child, and at last, knowing the value of the Sacrament, 
even when irregularly administered, had obtained it from a lav 
teacher." In a third place two brothers were discovered in 1894, botn 
still calling themselves Churchpeople, though their wives and 
children were of other denominations. The elder brother was moved 

* 8,900 acres of land were reserved by Government for the Church in New Bnma- 
wick aboot 1785, 5,S00 being for (i^lebes and 8,600 for schools; bat here, as in Nora 
Bofdiu, loaa oocurrea from squatters [62a]. 


to tears on seeing Bishop Kingdon, and said he had been confirmed 
fifty years before by Bishop Medley and had never communicated since, 
though he had several times visited Bathurst, thirty-five miles distant, 
in the hope of finding an opportunity. He had built a little chapel at 
the end of his land, on the roadside, "which was to be for all 
Protestant denominations,** but hitherto there had been no Church 
service there [54], On the whole, however, the spiritual growth of the 
diocese is remarkable. For the first thirty years (1845-74) the yearly 
average of persons confirmed was 374, for the next twenty years 
it was 612. During the same period there has been a nearly 
fourfold increase of communicants, though owing to emigration 
the actual number of Church members has decreased of late years. 
These facts were brought out on the occasion of the Diocesan 
Jubilee, held in 1895, under Bishop Kingdon [55], who, after being 
coadjutor Bishop since 1881, succeeded Bishop Medley on his death 
in 1802 [56]. Since the year 180G the Society's grant to New 
Brunswick has been subjected to an annual reduction of 10 per cent. 
[57] (566 page 176). 

{For Statistical Summary seep, 192.) 



Old Canada, 8ui)po8ed to have been discovered by Cabot in 1497, was taken posses- 
sion of by the French in 1025. The St. Lawrence wan explored by Jacques Cartier ten 
J ears later; and in 1608, under Champlain, their first settlement was founded at Quebec, 
n 1612 four RecoUet Priests were sent from France to convert the Indians. Other 
Roman Catholic Missionaries followed, and the Abbd Laval (appointed a Vicar Apostolic 
in 1669) became in 1670 the first Bishop of that Colony. Meanwhile Kirk* had in 1629 
captured Quebec, which remained in possession of the English three years, when under 
the Treaty of St. Germain it was relinquished. Its recapture by Wolfe in 1759 led to the 
cession of the whole of Old Canada to Great Britain in 1763. Two years later the 
population of the province was estimated by Governor Murray to be about 69,000. Of 
these the Protestants were few, numbering only 10 families in the towns of Quebec and 
Montreal. " The rest of that persuasion, a few half-pay oflicers excepted," he described 
as " traders, mechanics and publicans . . . most of them followers of the army, of mean 
education, or soldiers, disbanded at the reduction of the troops ... in general, the most 
immoral collection of men " he "ever know ; of course little calculated to make the new 
subjects enamoured with our laws, religion, and customs." The white population was 
computed! to be 140,000 in 1789, about 25,000 being English, who were " rapidly 
increasing by emigrations from the Revolted Colonies." In 1791 the province was 
divided into two provinces, the eastern being styled " Lower Canada " (now Quebec) 
and the Western " Up|;>er Canada " (now Ontario). To the honour of Upper Canada it 
should be recorded that one of the first acts of its Legislature (1792) was the abolition of 
slavery — an example which the mother country and her other colonies were slow to 
follow. The two provinces were re-united into one Government in 1840. On the con- 
quest by Great Britain the existing Church was guaranteed undisturbed possession of 
its rich endowments, and the majority of the population of the Quebec Province are still 
Roman Catholic. In Upper Canada the reverse is the case. 

Hitherto " a Rev. Mr. Brooke " has been credited with having been 
•'the first clergyman of the Church of England who officiated in Quebec." 
The same writer states (and no man of his time could speak with 
saoh authority on the subject) ** there is no record of his life or pro- 
ceedings. He arrived, it is supposed, almost immediately after the 

See page 107. t B. 1789, p. 51. 


conquest. The three next clergymen of whom we find any mention, 
seem to have been appointed by the Government, under the expectation 
that an impression might be made on the French Canadians bv 
clergymen who could perform the Anglican service in the French 
language." [See Kev. Ernest Hawkins' Aniials of tJie Diocese of 
Quebec, S.P.C.K., 1849, pp. 18-14.] 

A close study of the Society's Journals would have led to a modifi- 
cation of these statements and to the advancement of a claim on 
behalf of a Missionary of the Society, who played an important part 
in the proceedings which led to the capture of Quebec. On October 28, 

1759, the Rev. Michael Houdin, Itinerant Missionary of the Society 
in New Jersey, wrote from Quebec intreating that his absence from his 
Mission might not bring him under the Society's displeasure, as what 
he had done had "been in obedience to Lord Loudon and other 
succeeding Commanders" (of the British forces), ''who depended much 
on his being well acquainted with the country." After the reduction 
of Quebec he asked leave to return to his Mission, but the Governor, 
General Murray, ** ordered him to stay telling him there was no other 
person to be depended upon for intelligence of the French proceedings," 
and that he would acquaint the Society therewith. Mr. Houdin added 
that he as well as the public had ** received a great loss by the death 
of the brave General Wolfe who promised to remember his labour and 
services," and that he hoped to return to New Jersey in the spring of 

1760. He was however ** detained by General Amherst in Canada" 
fax on into 1761, and was then transferred to the Mission to the French 
Refugees at New Rochelle, New York [pp. 69, 855]. Formerly Mr. 
Houdin had been Superior of a Convent in Canada, but having become 
a convert to the Church of England he was (after some years' proba- 
tion) appointed to New Jersey, where he " acquitted himself well " [1]. 

Another Missionary of the Society, the Rev. John Ogilvie, attended 
the British troops to Canada in 1759 in the capacity of chaplain to 
the British soldiers and to their Mohawk allies, who formed part of his 
charge in the neighbourhood of Albany, New York. In 1760 he was 
'* obhged to return to Montreal for the winter season by express orders 
from General Amherst, who seem'd extremely sensible of the incon- 
veniency of removing him from his Mission for so long a time but said 
it must be so, to keep up the honour of the Protestant religion in a 
town where all the old inhabitants are of a contrary persuasion, by the 
regular and decent performance of the public offices of our Church." 

On the capitulation of Montreal the Roman Catholic priests were "all 
left in their respective parishes among the Indians, as well as the 
French inhabitants," and Mr. Ogilvie promised ** to do all in his power 
to recommend the Church of England by the public and constant per- 
formance of its Divine Worship, and by keeping up a friendly 
correspondence both with Clergy and Laity." To assist him in his 
work the Society sent him a supply of French Bibles and Prayer 
Books and of *' tracts in French on the chief points in dispute between 
the Protestants and Papists, wrote with the most Christian temper.'* 
" The British merchants with the garrison " in Montreal made " a 
considerable congregation," who assembled "regularly for Divine 
Worship on Sundays and other Festivals." From November 1760 to 
July 1768 he baptized 100 children, and he ** administered the holy 


Communion to SO or 40 persons at a time." " As by the Capitula- 
tion " 110 provieion was made " for a place of worship for the Established ' 
Church," Mr, Ogilvie's coiiRrcRation were ■' under a necessity of 
mailing use of one of the chapE'k " [Boman Civtbolic], which was " the 
cause of mucli discontiint." 

The Indians in tlie neighbourhood for some 40 miles distance 
were "estreraely attached to the Ceremonials of the [Roman Catholic] 
Church," and hod been " taught to believe the Englisli have no know- 
ledge of the Mystery of Man's redemption by Jesus Chrifit." Aa these 
Indiana spoke the Mohawk language Mr. Ogihie "endeavoured to 
remove their prejudices and by showing them the Litni^^ of our 
Church in their Mother Tongue," he " convinced many of them that 
we were their fellow Christians." 

The need of fixing a school and a Clergyman at Montreal was 
urged by him, aud he placed his services at the " Society's command," 
bat in the autumn of 17C4 "his uncet:taiu and unBeltled situation at 
Moutreal together with the solioitationa of his fnends," induced him 
to accept the oflice of assistant to the Hector of Trinity Church, New 
York. During his residence in Montreal Mr. Ogilvie succeeded in 
gathering congregations which became "numerous and fiourishing" 
under his care ; but after hia departure, for want of shepherding, 
they dwindled away, and "many converts who under him had re- 
nounced the errors of Popery" returned again '■ to the bosom of their 
former Church," and carried with them " some members of ours " [2]. 

Referring now to Mr.Brooko's ministrations we £nd the Society in 
Janunry 1762 considering a letter from " the Civil Officers, Merchants 
and Traders in Quebec," dated August 29, 1761, representing 
behalf of themselves and all British Protestant inhabitants that the 
Hev. John Brooke has been personally known to many of them from the 
arrival of the Fleet and Army from Britain in 1757 and to all of them 
by their attendance on his Ministry for more than a year past," and 
asking that he might be established a Missionary there, and pro- 
mising to contribute to his support. The petition was supported by 
General Murray [L., Sept, 1, 1761], " in compliance with the unanimous 
request of the Protestants in his Government," and "from a twenty 
years' knowledge of him aud a particular attention to hia conduct in 
the exercise of his functions for upwards of a year past." " In com- 
passion to a numerous body of poor children " General Murray 
appointed "a schoolmaster of competent anfiBciency and good 
character for iheir instruction" (via., Serjeant Watts), and assigned 
him a " proper room and dwelling," but both the General and Mr. 
Brooke [L., Sept. 1, 1761] desired assistance in supporting the school; 
the latter also aslied for salary for a schoolmistress, and for English and 
French Bibles and Prayer Books &c. for the soldiers and the (B.O.) 

The Society decided to consult with the Secretary of War on the 
subject of these communications [3]. 

In Febraary 1764 General Murray was assured 

'that the Bocietj' have the moat grateful sense ot hia good disposition towards them 
bj the particular atlenlion he is pleased to pn; to the state of Keligion 
ProTinoe and they will not (ail to oonjider bis request of having a Missionary 
appointed at Quebec as soon as the Qovernment have taken that nistler uadef 




their consideration and in the meantime have ordered 80 French Bibles 80 Frenoh 
Testaments 50 'small French and 50 small English Common Prayer Books (o be 
sent (o Mr. Brooke, to be distributed as he shall think proper " [4]. 

Nearly a year later (January 25, 1765) a petition was received from 
the " Chief Justice, Civil Officers and others of the City and Province 
of Quebec ** (March 1, 17G4), representing, *^ on behalf of themselves 
and other Protestant inhabitants,*' that the Rev. Dr. John Brooke had 
been resident in that place ''upwards of 4 years,** most of the time 
** in quality of Deputy Eegimental Chaplain and since of Chaplain to 
the Garrison ; appointments very inadequate to the Importance of his 
otlice, the labour of his cure, and that respectable appearance which 
be ought to sustain for his greater usefulness, amongst a Clergy and 
People, strangers to our Nation and prejudiced against our Faith and 
Religion.'* They therefore requested the Society to add to his existing 
appomtment ** that of a Missionary," and to appoint ** another Mis- 
sionary to Ofhciate in French ** and to assist Dr. Brooke in his English 
duties. In recommending the petition Dr. Brooke [L., Nov. 1, 1764] 
added ** that some of the Dissenting party '* were ** getting subscrip- 
tions for a minister of their own and forming a scheme of dividing 
from the Church, which should they succeed,'* would ** be very pre- 
judicial to the Protestant interest,** as it would "create great con- 
tempt in the minds of the Clergy and people tliere to see the 
Protestants so few in number, and yet divided among themselves " [5]. 

At the same meeting of the Society the President reported that he 
had received letters from the Rev. Mr. Samuel Bennet, dated Montreal, 
Nov. 19, 1764, stating tliat in Canada there were " but two Protestant 
Clergymen himself included/' that "this unhappy neglect of the 
Mother Country to form a religious establishment " there, was ** so 
improved by the Friars and Jesuits as to induce the French inhabitants 
to look upon their conquerors in an odious light and to become more 
impatient of the English yoke." Montreal, where Mr. Bennet was 
"accidentally stationed " that winter (by General Gage's orders) was 
" a large city inhabited by near 100 British Families, besides many 
French Protestants . . . also a garrison containing two Regiments of 
Soldiers," who frequently married " with French women and for want 
of Protestant Clergymen ** were " obliged to have recourse to Romish 
Priests to baptize their children.*' Mr. Bonnet expressed his intention 
of returning to England with his regiment unless the Society should 
appoint him a salary, in which case he would give up his chaplainship 
and remain [6]. The Society gave due consideration to these com- 
mmiicHtious, and after its representations the Government (1760-8) 
provided three Clergymen primarily for the French Protestants, but 
who also, according to their ability, ministered to the English. Two 
of them were Swiss, viz.. Rev. David Chadbrand de Lisle [stationed 
at Montreal 17G6], and Mons. Francis de Montmollin [Quebec 1768] ; 
the third, Mons. Legere Jean Baptist Noel Veyssi^re [Trois 
Rivieres 1768], was an ex-Recollet friar [" Father Emmanuel "1. 
To assist them in their work the Society supplied them witn 
Enghsh and French Prayer Books, Bibles, and other religious 
books, but their ministrations were less acceptable than had been 
anticipated. Colonel Clans stated in 1782 that the "Dissenting 


Goyemor *' appointed oyer the Provisce at its conquest had represented 
the nnmber of French Protestants there as consisting of '* ^me hundreds 
of families, when in fact there were hardly a dozen.'' Hence the 
supersession of Dr. Ogilvie — "an ornament and a blessing to the 
Church " — by French Clergymen had ** been a fatal measure." 

Mr. de Lisle reported in 17G7 that the Bomish priests availed 
themselves greatly ** of the neglected state of the Church of England 
in those parts," ** persuading the Canadians that the Government" 
had "not religion at heart." Being "destitute of a decent place of 
worship," he was " forced to perform it in the Hospital Chapel." Two 
Canadians and one German had " made their recantations," and in 
the year he had baptized 58 children, a negro boy, and an Indian child, 
and " married 22 couple." The Enghsh inhabitants of Montreal at 
this time, though mostly Presbyterians, attended the Church service 
constantly. But in 1784-6 the Dissenters " being weary of attending 
the ministry of a man they could not understand and for other reasons " 
"entered into a liberal subscription for a Presbyterian minister," 
and chose a Mr. Bethune, formerly chaplain in the 84th Regiment, 
" a man of hberal sentiments and good morals, and not unfriendly to 
our Church," having " regularly attended Divine Service and joined 
in it, till he obtained this appointment."* 

From Quebec Mr. Montmollin wrote in 1770-1 that his congrega- 
tion " daily grows smaller," rehgion " being Httle regarded in those 
parts." Of Mons. Yeyssi^res the Bishop of Nova Scotia reported in 
1789: he "does us no credit and is almost useless as a Clergy- 
man" [7]. 

In 1778 a" Committee for erecting a School at Montreal" appealed 
for assistance in establishing it, but the Society regarded the request 
" as not yet properly coming within " its province [8]. 

The year 1777 brought with it to Canada refugees from the revolted 
Colonies to the south of the St. Lawrence, and among them the Rev. 
John Doty, S.P.G. Missionary at Schenectady, New York, who, having 
"been made twice a prisoner," found it necessary **to retire with 
his family into Canada." His distresses in removing were lessened 
by his having been appointed "Chaplain to His Majesty's Royal 
Regiment of New York." As a great part of the New York Mohawksf 
had joined the royal army, he was able to serve them also. On an 
allotment about six miles distant from Montreal the Mohawks in 1778 
"built a few temporary huts for their famihes and ... a log 
house for the sole purpose of a Church and a Council room." In 
it Mr. Doty officiated " to the whole assembled village, who behaved 
with apparent seriousness and devotion " ; and on his admonishing 
them to remember their baptismal vows, and assuring them of his 
readiness to do anything for them in his power, one of their Chiefs 
answered for the whole " that they would never forget their baptismal 
obligations, nor tne religion they had been educated in, and that it 
revived their hearts to find once more a Christian Minister among 
them, and to meet together, as formerly, for the worship of Almighty 
Ood." So far as Mr. Doty could ascertain, these Mohawks from the 
Society's Mission at Fort Hunter were "more civiUzed in their manners, 
than any other Indians " [9]. 

* Two of Mr. Bethune's sons took Holy Orders, and one became Bishop of Toronto 
t See p. U. 



Mr. Doty's conduct in this matter received the approbation of 
Colonel ClauB (Superintendent of the Lojal Indiana), who showed 
" unremitting zeal in co-operating with the . . . Soi:ietv to promote a 
true sense " of " religion among the Indians," having provided them 
with a log house for a church and school, also with a native teacher, 
a primer and a revised edition of their Mohawk Prayer Book [10]. 

In 1781 the Mohawks were rejoined by their old pastor, the 
Rev. John Stl'ast, who, "after varioua trials and distresses " as a 
loyalist in New York Province escaped to Canada. For some years 
his headquarters were at Montreal, whence ho visited the Mohawks 
both in that neighbourhood (La Chine) and in Upper Canada, where 
they began to remove in 1782, and where he himself permanently 
settled in 1785 [11]. [Sec also pp. 73-4, 164.] 

In the meantime the Society bad been made well acquainted with 
the religious needs of Canada through Mr. Doty, who had paid two 
visits to England (between 1781-3). On the second occasion he drew 
up (in January 1783), " Minutes of the present state of the Church in 
the Province of Canada," which are here printed almost in full : — 

" 1. Tiie Canailian PapistB (which aie ver; DUioeroDB) are in gcueial a, well 
tlispDEei) people ; attached indeed to their own religion, yet inclined to think nell 
of 5«riuui Protestiuits ; and in monj reepecte. open to couviotioii. 

"a. TheFrench Proteatanta this time abont 10 or 12 in number, 
and probabi; never exceeded 20 : vhile, on the contrary, the Eng)is!i Protestants, 
immediately after the cooqneet ot the couDtry amounted to more than 10 times aa 
many ; and are now estimated at no less than 6,000 beside the tioops. 

" 3. To the former of these, three French Clergymen were sent" out bj 
Government, aoon after the peace of 176B,' appointed to their respective parishes 
(viz'. Qudisc. Trois Rivieres, and Montreal) by a Eoyal Mandamus, "ith a stipend 
of £200 sterling per annum, paid to each of them oat of the Bevenues of the 
Province, beaidea which one of them is Chaplain to the garrison where he resides. 

"i. Two ot these gentlemen (natives of Switzerland and doiihtless, men 
ol ability in their own langnage) pertonn, as well as they can, in Enjdish ; but 
there is not one Ungliah Clergyman settled in all the Province (excepting on 
Independent Minister, who has a Bnioll congregation at Quebec where be has 
resided for some years past), nor is there a singleProtestant Church, the Piotestanls 
being obliged to make ase of Bomish Chapela.t 

" 5. Thepaueity of French hearers hath sofarseloeide the performance of Divine 
Service and preaching in French, that during four years' residence in Canada, the 
writer ot these Minutes doth not remember to have heard ol four sermons in tbjt 

■' G. Catechising, however trnportact in its consequenoes, is a practice unlcnown 
in that country : and the aod efTccts of so great an omiBsion are visible— too many 
ol the rising generation tall on easy prey to Fopery, Irreligion and Inlidelity. 

" 7. The eveuiagt Service of the Cbuioli ot England is not performed : The 
weekly prayer days. Saints' Days itc., are totally neglected : and the Sacramental 
the Lord's Supper administered not above S ot 4 times in a year at Montreal, not 
m> often at Quebec and not at all at TtoisBivieree. 

* [Bee p. 19«. U. Voyssi^re left the Becollete in 1T66, catne lo Englaiid in ITflT, 
and returued to Canudii in 1768, Mr. Da Lisle's firat oommunicalion with the 
Society waa in I7S7 ; oud M. d« MouLiiioUin'a noma ■ppeors in the Qnebec register in 

t [At Quebea allei every Engliah aervice, the chapel Dcderwent " a regular IniLra- 
lion" to remove the suppoBtid pollution [ISa].} 

J [While at Montreal the Rev. Dr. Stunrt aBaieted Mr Da Linle, the Hwios clergyman, 


** 8. The most destitute places are Sorrel and St. John's. The former is a 
floorishing town, pleasantly sitoated on a point of land, at the oonflnx of Uie 
Rivers Sorrel and St. Lawrence. It is the key of Canada from the southward and 
bids fair to be in time one of the largest places in the province. The number of 
Protestant English families there at present is about 40 besides the garrison, which 
is middling large. It is just 15 leagues below Montreal. Saint John's is more of 
a frontier town situated on the west bank of the Biver Chambly . . . and is about 
6 leagues from the mouth of the Lake [Champlain]. The number of Protestant 
English families thdre at present is near upon 50 : the garrison as large as that 
of Sorrel. Besides these, there are many other families scattered in different 
places. . . . 

'* 9. To the foregoing may be added the garrisons of Niagara and Detroit, though 
not in the Province of Canada. The latter is situated at the entrance of the Strait 
between Lakes Erie and Huron — about 900 miles N.S.W. from Quebec; and 
according to the best accounts, commands a beautiful country. It's inhabitants are 
ehiefly French Catholicks ; but there are many English Protestants among them 
and the garrison especially consisteth of English alone : they have no minister, 
but a Popish Missionary. Niagara ... is also a garrison town. The inhabitants 
are, for the most part, English Traders, and pretty numerous. It has likewise been 
lor some time past, a place of general rendezvous for loyal Refugees from the 
back parts of the Colonies ; and especially for the greater part of the Six Nation 
Indians, who have withdrawn, with their families, to the vicinage of that place, 
where it is likely they will remain : among the rest are a part of the Iroquois or 
Mohawk nation." 

Then follows '* a general estimation of the number of Protestant 
English families in the Province of Canada," the total being 746 
fiEimilies (250 at Quebec, and 160 at Montreal) ; besides 60 at Detroit 
and 40 at Niagara, and ** many other English families in the vicin- 
age of Quebec and Trois Rivieres, whose numbers cannot at present 
be well ascertained." ** The aggregate of families in Canada (Protes- 
tant and Catholic) is supposed to be between 50 and 60,000." 

In submitting these " Minutes '* Mr. Doty added, the Society 

** will not have the rank weeds of Republicanism and Independency to root out 
before they can sow the pure seeds of the Grospel, as was too much the case 
heretofore, in the Colonies, but on the contrary they will find a people (like thei 
good ground) in a great measure prepared and made ready to their hand. The i 
Protestants to a man are loyal subjects, and in general members of the Church of ' 
England ** [12]. 

To gather these into congregations, and to build them up in the 
fjEtith, was an object to which the Society now directed its attention, 
and as Mr. Doty ** freely offered his services," it was decided to make 
a "trial " by appointing him to open a Mission at Sorrel [18]. 

After this introduction to Old Canada it will be convenient to keep 
the accounts of the Society's work in Lower and Upper Canada as 
distinct as possible. 



PROVINCE OF QUEBEC— (continued). 

On his arrival at Borrel in 1784 the Rev. John Doty found that 
nearly 800 families of loyalists, chiefly from New York, had just 
removed from Sorrel to Cataracqui, Upper Canada. There remained 
'* 70 famiHes of Loyalists and other Protestants '* within the town 
and district. These, '* though a mixed Society, consisting of Dis- 
senters, Lutherans, and Churchmen** all attended Divine worship, 
** the Dissenters conforming to the Liturgy and the Lutherans, with- 
out exception, declaring themselves members of our Church.** For 
the first few weeks he performed service *' in the Romish chapel," 
but as the continuance of that indulgence was inconvenient he got 
the permission of the commanding officer to fit up ''a barrack** in 
which a congregation of about 160 assembled " every Lord*8 Day." 
Some Prayer Books and tracts which he brought were gratefully 
received, and the people also expressed their ** gratitude to the Society 
for their Apostohc Charity in sending them a Missionary *'[!]. 

Within two years the communicants had increased from 29 to 50 
and in 1786 he purchased " one of the best houses in Sorrel,'* " being 
part of a bankrupt's eflFects,** "for only 16 guineas,** out of a 
collection of over £80 which he had obtained in Montreal. It was 
"fitted for a church, so as to accommodate above 120 persons,** and 
opened for service on Christmas Day 1786, when it was crowded, and 
thirty- two persons received the Communion. Soon after. Brigadier 
General Hope, Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chief, gave 
five guineas. Captain Barnes of the E.A. a bell, and Captain Gother 
Man " some boards and timber.'* This " encouraged them to add a 
steeple to their church which was finished about midsummer** [2]. 
Such was the erection of the first English church in Old Canada. 

With the aid of Lord Dorchester it was replaced by a new struc- 
ture, which was opened on October 8, 1790 [8]. By 1791 the church 
had been pewed and become ** a very decent and commodious place of 
worship." The people in general were ** observant of the sacred 
Institutions of the Church ** ; their children were sent to be catechised, 
they themselves were " regular and serious in their attendance,** and 
the garrison were *'no less exemplary " [4]. 

In 1787 land was allotted by Government for a church and par- 
sonage house, a glebe also being promised. From this time for many 
years the town was generally called ** William Henry " * [5]. 

Mr. Doty remained there till 1802, occasionally ministering in 
other parts also. In 1788 he heard that a number of Germans, 
** chiefly the remains of the troops lately in that country," had formed 
themselves into a distinct congregation at Montreal, and with the 
Governor's permission, assembled on Sundays in the Court House. 
They numbered 168 (118 men), and though ver} poor, paid Mr. J. A. 
Schmidt £40 a year (currency) to read the Scriptures to them and 
instruct their children. They were unacquainted with English, but 

* In liouour of a visit of H.B.H. Prinoe William Honry, aftorwiuds William IV. 


cm Mr. Doty sending them one of the Society's German Prayer Books 
"in abont 10 or 12 days they sent Mr. Schmidt, with two of their 
people, to request some more, as they had unanimously determined to 
conform to it." A sufficient supply was soon forthcoming from the 
Society [6]. In 1798 Mr. Doty visited ** a new and flourishing settle- 
ment,'* St. Armand, about 90 miles from Sorrpl. He was received with 
"much affection," and had **a serious and crowded audience, and 
baptized 6 infants and one adult." At a second visit (in 1799) he 
remained twelve days. The district of St. Armand (18 miles by 4) con- 
tained from 1,200 to 1,500 souls, all "Protestants and a considerable 
part professing the Church of England." They were " very earnest to 
have a Missionary," and subscribed £80 a year for his support* [7]. 

The year 1789 was memorable for the first visit of an Anglican 
Bishop to Old Canada. The ecclesiastical state of the province " was 
by no means such as could give either strength or respect to the 
national j[)rofession," but Bishop Chables Ingles of Nova Scotia 
exerted hunself *' to put it upon the best footing it could . . . admit of." 
[His visit extended from Jwie 10, the day he landed at Quebec, to 
A^igust 18.] He fixed the Bev. Philip Tooseyt at Quebec, and the 
Bev. [James Mabmaduee] t Tunbtall at Montreal, for the special 
benefit of the English settlers, who ** very earnestly desired to have 
an English Clergyman," since they could '^ reap little advantage " 
from the ministrations of the Government ministers appointed some 
years before for the French inhabitants. 

The" Protestants" at Montreal were "reckoned at 2,000"; at 
Quebec there were "not so many," but 180 were confirmed here and 
170 at Montreal. The Bishop appointed Mr. Toosey his Commissary 
for the Eastern limits of the province, and he confirmed the Society's 
good opinion of Mr. Doty as " a worthy diligent Missionary " [8]. 

The need of a resident Bishop for Old Canada received earlier 
recognition than the English Government had been accustomed to 
give to such matters, for in 1793 Dr. Jacob Mountain was consecrated 
Bishop of Quebec, thus reliering the Bishop of Nova Scotia of the 
charge of Lower and Upper Canada. At this time there were still 
only six clergymen in the Lower Province, including the three French- 
speaking ones, and in the remainder of the century only one was added 
to the Society's Hat, viz., the Bishop's brother, the Rev. Jehosaphat 
Mountain, appointed to Three Rivers (Trois Rivieres) in 1795. 

At this place Divine Service had " for some years past been per- 
formed in the Court House " by M. Veyssi^res, the French clergyman, 
but a part of the building was now (1795) separated for a church, and 
under Mr. Mountain the communicants increased in two years from 
4 to 18 [9]. 

During the next twelve years (1794-1807) only two other Missions 
were opened by the Society in Lower Canada— Quebec (Rev. J. S. 
Budd) and St. Armand and Dunham (Rev. R. Q. Short), both in 
1800 [10]. 

The reason for this will appear from a memorial addressed by the 

• Other places visited by Mr. Doty were St. John's (afterwards called Dorchester), 
1794, 1799, &o.; Caldwell's Manor and L'Assomption, 1790; and Berthier, 1799 or 
before [To]. 

t Mr. Toosey was not an S.P.G. Missionary. 

X Mr. TanstaU was wrongly referred to as " John " in 1788-9. 


Society to the English Govemment in 1807, after personal conference 
with the Bishop of Quebec and the son of the Bishop of Nova Scotia. It 
stated that the Churches of Canada and Nova Scotia were ** rather on the 
decHne than advancing towards the state of being able to maintain them- 
selves, tho* a great part of the revenues of the Society *' was being " ab- 
sorbed in supporting them. None of those in Canada, except at Quebec, 
Montreal, and Trois Rivieres" had "yet reached that point. The 
cause " was '^ that the Protestant Clergy were ** not legally established 
or confirmed in their churches.*' They were ** dependent on the Crown, 
and their situation " was *' rendered uncomfortable, and indeed hardly 
tenable,** unless they pleased the inhabitants, in which ** persons of 
very respectable abihties and character " often failed ; those who suc- 
ceeded best were " native Americans,** but the supply of such wasdifH- 
cult **for want of proper education.** There was **a Cathedral,* 
Choir, and (^hoir Service at Quebec but not endowed." The Bishop 
had " not the means of enforcing discipline over his own Clergy." 
" The Provision for a Protestant Clergy by Act of Parliament 31 
G[eo]. III., one-seventh of all lands granted since the Peace of Paris 
in 1702 (one-seventh being also reserved for the Crown),** had "not 
yet been of much service." t The building of churches also in 
either province was succeeding " but ill." "It ought to be done by 
the inhabitants,*' and was sometimes " liberally " when they liked the 
clergyman, " otherwise not at all.*' In the meantime in Canada the 
Roman Catholics had " great advantages over the Protestants,** and 
had " lately usurped more than they formerly did, or was intended 
to be allowed them.** They had " even by Act of Parliament not only 
their parishes but even tithes." The " patronage of their Bishops*' 
was " reckoned to be from 40 to £60,000 per an." They had "even 
proceeded so far as to question the validity of marriages celebrated 
according to the form of the Church of England, it being alledged that 
the contract " was " not according to the law of Canada as by Act 14 
G. III. and no Church of England known to the law of the country." 
The proportion of inhabitants in Lower Canada was given as 225,000 
[Roman] Catholics to about 25,000 Protestants, and it was stated 
generally that " the Protestant Church ** was " more likely to decline 
than to advance, till either a fuller effect is given to the Act in its favour 
or further provision made " [11]. 

At this period (1807) the Society was privileged to secure the 
services of one who has done perhaps as much as anyone to 
plant and bmld up the Church in Canada. The Rev. and Hon. 
Charles J. Stewart, a son of the Earl of Galloway, while em- 
ployed as a beneficed clergyman in England, is said to have been 
contemplating Missionary work in India when an account of the 
deplorable condition of St. Armand (heard at a meeting of the Society) 
moved him to offer himself for that district. Between 1800-7 three 
successive clergymen had laboured there, but with little success, and 
on Mr. Stewart's arrival (Oct. 1807), the landlord of the inn where 
he put up endeavoured to dissuade him from holding service, informing 
him that " not very long before, a preacher had come to settle therCi 

* Built by the boanty of George TTT, Opened and oonBocrated Aug. 28, 1804 [11a]. 
The organ imported from England was the first ever heard in Canada [115]. 
t [8es the Account of the Clergy Reseryes, pp. 161-8.] 


but that after remaining some time he had found the people so 
wicked and abandoned that he had left it in despair." ** Then," said 
the Missionary, ** this is the very place for 7ne ; here I am needed ; 
and by God's grace here I will remain, and trust to Him in whose 
hand are the hearts of all people, for success ** [12]. For a few 
Sundays he officiated at the inn, then in a small school- room ; and when 
in January 1809 a new church was opened in the eastern part of this 
district, he had a congregation of r.OOO persons. His communicants 
had already increased from 6 to 44 ; 60 persons were confirmed later 
in the year, and in 1811 ** a great concourse of people " assembled in 
a second church, erected in the western district, which hitherto had 
been without a single church, although possessing a population of 
40,000 [18]. His ministrations were extended far and wide, and while 
visiting England in 1815-17 he raised among his friends a fund (£2,300) 
which " assisted in building twenty-four churches " in the poorer settle- 
ments of Canada [14]. Committing his former Mission, now settled 
and flourishing, to other hands, in 1818 he moved to Hatley, another 
neglected spot. Here, with scarcely *'a congenial companion, in habits, 
manners or attainments," Dr. G. J. Mountain (afterwards Bishop of 
Quebec) saw him in 1810, winning rapidly upon all parties, and forming 
Church congregations. 

"I found him," he says, **in oooapation of a small garret in a wooden house, 
reached by a sort of ladder, or something between that and a staircase : here he 
had one room in which were his little open bed, his books and his writing table — 
everything of the plainest possible kind. The farmer's family, who lived below, 
boarded him and his servant. Soon after my arrival I was seized with an attack 
of illness and he immediately gave me up his room and made shift for himself in 
some other part of the house, how I know not. And here, buried in the woods, 
and looking out upon the dreary landscape of snow— some thousands of miles 
away from all his connexions, many of whom were among the highest nobility of 
Britain— this simple and single-hearted man, very far from strong in bodily 
health, was labouring to build up the Church of God and advance the cause of 
Christ among a population, who were yet to be moulded to anything approaching 
to order, uniformity or settled habit of any kind in religion — utter strangers to the 
CSinrch of England, with I believe the exception of a single family, and not 
participants in the great majority of instances of cither of the Sacraments of the 
Christian religion *' [15] . 

At this time Dr. Stewart and his servant were living on a dollar a 
day ; and he hmited his personal expenses to £250 a year in order 
that he might devote the remainder — i^400— of his income ** to public 
and private beneficial purposes " [15a]. 

As "visiting Missionary'* for the Diocese (appointed 1819) he 
reported in 1820 that " the progress and eflPects " of the Society's 
exertions had ** already been very great and beneficial " ; the Church 
had "widely extended her influence," and was ** rapidly increasing 
her congregations." ** Many persons of different persuasions," had 
already " united with her." In the previous year over 12,000 
immigrants had arrived at Quebec [16]. 

Besides sending Missionaries from England, the Society strove to 
raise up a body of " Native American " Clergy, by providing for 
the training of candidates for Holy Orders in the country ; and this 
form of aid — begun in 1815 and continued to the present time— has 
perhaps been as valuable as any that could be given [17]. [See also 
pp. 779, 841.] 


The Society also took a liBading part in promoting the education of 
the masses, by making grants for Schoohnasters, for many years 
onward from 1807, and by introducing in 1819 the National School 
system of education into Lower Canada [18]. [See also p. 769.] 

Special provision was likewise made for the building of Churches — 
in addition to Dr. Stewart's fund. Referring to one sum of £2,000 
placed at his disposal for this object, the Bishop of Quebec wrote in 
1820 : " The pious liberality of the Society appears to have produced 
the happiest effect ; it was natural indeed that it should tend to attach 
the inhabitants to the Church and to call forth their exertions to 
qualify themselves for obtaining the estabhshment of Missions among 
them and this it has evidently done '' [19]. 

On the death of Bishop Jacob Mountain in 1825 Dr. Stbwabt 
was chosen his successor, and consecrated in 1826. His altered 
position and circumstances, when holding a visitation as Bishop in 
districts in which he had previously travelled as a Missionary, made no 
alteration in his simple habits and unaffected piety [20]. 

In 1830, having regard to the fact that ''the only impediment to 
the rapid extension of the Church *' in the Diocese was ** the want of 
resources for the maintenance of a body of Clergy in any respect 
adequate to the wants of the two provinces," the Society supplied the 
Bishop with the means of forming a body of licensed Catechists, acting 
under subordination to the Clergy. Some such measure was necessary 
''in order to maintain even the profession of Christianity '* in isolated 
parts, and the effect produced was " highly beneficial.*' As soon as 
possible their places were taken by ordained Missionaries [21]. 

For ten years Bishop Stewart bore the burden of his vast 
Diocese, doing his utmost to supply its needs. In 1886, being worn out 
by his incessant labours, he obtained the assistance of a coadjutor, 
and sought rest in England, where he died in the following year [22]. 

His coadjutor, Dr. George Jehoshaphat Mountain, continued 
to administer the Diocese, but retained the title of " Bishop of 
Montreal " until the formation of a See of that name, when (July 25, 
1850) he became nominally, what in reaHty he had been from 1887, 
Bishop of Quebec [28]. 

Already, as Archdeacon of Quebec for fifteen years, he had a 
thorough knowledge of the diocese, and shortly after his consecration 
he wrote : — 

" Since the Society has been sometimes reproached with a presumed character 
of inertness attaching to the Clergy in Canada, and since that bounty, which is so 
greatly needed from the British public, is proportioned to the estimate formed of 
its profitable application, I cannot forbear from adverting to a very few simple facts, 
as examples of the statements which might be put forth in recommendation of the 
Canadian Church. I do not. of course, mean that the labours of all the Clergy are 
in accordance with the picture which I procofnl to sketch — some are, from 
situation, not exposed to any necessity for hardships or severe exertions ; and it 
must be expected to happen that some should be less devoted than others to the 
cause of Christ ; but not to speak of the episcopal labours which, from the 
prominent situation of those who have Buccessivoly discharged them, arc of 
necessity better known, I could mention such occurrences, as that a Clergyman, 
upon a circuit of .luty, has passed twelve nights in the open air, six in boats upon 
the water, and six in the depths of the trackless forest with Indian guides ; and a 
Deacon, making his insolitos nisus when scarcely fledged, as it were, for the more 
arduous flights of duty, has performed joomeyB of 120 miles in the midst of winter 


□pou t,-i]oH-Hhoc9. I couJil tell bow some of Ifaeae poor ill-paid servants oi tho 
Goitpel have been worn down in strength before their time at rcniutc ami Jaborious 
Btutiuna. I (Mjulcl give many a history of pe[iioverm(c travels in tlie ordinary 
exelciae of ministerial duty, in defiaiice of dilKciilties and accidents, thcouijb woods 
and roads almost impracticable, and ia all tbe seTeritieB of weather ; or of rivers 
Uaverscd amiil masRcs of floating ice. when the experienced canoe-men nonld not 
have proceeded without beini; urged. I have known one minister sleep all nifliit 
abroad, when there was snow upon the ^onnd. I have known others answer uolls 
to a aick-beil at the distance of fifteen or twenty miles in the wintry woods ; and 
others who have travelled all night to keep a Sunday appointment, after a call of 
this natore on the Saturday. These are things which have been done by the 
dargy of Lower Canada, and in almost every single instauce which has been here 
given by Missionariaa of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Faita. . . . The chief object of my anxiety is to draw some favourable attention 
to the unprovided condition of many settleinentE. ... In the township of 
Kilkenny, lying near to Montreal, I have been assnreil by one of the principal 
inhabitants that there are 1*30 families, and that they all belong to our own Church. 
I do not think that any of our Clergy have ever penetrated to this settlement ; and 
I have DO reason tu doubt tbe melancholy truth of an account given me, that the 
people heating of a Protestant minister, whom some ciroumhtanoe had brought into 
the adjoining seigneurie, came trooping through the woods with their infants in 
their anna, to present tliem for baptism in Ihe yiatne of tlic Father, the San, an4 
the Holy Qhoat, to one who was a preacher of the Unitarian persnaaion I ... I 
conid pioture the greetinns (jiven to the messenger of Christ by some congregations 
to whom bis visit is a rare occurrence ; or I coald mention «aali individual oases 
M that oi ■ woman who walks three miles to her ehuroh. having a river through 
whicli she mast wade in her way ; and of another who oomes nearly four times that 
distance through the woods, to hear the Church Prayers and a printed sermon, at 
the house of a lady, who assembles the Proteilants of the neighbourhood on a 
Sunday. . . . Between the city of Qnebcc and the inhabited part of the district of 
Oaape, in the Quit, a distance ol more than 400 milea, there is no Protestant 
Minister to be found. At Afatis ... I was most affectionately received . . . The 
people told me, when a^seoibietl in a body, that they nere about equally divided 
between the Churches of England and Scotland but should be but too bsppy to 
nnite under a minister supplied to them hy tho fonnet." 

After referring to the loss of the parliamentary grant for Church 
purposes, and tbe prospect of the confiscation of the Clergy Reaerves 
and entire withdrawal of the Government allowance for the Bishop, 
be concluded : " Our chief earthly resource is in the fostering hcnevo- 
lence and friendly interposition of the Society " [24], 

The formntion of Upper Canada into a separate see (Toronto) in 
1889, gi-eatly thoupth it relieveii Bishop Mountain, still left him a 
diocese as large as France. Writing after one of his tours in 1841, 
he said : — 

" In all my discourugcments, I often think what a wonderful blessing to the 
wmntry has been offordcd in the beneficence of the Society. . . . Great and 
lamentable as ia the destitnljon of many parts of the diocese . . . yet sound 
religion lias been kept alive in the land . . . and a good beginning has been made 
In multiplied instances which may . . . prove the best happiness of generations 
yet to come" [25]. 

A hitherto entirely neglected district, the coast of Labrador, first 
received the minLstratioiis of the Church in 1840. The Rev. E. 
CusACK, who then made a tour extending to Forteau in the Newfound- 
land Government, discovered that though tho permanent settlers were 
few, yet in the summer some 15,000 fishermen visittd the Canadian 
Bettletnents aloue. No provisiou existed for Divine worship, many of 


the people were " walking in still worse than heathenish darkness," and 
at one place *' almost all the adults bad been baptized by laymen and 
were so utterly ignorant as to be unfit for adult baptism " [26]. 

'* While (christian friends at home are doing much for India, little 
do they imagine the heathenish darkness which exists in many parts 
of our scattered settlements of Canada/' wrote another Missionary in 
1842. Of one of the settlers in the Kingscy Mission he said he could 
not '* conceive it possible that any, except a heathen, could be in such 
a state " [27]. 

The " influence *' which " presided over the Proceedings of Govern- 
ment " in relation to the Church in Canada appeared to the Bishop (in 
1848) to have ^'resembled some enchantment which abuses the mind." 
*' In broad and reproachful contrast, in every singular particular, to 
the institutions founded for the old colonists by the Crown of France," 
the British Government suffered " its own people members of the 
Church of the Empire, to starve and languish with reference to the 
supply of theii* spiritual wants," and left '* its emigrant children to 
scatter themselves at random here and there over the country, upon 
their arrival without any digested plan to the formation of settlements, 
or any guide (had it not been for the Society . . . ) to lead them rightly in 
their new trials, temptations and responsibilities. The value of the 
Missions and other boons received from the Society," said he, 

*' may be vrell estimated from this melancholy survey of the subject. . . . Yet on 
the other hand when we look at the advances which through all the:$e difficulties 
and d<:spite all these discouragements the Church has been permitted to make we 
have cause to lift up our hands in thankfulness and our hearts in hope. . . . 
When I contemplate the case of our Missionaries, and think of the efifects of their 
labours, I look upon them as marked examples of men whose reward is not in this 
world. Men leading lives of toil and more or less of hardship and privation . . . 
the very consideration which attaches to them as clergymen of the English Ghoroh 
Establishment exposing them to worldly mortification, from their inability to 
maintain appearances consistent with any such pretension— they are yet, under 
the hand of God, the dispensers of present and the founders of future blessing in 
the land. There are many points of view in which they may be so regarded ; for 
wherever a Church is established there is to a certain extent a focus for improve- 
ment found : but nothing is more striking than the barrier which the Church, 
without any adventitious sources of influence, opposes to the impetuous flood of 
fanaticism rushing at intervals through the newer parts of the country. . . . 
Nothing else can stand against it. . . . This has been remarkably the case with the 
preaching of Millerism . . . than which anything more fanatic can scarcely be 
conceived. . . . Some men have been known to say that they will bum their Bibles 
if these [Miller] prophecies should fail. ... In the meantime . . . the Chorcb 
. . . preserves her steady course and rides like the ark, upon the agitated flood. 
Her people are steadfast and cleave with the closer attachment to their own system, 
from witnessing the unhappy extravagance which prevails around them. Others 
also of a oober judgment, are wont to regard her with an eye of favour and respect. 
Without the check which she creates, the country round would in a manner, allrnn 
mad. . . . Loyalty is another conspicuous fruit of Church principles in a colony. 
Loyalty which in Canada has been proved and tried in many ways. . . . SSuoh then 
is the work of the good Society among us " [2s]. 

In his visitation this year (1848) the Bishop had to pass a night 
in a fisherman's hut, consisting of one room and containing a family 
of tliirteen, and the next day, to avoid breakfi&sting there, he had to 
travel through wind and rain in '* a oommon cart, without springs 


aud wifh part of the bottom broken out," the journey of 18^ miles 
(Baisseau- Jaunisse to Port Daniel) occupying nearly seven hours. At 
Kilkenny a church was consecrated, and 24 persons were confirmed. 
It was the first episcopal visit, and the people proposed to name the 
building the ** Mountain Church," but the Bishop ''called it after 
St. John the Baptist " "as being built for preaching in the wilderness, 
with which they were highly pleased." At Huntingdon was seen an 
example of the " deplorable effects of schism in a new country.** 
Here, "in a spot scarcely reclaimed from the woods,** and where onegood 
spacious church might have contained all the worshippers, were "four 
Protestant places of worship- altar against altar — all ill appointed, all 
ill supported,** while many ruder and more remote settlements were 
almost entirely neglected. In such instances "the forbearance and 
dignity of the Church . . . stood in most advantageous contrast with 
the proceedings of other parties." 

Towards providing Communion plate for Sherbrooke Church a 
woman who was not able " to do more," had given a silver soup ladle 
. . . contenting herself with one of earthenware or pewter,'* Claren- 
don was another place which had been unvisited by any Bishop. ** As 
a specimen of the state of things in the new parts of a colony,*' it 
is recorded that a settler here had gone three times to Bytown, " a 
distance of fifty odd miles, to be married," and was only successful on 
the third occasion, the clergyman having been absent on other calls. 
The way to Clarendon Church was by a narrow wood road. 

" In places " (said the Bishop) " we had nothing for it but to fight through the 
younger growth and bushes, making a circuit and regaining the road. . . . Service 
was at three. . . . Eighty-six [persons] had received tickets from Mr. Falloon, 
fifty -one were confirmed ; about forty other persona were present. Two of the 
Babjects for confirmation arrived after . . . the service and were then separately 
confirmed : one of these, a lad . . . had travelled on foot 22 miles that day. Many 
of the males were in their shirt sleeves. I have detailed all these particulars 
because they set before the Society in their aggregate, perhaps as lively a picture 
of the charactrristic features of new settlements as any of my travels will afford : 
and they are interspersed . . . with many evidences of good feeling, which one is 
willing to trace to an appreciation in the minds of the people of those spiritual 
privileges which they enjoy through the care of the Society and the Church. . , . 
After this statement the Society may judge what the need was of Church 
ministrations before the opening uf this Mission only a year and a half ago, at 
which time the nearest Clergyman to it in the Diocese was distant fifty miles or 
upwards ; and the blessings, present and future, may be estimated, which are 
procured by the expenditure of the Missionary allowance of £100 a year. There 
is in Clarendon alone a population of 1,017 souls, of whom between BOO and 900 
belong to the Church of England" * [29]. 

Seven years after the visit to Kilkenny, Mr. James Irwin, a settler, 
wrote to the Bishop : — 

*' Twenty years ago ... we might be said to be hardly one remove from the 
native Indian. . . . What gratitude is due ... to Almighty Ood and under Him 
to your Lordship as well as to the blessed Society . . . who sent and supports 
Mr. Lockhart to be our Minister 1 No words of mine can sulhciently describe 
the improvement that already appears. Could the Society . . . see the same 

* Further testimony to the value of the Society's work will be found in the Biebop's 
Beview of the Diocese in 1844, and an Address of the Diocesan Synod to the biociety in 
1846 L29a]. 


people . . . now clothed and in their right minds sitting with becoming attention 
under our beloved pastor ... it would be singolarly gratifying to men so 
benevolent*' [30]. 

The years 1847-6 furnished a sad chapter in the history of the 
diocese. The famine which proved so fatal to Ireland during 1846-7 
drove out of that island hosts of people. Distress also prevailed in 
Great Britain, and during 1847,91,892 persons, flying from starvation, 
arrived at the port of Quebec alone. On one vessel 100 deaths occurred 
at sea, and "multitudes" landed and *' spread disease and death 
throughout the chief towns of Canada." Many Clergymen contracted 
fever while attending the sick emigrants, and five died. The non- 
Romanist ministers who served the Quarantine station at Grosse Isle, 
in number fifteen, were Anghcan Clergymen, and all but one were 
Missionaries of the Society [31]. 

In 1850 another long-desired division of the diocese was accom- 
plished by the erection of the See of Montreal. Originally the Society 
had intended to endow the new see out of property belonging to the 
Church in Lower Canada, but to this " vahd objections were found to 
exist " at the time. It therefore pressed the matter upon the attention 
of the Colonial Bishoprics Council, with the result " that in a few 
months a fund deemed sufiicient to constitute a permanent endow- 
ment" was raised, nearly one-half of the amount being made up 
by the contributions of the University of Oxford and the S.P.C.K. [82]. 
In 1864 about if 8,000 was added from a fund appropriated to the 
Diocese of Quebec by the Society in 1867 [82a]. 

The new diocese comprehended many districts so completely 
settled " that all the romance of Missionary life " was at an end, " and 
the uniform, patient, every-day work of the clergyman, however 
important," furnished few details to interest the public. [326]. 

Quebec remained " as poor a diocese as any throughout the Colonies," 
but out of its poverty it made a gift of £500 to the Society in 1851-2, 
when in inviting an observance of the Society's jubilee the Bishop 
thus addressed his Clergy : — 

" To luck only to these North American Colonies, we see here, as the work of 
the Society, our people by thousands upon thousands enjoying the blessings of an 
apostohc ministry, which deals out to them the bread of life, and faithfully 
leads them to their Saviour ; who but for this Institution, the foremost of their 
earthly friends, would have been abandoned to ignorance and irreligion, or swept 
in other instances, into the bosom of Bome " [83]. 

The confiscation of the Clergy Reserves in 1855 [see pp. 161-8] was a 
heavy blow to both dioceses. In each case as in Upper Canada the 
Clergy consented to a commutation of tlieir life interests, but this 
produced only a small sum * [84]. 

* $68,841 in the case of Quebec Diocese, but so well and prudently has the fund 
been administered by the Diocesan Church Society that its invested capital now (1892) 
amounts to $155,000. The Bishopric Fund has shown similar growth. From a balance 
of Clei^ Besorve Revenue, the S.P.G. was entitled to recoup itself for its expenditure 
upon the MiBnions, but, instead of bo doing, it set the money apart to form a Binhopric 
Endowment Fund. Under the management of the Diocesan Church Society this Fund 
had grown from $75,000 to over $100,000 in 1864, when about $14,800 was devoted to 
Montreal. Another instance of wliat con be accomphshed, with wise management, even 
in a poor diocese, is found in the provision made for the Quebec widows and orphans of 
the Clergy and for incapacitated Clergy, which, it is believedi is more " satisfactory " 
tiiAU anywhere else in tlie Anglican Communion [84a]. 


Through the Diocesan Church Society of Quebec much was done to 
meet the loss from local sources, and by 1858 the Society (S.P.G.) was 
enabled to reduce its aid to some stations and in all cases to throw the 
whole charge of building churches and parsonages on the several 
congregations [85]. The Diocese of Montreal was the better able to 
meet the emergency as local support had been stimulated by ofifers 
of grants from the Society in aid of the purchase of glebes in the 
Missions. Between 1859 and 18G4the Society contributed £^1,100 in this 
form, and in the latter year one-half of the largely increased number 
of Clergy* were being wholly maintained from local sources [86]. 
Since 1882 the Society's aid to this diocese has been limited to the pay- 
ment of certain " privileged *' Clergymen under a quasi covenant [87].t 

There has been little scope for work among the Indians in Lower 
Canada, where their numbers are comparatively few. Among the Abe- 
naquis a Mission begun about 1867 *' owes its origin and its subsequent 
encouragement and support to the Society's Mission at Sorrel '' [88]. 

In Quebec Diocese the Missions of the Society have been extended 
not only to Labrador but also to the Magdalen Islands, where a 
Missionary's life involves almost equal hardships — cut off as it is for 
six months in the year entirely from comipunication with the outer 
world [89]. The Labrador Mission has benefited natives (Esquimaux) 
as well as settlers [40]. For many years the Society has also con- 
tributed to the maintenance of a Chaplain at the Marine Hospital, 
Quebec, where " year after year men from all parts of the world come 
to be healed or die " [41]. 

The progress of the diocese in more recent years is summed up in 
an address to the Society from the Diocesan Synod in 1888. In the 
preceding 25 years 15 of 34 Missions " have become self-supporting 
parishes, and though the Society's grant *Mias been gradually 
reduced by one-half, ten new Missions have been opened." " Much 
progress has been made in what long seemed a hopeless task, winning 
to the Church the descendants of the original settlers in our eastern 
townships, many of whom came to Canada from the neighbouring 
New England States filled with prejudices, political and religious, 
against the Church of England. These prejudices are now fast dis- 
appearing. The permanent maintenance of the Church in the poorest 
and most thinly-settled parts of the country has been secured by a 
system of local endowments, now spread over nearly the whok' 
ddocese— an eifort aided at the beginning by a liberal grant from the 
Society," but mainly due to local exertions, by which also the endow- 
ments of the "Church University" (Bishop's College, Lennoxville), 
"have been very largely increased," and " nearly all the parsonages in 
the diocese have been provided, and a large proportion of the churches 
bmlt or rebuilt during this period." The Synod added : — 

" The fact that the great body of oar people are devout communicants, that an 
earnest willingness to help in the spiritual work of the Church is showing itself 
more and more among the laity, that eagerness to contribute towards Missions, 
both in onr own Korth-West and in heathen lands, is growing among us, and that 

* The Clergy increused frtun 4U iu IboO to 05 in 1864. 
t Only one of tlieuo remained in May 11)01. 


by God*8 great meroy we are free from party diviBions, a house religiously at unitj 
in itself : these are among the fruits of tlie Spirit for which we are now offering our 
devout thanks to Ahuighty God '* *[42J. 

This progress took place during the administration of Bishop 
J. W. Williams (1863-92). 

(1892-1900). Under the presentBishop (Dr. A. H. Dunn, consecrated 
in 1892) a further advance has heen made. At the Centenary of the 
diocese in 1893 the Synod, in order to show their " thankfulness for 
God's manifold blessings bestowed upon the diocese during the first 
hundred years of its existence/' adopted a scheme for the voluntary 
relinquishment of the Society's aid by a graduated system of reduction, 
under which, the aid (then £1,450 per annum) entirely ceased in 
December 1899 with the exception of grants for (a) Divinity Students 
at Lennoxville College (^250), (b) a Missionary in Southern Labrador 
(£150), (c) and the Chaplain at the Marine Hospital, Quebec (£60). 
It is hoped that the diocese will eventually be able to dispense entirely 
with the Society's aid [42a]. In June, 1899, the Synod in a farewell 
address assured the Society of their ** gratitude and love, the love as of 
children grateful for innumerable benefits received from kind and in- 
dulgent parents,'' and that ^* the thought in the heart of every Quebec 
Churchman will be, ' If I forget thee, let my right hand forget her 
cunning' " [43 & 48a]. 

The first '* Imperial Church Parade " in Canada marked an event 
in the history of the Empire and of the Church. Previously to their 
departure for South Africa the Canadian Volunteers assembled in 
Quebec Cathedral on Sunday, October 29, 1899, to ask God's bless- 
ing upon their eflforts on behalf of Queen and Empire. Of the 
thousand men constituting the battalion eight hundred — that is all 
but the Roman Catholics — attended, and with the general congregation 
remained throughout the service, which deepened in intensity until (with 
her Majesty's representatives and the General Commanding at their 
head) line after line of men (300 in all) thronged, in a spirit of trust and 
of deep reverence, to receive the Holy Communion. At the end of the 
service, " God, our help in ages past," was sung, and then " Gk)d 
Save the Queen " rose from the lips and hearts of men who dedicated 
themselves till death, if need be, for Queen and country. A former 
Missionary of the Society, the Rev. John Almond, accompanied the 
troops to South Africa as Anglican Chaplain [486]. 

The Diocese of Montreal celebrated its Jubilee in 1900 with great 
enthusiasm [4dc]. 

* See alBo the statement made by Bishup Oxeiiden, Metropolitan of Canada, in 1878, 
viz., that the Church in Canada " holds a very favourable position *' with referenoe to 
other Christian bodies. Of her Clergy, ho estimated that " at lea^t one in ten has oome 
over . . . from other Churches/' and he held that the Canadian Church " is destined at no 
distant day to become the focus around which tliu scattered bodies shall be gathered " [44]. 

Note. — Laukador {see \k 151). The Quebec or Southern jK)rtion of Labrador 
extends from Sheldrake, on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrenoe, to Blanc Sablon, 
at the entrance to the Straits of Belle Isle, a distance nf about 450 miles. Tlie population 
consists of Esquimaux, English and French-B]>eaking ]>eo])le, and a few Indians. The 
French and Lidians are Roman Catholics, but the AngUcan Missionary as he travels about 
receives a hearty welcome from all classes, French as well as English During a visit in 
1894 the Bisho]) of Quebec and the Missionary ** were taken by an affrighted fisherman 
for Indians." At another place an old niau ^' kissed the Bishop most affectionately as ho 
Bot foot on shore." In the following year the Mission was extended 150 milM, partly in 
order to provide ministration for some Jersey famihes who had *' nunained true to the 
Church, although not visited by a clergyman for nearly twenty years." 

{Far Statistical Summary tee p, 192.) 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO {continued from p. Ul). 

The oircuzDstances under which Upper Canada was first visited b) 
a clergyman of the Church of England aie related by the Rev. John 
OoUiViE, the Society's Missionary to the Indians in the State of New 
York, in a letter dated Albany, New York, Feb. 1, 1760 : — 

** liMt summer I attended the royal American regiment upon the expedition to 
Kiagara* ; and indeed there was no other chaplain upon that Department, tho' 
there were three regular Kegimenis and the Provincial Regiment of New York. 
The Mohawks were all upon this Service, and almost all the Six Nationsf, they 
amounted in the whole to 940 at the time of the siege. I oiliciated constantly to 
the Mohawks and Oneidoes who regularly attended Divine Service. . . . The 
Oneidoes met us at the Lake near their Castle, and as they were acquainted with 
my coming, they brought ten children to receive Baptism, and young women who 
bad been previously instructed . . . came likewise to receive that holy ordinance. 
I baptized them in the presence of a numerous crowd of spectators, who all seemed 
pleaied with the attention and serious behaviour of the Indians. . . . During this 
campaign I have had an opportunity of conversing with some of every one of the 
Six Nation Confederacy and their Dependants, and of every nation I find some 
who have been instructed by the priests of Canada, and appear zealous roman 
Catholics, extremely tenacious of the Ceremonies and Peculiarities of that Church : 
and from very good authority I am inform 'd that there is not a nation bordering 
upon the five great Lakes, or the banks of the Ohio, the Mississippi all tho way to 
Lonisiana, but what are supplied with Priests and Schoolmasters, and have very 
decent Places of Worship, with every splended utensil of their lieligion. How 
ooght we to blush at our coldness and shameful Lidifference in the propagation of 
oar most excellent Keligion. The Harvest truly is great but the labourers are few. 
Tbe Indians themselves are not wanting in making very pertinent Reflections upon 
oar inattention to these Points. The Possession of the important Fortification of 
Niagara is of the utmost consequence to the English, as it gives us the happy 
opportunity of commencing and cultivating a Friendship with those numerous 
ihbes of Indians who inhabit the borders of Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan and 
even Lake Superiour : and the Fur Trade which is carried on by these Tribes, 
which all centers at Niagara, is so very considerable that I am told by very able 
judges, that the French look upon Canada, of veiy little Importance without the 
possession of this important Pass. ... In this Fort, there is a very handsome 
Chapel, and the Priest, who was of the Order of St. Francis, had a commission as 
the King's} Chaplain to the garrison. He had particular instructions to use the 
Indians, who came to tradCf with great Hospitality (for which he had a particular 
allowance) and to instruct them in the Principles of the Faith. The service of the 
Church here was performed with great Ceremony and Parade. I performed Divine 
Service in this Church every day during my stay here, but I am afraid it has never 
been used for this purpose since, as there is no minister of the Gospel there. This 
neglect will not give the Indians the most favourable impression of us " [1]. 

Throughout the campaign, which ended in the complete conquest of 
Canada by Great Britain, Mr. Ogilvie set an example to the Govern- 
ment, and "great numbers" of the Indians "attended constantly, 
regularly and decently,*' on his ministrations. 

In the subsequent contest between England and the American 

* [Against the French.] f [The IroquoiB or Six Nation Indians.] 

X nnukt is the Emg of France.] 


Colonies the Mohawks again sided with the mother country, and 
" rather than swerve from their allegiance, chose rather to abandon 
their DwelHngs and Property ; and accordingly went in a body to 
General Burgoyne, and afterwards were obliged to take shelter in 
Canada." A majority of the nation fled in 177G, under the guidance 
of the celebrated Captain Joseph Brant, to Niagara, and eventually 
settled on the Grand Biver above Niagara. The remainder, under 
Captain John Deserontyon, escaped to Lower Canada, and, after a 
sojourn of about six years at La Chme, some of them removed, in 
1782-8, to Niagara; but most of them permanently settled in 1784 on 
the Bay of Quints,* forty miles above Cataraqui or Kingston, in 
Upper Canada [2]. 

The Indians were soon followed by their former pastor, the 
Rev. John Stuart, whose labours among them in New York State 
and in Lower Canada have been mentioned. [See pp. 78-4, 140.] Those 
settled at Quenti intended remaining there that they might '' enjoy 
the advantages of having a Missionary, schoolmaster and church " [8]. 

On June 2, 1784, Mr. Stuart set out from Montreal, visiting on 
his way all the new settlements of Loyalists on the River and Lake, 
and on the 18th arrived at Niagara. On the following Sunday he 
preached in the garrison, and in the afternoon, '^ to satisfy the eager 
expectations of the Mohawks, he proceeded on horseback to their village, 
about 9 miles distant, and officiated in their church.*' After a short 
intermission they returned to the church, *• when he baptized 78 infants 
and 5 adults, the latter having been instructed by the Indian Clerk," 
a man of ** very sober and exemplary life," who regularly read prayers 
on a Sunday. The whole was concluded with ** a discourse on the 
nature and design of baptism." '* It was very affecting to Mr. Stuart 
to see those affectionate people, from whom he had been separated 
more than seven years, assembled together in a decent and commo- 
dious church, erected principally by themselves, with the greatest 
seeming devotion and a becoming gravity. Even the windows were 
crowded with those who could not find room within the walls. The 
concourse . . . was unusually great, owing to the circumstance of the 
Oneidas, Cayugas, and Onondagas being settled in the vicinity." 
Mr. Stuart afterwards baptized ** 24 children and married 6 couple." 
On his return journey he visited Cataraqui (Kingston) and baptized 
some children ; also the Bay of Quenti, 42 miles distant, where, in a 
beautiful situation, the Mohawks were " laying the foundation of their 
new village named Tyonderoga," and their school-house was almost 
finished. The loyal exiles at Cataraqui, &c., expressed "the most 
anxious desire to have Clergymen sent among them," and they looked 
**up to the Society for assistance in their . . . distress," being then 
too poor to support clergymen. In this year Mr. Stuart baptized 178 
persons, of whom 107 were Indians [4]. 

In July 1785 he removed his headquarters to Cataraqui, '* chiefly 
on account of its vicinity to the Mohawks " [5]. Their further history 
will be noticed hereafter. [See p. 165.] At Cataraqui Mr. Stuart 
began to officiate in *' a large room in the garrison." The *' inhabi- 
tants and soldiers " regularly attended service, and he had ** sanguine 

* QainW, Qaenti, Eenti, or Eonty. 


hopes" of ''a large congregation*' [6]. These hopes were soon 
realised, though he was '' obliged to teach them the first principles of 
religion and morality" before pressing them to '* become actual 
members of the Church.'* They were, however, too poor to erect a 
Church until 1704, when St. George's was ** finished with a Pulpit, 
Desk, Communion-Table, Pews, Cupola and a Bell." In August of 
that year the Bishop of Quebec held his visitation at Kingston. During 
his stay '* several persons of the Church of Scotland avowed their 
conformity to ours and some of them were actually confirmed by the 
Bishop.*' In all 55 persons were confirmed, 24 of whom bad been in- 
structed by Mr. Stuart. In 1798 his congregation was *' numerous 
and respectable " ; nothing *' but peace and harmony appeared "; and 
notwithstanding the ground the Methodists had gained in that country 
(hey had '* not made a single convert in the town of Kingston " [7]. 

Many other Missions were founded by Mr. Stuart. On a visit to 
Quenti in 1785 he ''caused the inhabitants of the different townships 
to collect their children at convenient places and he baptized those 
who were presented to him." In the second township (" IG miles dis- 
tant from Cataraqui "), he met *' a number of families of the Church of 
England," who assembled regularly on Sundays and had ** the hturgy 
and a sermon read to them " by Captain Jephta Hawley in his own 
house. By the next year the ** third township " had purchased a 
house for school and temporary church, in which '* a serious discreet 
man '* read prayers on Sundays [8]. 

The desire of these people for a resident Missionary was gratified 
in 1787 by the appointment of the Kev. John Langhorne to the 
charge of Ernest and Fredericksburg, as the two townships were 
respectively named. In his first year Mr. Langhorne had " 1,500 
soids under his care," and he baptized 107 children and adults. On 
his first coming the people had '* not been able to build either parson- 
age or church " ; but within five years he succeeded in opening eight* 
places of worship in his parish. These he diligently served, besides 
often officiating ** at distant places in private houses " [9]. 

The next places to receive resident Missionaries were Niagara 
(Rev. R. Addison in 1792), York, or Toronto (Rev. G. 0. Stuart in 
1801), Cornwall (Rev. J. S. Rudd, 1801-2, and Rev. J. Strachan, 
1808-11), all of which had been previously visited by the Rev. 
J. Stuart, who has well earned the title of " Father of the Church 
in Upper Canada " [10]. 

The first account of York (1802) given by the Rev. G. 0. Stuart 
was that the town consisted of ** about 120 houses and 70 families : 
but taking in the whole township there might be about 140 families." 
The prevailing denominations were " the Presbyterians, Episcopalians 
and Roman Catholics." The last were few, but there were numerous 
Methodists. ** Notwithstanding the prejudices of those who 
nominally dissent from the Church of England," he had " a numerous 
congregation " ; but the communicants were " very few " (ten). The 
people had subscribed to the building of a church, for the site of which 
six acres of land had been reserved. Pending its erection he was 
officiating "in the Government House" [11]. 

* St. OswakVs, St. Cuthbcrt'a, St. Warburg's, St. Thomas's, St Panl's, St. John's, 
Si Peter's, St. Lake's. 


The Bishop of Qnebeo in examining Mr. Strachan for ordination 
was 80 well satisfied with respect to his " principles, attainments, 
conversation and demeanor,'* that he stated he would be '' more than 
commonly disappointed '* if he did not ** become a very useful and 
respectable Minister" [12], As will bo seen hereafter, the future 
Bishop of Toronto more than justified the opinions formed of him. 
During his residence at Cornwall ^* he conducted a grammar school in 
which many of the most distinguished colonists received their educa- 
tion " [18]. At the time of the war which broke out between Oreat 
Britain and the United States in 1B12 he was stationed at York 
(Toronto), and in 1814 he reported : " the enemy have twice captured 
the to^n since the spring of 1818, all the pubhc buildings have been 
burnt and much loss sustained by many of the inhabitants.'* The 
Americans also took possession of Sandwich and Niagara ; they burnt 
the churches there, carrying off from Sandwich the Church books and 
the Rev. B. Pollard, who was released in 1814 on the prospect of 
peace. Mr. Addison's house at Niagara escaped destruction, and 
" afforded an asylum to many unhappy sufferers ** [14]. 

At the commencement of 1808 Upper Canada contained only four 
clergymen. The Rev. J. Strachan, who in that year ''made the 
fifth," states that so little had been 

'* known of the country and the little that was published was Bc incorrect and 
unfavourable, from exaggerating accounts of the climate and the terrible prlyations 
to which its inhabitants were said to be exposed, that no Missionaries could be 
induced to come out. ... It might have been expected that on the arrival of . . . 
the first Bishop of Quebec, the Clergy would have rapidly increased, but notwith- 
standing the incessant and untiring exertions of that eminent prelate, their 
number had not risen above five in Upper Canada so late as 1912, when it 
contained 70,000 inhabitants. In truth the Colony, during the wars occasioned by 
the French Kevolution, seemed in a manner lost sight of by the public " [15]. 

Another cause of the lack of clergy, who in 1818 numbered only 
nine, was that no parishes had been erected by Government. The 
Society drew the attention of the authorities to this in 1807 [16], and 
the years 1819-20 brought with them the division of the province 
into parishes, the opening of six new Missions, and additional grants 
from the Society in aid of the erection of churches [17]. 

From this period the number of clergymen rapidly increased.* 
At the visitation of Upper Canada by Bishop Mountain of Quebec 
(in 1820) the Clergy, in an address to him, said : — 

"Nearly thirty years have elapsed since your Lordship entered npon the 
arduous task of diffusing the light of the Gospel through this extensive portion of 
His Majesty's dominions. You saw it a wilderness with few inhabitants and only 
three clergymen within its bounds. Now the population is great ; churches are 
springing up and the growing desire of the people to be taught the principles of 
Christianity through the medium of the Established Church, oannot fail of 
conveying the most delightful pleasure to your Lordship's mind " [18]. 

In 1822 the Society had to ** congratulate '' itself upon the result 
of its operations in Canada, *' where a numerous population collected 
from various parts of the sister kingdom and educated in the prin- 
ciples of different religious sects have become united in one congrega- 
tion, and having left their prejudices on the shores of their native 

* From 22 in 1825 to 46 in 1888, and to 102 in 1848. 


land, have continued to live in Christian charity * endeavouring to 
keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.' " 

AppUcations for union with the Church were "in a variety of 
instances " ** transmitted to the Bishop of the Diocese," and would 
have been "still more frequent" had the financial resources of the 
Society allowed it ** to hold out such encouragement to overtures of 
this nature, as they deserve." Many of the new districts occupied by 
the Society at this period were found to be in a " deplorable state of 
religion and morality." Sundays had been " no otherwise dis- 
tinguished from the other days of the week, than by a superior degree 
of indolence and intemperance," the children had been " wholly 
deprived of all rehgious instruction; and the entire population . . . 
left to follow their own heedless imaginations, without a guide or 
minister to show them the error of their ways " [19], 

As Visiting Missionary the Hon. and Rev. C. Stewart did much 
at this period to foster Christianity among the settlers and to found new 
Missions in their midst, and assisted by a private fund raised by him, 
the people in many places built churches ** without even the promise 
of being soon supplied with a Clergyman." At Simco the inhabitants 
who had begun building a meeting-house all agreed in 1822 to make 
it an Episcopal house of worship [20]. 

In 1830 the Church was reported by Dr. (now Bishop) Stewart to 
be *' spreading herself all over the land " [21]. Such was the respect 
with which she was regarded, that on the Bishop's visiting Hamilton* 
in this year and preacliing in the New Court House on a week-day, 
** although the election for the county was at the time going on, the 
candidates unanimously consented to close the poll for two hours that 
no impediment to Divine Service might be offered, and the congrega- 
tion was numerous and attentive " [22]. 

The noble self-devotion of the Church of England Clergy during 
the fearful visitations of cholera in Canada in 1882 and 1834 won for 
them increased respect and affection. Foremost in attendance on the 
sick and dying both in hospital and private house was Archdeacon 
STRACHANjt Rector of Toronto. After the cessation of the plague he 
was presented by his people with a handsome token of their "affectionate 
remembrance of the fortitude, the energy, the unwearied perseverance 
and benevolence" with which he discharged his duties "when sur- 
rounded by affliction, danger and despondency." For the 200 widows 
and 700 orphans left desolate by the cholera a subscription of £1,820 
was raised. It is significant that all but £88 of this came from members 
of the Church. Many orphans were adopted, and eventually all were 
enabled to obtain a livelihood [28]. 

The Church of England population in Upper Canada in 1880 
formed ** one moiety of the whole," and as it was impossible to supply 
suflBcient clergymen to minister to them a body of licensed catechists 
was then organised to assist the Missionaries — the necessary funds 
being provided by the S.P.G., which also assisted in establishing a 
" Sunday School Society " in the country [24J. 

At the same time " the Society for converting and civihzing the 

• Now the catliedral city of the See of Niagara. 
t Appointed Archdeacon of York in 1827 [22a]. 



Indians and propagating the Goapel among the destitute Settlers in 
Upper Canada " was established in the Colony [25]. These local 
auxiliary aBsociationa, with the "Bible and Pi-ayer Book Society" 
founded at Toronto in 1S16, and the " Upper Canada Clergy Society "• 
formed in England in 1837, prepared the way for the foundation of 
the general "Diocesan Church Society" in 1842. [See pp.lfiO, 759.] The 
united efforts of the parent Society and its handinaide were, however, 
tor a long time insufficient to meet the spiritual wants of the ever- 
increasing population of Upper Canada. Shortly before the death, of 
Bishop STEW.iRT the Society began to make provision for opening 
several new MisBions [26], but his successor, Bishop Mountain, could 
still in 1838 represent to the Government that 

"n lamenlable praportioc ot the Churoh of Knglnnd population ore deatitnteol 
Boy prorision for (heir religiouB wanla, wiothac large proportion inBnfiioientlj 
provided, and almost all tbe remainder serveit by a Clergy viho can only meet the 
demandB made apon them by strained efforts, whioh prejudice their usefulness in 
other points. . . . The importunate Bolicitations which I constantly receive from 
different cjuartera of the Province for the supply ot clerical services ; the over- 
Qoving warmth ot feeling with which the travelling MiseionnrieB of the Chnroh are 
greeted in thdr visits to the destituto actllenients ; the marks of affection and 
respect towarda my own office which I experienced throughout the Province ; the 
exertions made by the people, in a great number ot instances, to ereot ohnrches 
even without any definite prospect o( a Minister, and the examples in which this 
has been done by indivicluals at their own private expense : the rapidly inareocing 
ciranlntion ot the religions newspaper, which is called The Church; — these are 
altogether unequivocal and striking evidence» of the attachment to Charoh 
principles which pervades a great body of the population. ... I state my 
deliberate belief thnt the retention of the Province as a portion of the Britisli 
empire depends more upon the means taken to provide and perpetuate a sufficient 
establtshment of pious and well-quatiRed Clergymen of the Church, than Dpoa any 
other measure whatever within the power of the Oovermnent. ■ . . Connected 
closely with the same interests is [ho measure which has fur some time been in 
agitation for the division of the dioceae and the appointment of a resident Bishop 
in llpper Canada. It Is perfectly impossible (or a Bishop resident at Quebec, and 
having the official duties in the Lower Province ... to do justice to . . . the 
Upper. I feel this most painfully in my own experience and I greatly need relief, 
but apart from sll personal considerationa, the Church, with all that depends npon 
her ministrations must suffer while the existing arrangements remain." 

The immediate result of this appeal was the erection of Upper Canada 
into a separate diocese, named Toronto, and the appointment of 
Archdeacon Sthachan as its first Bishop, in 1830 [27]. 

Besides making provision for twenty additional Missionaries, the 
Society, by an advance from its General Fund and appropriationa 
from the Clergy Reservefl.t secured an income for the Bishop [28]. 

In 1840 Bishop Strachan commenced his first visitation of hia 
dioeeae. At Niagara sixty-three persons were confirmed, " many 
advanced in life. ... Of these, some pleaded want of opportunity, 
others that tliey had not tilt now become convinced of the salutary 
effects of this beautiful and attractive ordinance . . . the interesting 
ceremony of confirmation had drawn great attention and , . . many 
who had fonneriy thought of it with indifference, had become con- 

• A abort eipBricncn convinced the munngera of this association of the unwiadom of 
maintaining an independent agenoy, and in 1B40 it wai united with (he BJ'.O, •■ a 
branch committeo (SSaJ. 

t Swpp. 161-S. 


vinced that it was of apostolic appointment and therefore a duty not 
to be neglected.* The congregation were so much pleased that the 
greater number remained in church for evening prayer." 

Niagara, one of the earliest congregations collected in Upper 
Canada, was for nearly forty years under the care of the Rev. R. 
Addison, of whom the Bishop said : — 

** He was a gentleman of commanding talents and exquisite wit, whose 
devotcdness to his sacred duties, kindliness of manners, and sweet companionship, 
are stili sources of grateful and fond remembrance. He may justly be considered 
the missionary of the western part of the province. In every township we find 
traces of his ministrations, and endearing recollections of his affectionate visits." 

The congregations at Williamsburgh and Osnabruck comprised 
many Dutch or German families, " formerly Lutherans," but who 
had "conformed to the Church." At Cornwall, where the Bishop had 
first commenced his ministenal labours, many whom he had baptized, 
now men and women, came forward to tell him they were of his children. 

A spacious brick church, erected at the sole expense of the Rev. 
W. Macaulay, was consecrated at Picton. 

" It was supposed, before the church was built," sud the Bishop, " that we 
had BO people in the township of Halliwell. Mr. Macaulay has been nevertheless 
able to collect a large and respectable congregation, comprising the greater portion 
of the principal inhabitants of the village of Picton and its vicinity ; he has like- 
wise stations in different parts of the township whe.e the congregations are 
encouraging. It has happened here, as in almost every other part of the Province, 
that an active, diligent, and pious Missionary, discovers and brings together great 
numbers of Church people, who previous to his appearance and exertions, were 
altogether unknown, or supposed to belong to other denominations.*' 

After the confirmation of twenty-one persons an offering of £^50, 
to be continued for three years, was presented by the "young ladies " 
of the neighbourhood towards supporting a travelling Missionary in 
Prince Edward district [29]. The number of persons confirmed in the 
diocese in 1840 was 1,700, and during the next visitation nearly 4,000. 
Tliis involved toilsome journeys over woods " in many places dangerous 
and impracticable— a rough strong farmer's waggon "being the only 
vehicle that dared attempt them- the rate of progress being sometimes 
scarcely a mile an hour [30]. In 1841 the Bishop reported that the 
province, which but for the Society would have been "little better 
than a moral waste," had now eighty clergymen, and there was 
" scarcely a congregation in the Diocese that has not cause to bless the 
Society for reasonable and liberal assistance" [81]. [See also the 
Bishop's Charge 1841 ; Speech of Chief Justice Robinson of Canada 
at the London Mansion House Meeting, 1840 ; and Addresses of Bishop 
and Clergy, 1841, 1844, 1847 [81a].] On the last occasion (1847) it 
was stated that there were " but few " of the churches in the diocese 
towards the erection of which the Society had not contributed [82].t 

Notwithstanding all that had been done the diocese in some parts 
presented what the Bishop described in 1844 as an ** appalling degree 
of spiritual destitution." Settlers were daily met with who told ** in 

* A similar effect was produced by a confirmation at Bnrford in 1842 r28a]. 

t "Thewlioleof the Cliurclies . . . existing in the British Colonies of North America," 
!ti 1845, hod, " with but few exceptions . . . received grants towards their erection from 
the funds of the Society " [82aJ. 


deep sorrow " that they had '' never heard Divine service since they came 
to the country " [83]. It was with the view of inducing " every indi- 
vidual member of the Church " in the diocese to do all they could 
'* to extend to the whole population of the province that knowledge 
of salvation which is our most precious treasure " that the Diocesan 
Chun h Society was organised in 1842. In advocating its estabhshment 
the Bishop paid the following tribute to the Missionaries sent to Canada 
by the S.P.G. : "Well have these servants of God fulfilled the glorious 
objects of their Divine mission, by proofs, daily given, of such piety, 
zeal and labour, mentally and bodily, of hardship patiently endured 
and fortitude displayed, as render them not unworthy of the primitive 
ages of the Church " [84]. 

Within four years of its formation the Diocesan Church Society 
'* leavened the whole Province," and was enabled to support from ten 
to twelve additional Missionaries. In drawing up its Constitution and 
Bye-Laws those of the S.P.O. were as closely as possible followed, 
and it speaks wonders for the growth of the Missionary spirit that in 
the second year of its existence the income of the daughter Society 
exceeded that received by the parent Society in any one year for the first 
ten years after its incorporation.* The advantages of an organisation 
uniting as well as creating new forces were shown in a striking manner in 
1852, when the Canadian Legislature passed an Act divesting itself of 
its privilege of presenting to certain Bectoriest of nominal value in 
Upper Canada, and placing the ** embarrassing patronage " at the dis- 
posal of the Diocesan Church Society. In a disunited diocese such a 
gift would have led to endless bickerings, but the Church Society 
unanimously agreed^ to lodge the new power in the hands of the Bishop 
of Toronto [85]. 

In the same year that the Diocesan Society was founded a Theo- 
logical College was established at Cobourg, and in the following year 
(1848) the Church University of King's College at Toronto. On the 
secularisation of the latter institution the new Church University of 
Trinity College was organised in 1852, with the assistance of the 
S.P.G., and Cobourg College (also fostered by the Society) was merged 
in it. § [See p. 778.] 

As an instance of "what the Church would eflfect in promoting 
peace and loyalty, were it zealously supported by the Imperial Govern- 
ment instead of prisons, pohce and troops,'' the Bishop sent the 
Society in lL.48 the following account of the Mission at Lloydtown : — 

" There is something worthy of remark in regard to this Mission. Lloydtown 
was considered the foous of the rehellion, which broke oat in this province in 1837. 

* Independent of the local branch asBOciations the Diocesan Church Society 
received in 1844 £1,800, besides considerable grants of land for Church endowment ; in 
1845, £2,785 ; in 1846, £8,004 [850.]. Compare this with the S.P.G. Table on p. 830. 

t In 1836 Governor Sir John Colbome, with the advice of his Council, erected fifty- 
seven rectories hi Upper Canada, assigning to each a glebe of 400 acres [85 6 J. The 
land was described in 1840 as " chiefly unproductive " [85c]. 

X On opening the meeting on the occasion the Bishop " could see on looking round 
many with their papers in their hands impatient to bring their wisdom forward." But 
as he " addressed the meeting with a frank and honest boldness " he " could see more 
than one . . . putting their mans in their pocket " ; and after a long discussion the 
patronage was conferred on hmi " by acclamation '* [86^. 

§ Further aasistance towards the endowment of Trinity College wag rendered by 
the Society in 1864 (£500) and in 1884 (£100) [86]. 


Before that time, Buch was the hatred of the inhabitants of the village to the 
Charch of England, that it was scarcely safe for one of our Missionaries to 
approach it. Lloydtown suffered very much from the outbreak, and during their 
distress, and while some troops remained in it stationary to keep order, the Bev. 
F. L. Osier, of Tecumpseth, ventured to visit the place. At first his ministra- 
tions were in a great measure confined to the troops, but with a kind discretion he 
seized upon this period of alHiction to extend his services to the inhabitants 
generally ; and it pleased God to bless his labours in the most singular manner, so 
tbat a large congregation has been gathered, an excellent-sized church built, the 
character of the village redeemed as to loyalty, and a complete change effected 
among the people in their sentiments respecting the Church of England ; formerly 
they seemed all enemies, now the majority are steady and zealous friends. . . . 
On the 6th of August I held a confirmation at Lloydtown ; the church was filled 
almost to suffocation " [37]. 

While the Missionaries were advancing the welfare of the State 
by making its subjects loyal and peaceable, the Government was 
seeking to deprive the Church of her rightful inheritance — an object 
which was at last fully accomplished. The story of the Canadian 
Clergy Reserves and their confiscation may be thus summarised : — 

At the conquest of Canada by Great Britain the Roman Catholic 
Church was liberally tolerated, and left in possession of very considerable 
property.* At the same time it was distinctly understood in the 
Imperial Parliament that the Anglican Establishment was to be the 
National Church. In reply to an enquiry in 1785 as to what steps 
Government had taken since the last peace towards establishing the 
Church in North America, the Society was informed by Lord 
Sydney, with regard to Canada, that instructions had been given to 
the Governor of Quebec to appropriate lands for glebes and schools, 
that ** the salaries to the four Ministers of the Church of England 
already. established in that Province " were ** paid out of His Majesty's 
revenue arising therein" ; and on the general question it was added 
that the Government would co- operate with the Society **in affording 
to His Majesty's distressed and loyal subjects" in North America "the 
means of Religious Instruction, and attending the Public Worship of 
Almighty God," and that '* the funds for the support of Ministers arise 
from the annual grants of Parliament or His Majesty's revenue." 

In 1791, when the two distinct provinces of tipper and Lower 
Canada were established — the royal instructions to the Governor 
having previously declared the Church of England to be the 
established rehgion of the Colony — a reservation of one-seventh of all 
the lands in Upper Canada and of all such lands in the Lower 
Province as were not already occupied by the FrencR inhabitants was 
made (by Act 31 George III.) for the support of a ** Protestant 
Clergy" with a view to providing for the spiritual wants of the 
Protestant population of the country. While these lands remained 
mere waste tracts the exclusive right of the Church of England to 
them was not questioned, but when it was seen that they were 
becoming valuable other claimants arose in the Presbyterians 
of the Church of Scotland and various Dissenters. From 
1818 to 1854 the subject of the Clergy Reserves was more or less 

* The endowments "for the support of the Roman Cathohc Church in Lower 
Canada," were valued by the Bishop of Toronto in 1840, at £4,500,000 [88]. In Upper 
Canada the B. C. Clergy were " but poorly provided for." 

V m2 


a " burning question *' in Canada. It was constantly complained that 
tlie Anglican Church held large districts of unimproved land to the 
inconvenience and injury of the neighbouring settlers. 

In 1819 the law officers of the Crown in England advised that the 
provisions of the Act might ** be extended to the Clergy of the Church 
of Scotland but not to dissenting ministers." The question, being an 
inconvenient one for the Home Government to settle, was referred to 
the Provincial Legislature, to whom, however, the entire alienation of 
the lands and their application to the purposes of general edacation 
or a reinvestment of them in the Crown was repeatedly recommended. 
In 1827 the Imperial Parliament authorised the sale of one-fourth of 
the Reserves in quantities not exceeding 100,000 acres in any one year. 
On the main question, which had been left undecided, the local 
Legislature and Executive Council at length so far agreed as to pass 
an Act (in 1839) for the appropriation of one-half of the annual pro- 
ceeds of the property (after payment of certain guaranteed stipends) to 
** the Churches of Pinglancl and Scotland,*' and the residue ** among 
the other religious bodies or denominations of Christians recognised 
by the constitution and laws of the Province, according to their 
respective numbers to be ascertained once in every four years." The 
msmbera of the Church of England in the province " assented*' to this 
arrangement as a *' compromise, and for the sake of peace." But since 
** some of its enactments were in contravention of existing Acts of 
Parliament ** the scheme was disallowed by the Home Government, 
and an Act of the Imperial Parliament took its place. This Act ot 
1840 (3 and 4 Vict. cap. 78) provided for the gradual sale of the 
Clergy Reserves, and for the appropriation of two-sixths of the proceeds 
to the Church of England, and one-sixth to **the Church of Scotland 
in Canada." The residue was to be applied by the Governor of Canada 
with the advice of his Executive Council ** for purposes of public 
worship and religious instruction in Canada." The Church of 
ICngland portion was to be expended under the authority of the 
S.P.G. To the Church, a final settlement, even on such terms as 
the loss of two-thirds of her property, had become desirable, for apart 
from the undeserved odium brought upon her by the dispute, the 
property itself was wasting away under a system of mismanagement. 
Even after the passing of the Act it was necessary to remonstrate 
against the wast^, and a Select Committee of the Canadian Legislature 
reported in 1843 : ** There is really no proportion or connexion what- 
ever between th^ service rendered to the fund and the charges which 
are imposed upon it.*' Under a more economical system of manage- 
ment it was soon possible not only to meet the sum (£7,700) 
guaranteed to certain clergymen during their lives, but also to provide 
for the extension of the Church. 

Notwithstanding that the settlement of 1840 " was intended *' 
to be ** final " and ** was accepted and acquiesced in by all parties as 
such ** until 1850, the Imperial Parliament in 1853 surrendered the 
Clergy Reserves to the Canadian Legislature to bo dealt with at its 
pleasure. The Society petitioned against this injustice, but in vain, 
and in 1855 (by Act of the Colonial Legislature, Dec. 18, 1854) the 
property was " alienated from the sacred purposes to which it had 
hjtharto been devoted and transferred to the several municipalities 


vrithin the boundaries of which the lands were situated." The only 
limitation imposed by the Imperial Legislature was that the life 
interests of the existing Clergy should be secured. With one consent, 
however, the Clergy commuted the aggregate of their life interests 
for a capital fund to be invested for the permanent endowment of 
the Church. In Upper Canada the amount thus secured for ever 
was calculated at £222,620 currency.* This sum, it was reckoned, 
would produce in colonial investments £12,244 per annum, but the 
amount of stipends then actually payable to the Clergy was £18,643, 
leaving a deficiency of £6,399. No effort was spared by the diocese 
(Toronto) itself to meet the great and unexpected difficulties into which 
it had been thus thrown ; but while doing all that was possible to elicit 
local support, the Bishop (Jan. 6, 1855) made a final appeal to the 
Society for assistance : — 

"Bear with me in anxiously pressing upon the Society a favourable considera- 
tion of the . . . aid which we require in caiTying out this scheme of commutation, 
and allow me to say, that it will be to the Society the most graceful release 
imaginable from the growing wants of this vast Diocese ; for, were it fully arranged 
and in active operation, with attendant certainty and steady advancement, the 
courage it would inspire, and the excitement it would create, would doubtless 
enable us to shorten the period during which we should require pecuniary aid. 
But if we arc left in the wasting condition of dying out, the Society will be com- 
pelled during the process to advance much greater help than we now pray for, and 
even then hope wUl wither. 

" I would rather contemplate the Society administering her generous aid while 
we require it, and sending her last donation with her blessings, and prayers, and 
parting greetings of encouragement. It woulpl be a most affecting separation from 
the greatest of her (Colonial Missions, and yet turned into a most glorious triumph. 
She found Canada a wilderness nearly seventy years ago, but now a populous and 
fertile region, sprinkled throughout with congregations, churches, and clergymen, 
fostered by her incessant care, and now carrying the blessings of the Grospel across 
this immense continent to millions yet unborn." 

The Society responded (July 20, 1855) by voting a sum of £7,500, 
spread over the three years 1856-7-8 [89]. 

From this time Toronto as a diocese has stood on its own resources 
with no other external aid than a small endowment derived from a 
few Crown rectories and the support rendered by the Society in aid 
of Missions to the Indians.f 

" The best evidences of the fruits . . . realized from the judicious 
nursing of the . . . Church by the Society" (wrote Bishop Swcatman 
in 1881) are ''in the growth in self-sustaining strength and the 
successive subdivision into flourishing dioceses of the now adult and 
independent offspring" [40]. 

The first subdivision took place in 1857, when the Diocese of 
Toronto, having obtained legislative powers to meet in Synod of Clergy 
and Laity, exercised its powers by erecting the See of Huron. The 
original diocese in its settled parts was able to support its Church 
from local resources ; but the Society extended temporary assistance 
to the newer and more destitute settlements comprised within the new 
bishopric. For the ** true and permanent interest " of the diocese no 
less than for the economical expenditure of its own funds, the Society's 

* In Lower Canada the amount wa» small. [See p. 150.] 

t Tn 18G0-1 the Society authorised the conveyance of its lands in Canada West to 
the Di^^cesan Chuich Societies of Toronto and Huron [iOa], 


grants were accompanied with the conditions that within three years 
the people in each assisted mission should have taken measures for 
securing its independence by erecting either (1) a parsonage and glebe, 
(2) a church, or collecting an endowment fund equal to half the grant. 
Within seven years twenty missions, with sixty-three out-stations, had 
been established, and in every case the Church had made most ** grati- 
fying progress " [41]. 

With the exception of a small grant to an Indian Mission at 
Walpole Island, which was continued to 1885 [see p. 178], Huron was 
enabled to dispense with the Society's assistance in 1882. The 
diocese, which began with 41 clergymen, had now 182, and was 
in "a prosperous condition " [42]. 

A similar course was observed in the case of the Diocese of 
Ontario, the formation of which was promoted by a grant from the 
Society of £1,000 in aid of the endowment of the Bishopric [48], 
Containing 152 townships, each about 100 square miles in extent, 
with a total population of 890,000, and fifty-five clergymen, the 
Diocese started in 1862 " with no resources whatever " beyond 
a grant from the Society. ** I was thus enabled," Bishop Lewis said, 
" to keep up the Missions, which would otherwise have been closed." 
The Missionary at Almonte reported in 1863 that the Church was 
" progressing wonderfully." *' Numbers who had lapsed to Methodism" 
now attended his services, and he had baptized many children of 
Presbyterian parents [44]. 

With the year 1878 the Society's aid to the diocese, which was 
being gradually withdrawn, entirely ceased. In that period the 
number of Clergy had been nearly doubled, ^500,000 of invested 
capital been raised, 140 new churches built, and with few exceptions 
every clergyman supplied with a parsonage and glebe land. These 
results the Bishop attributed in a great measure to the organisation of 
a Synod of Clergy and Laity. " This created such a feeling of con- 
fidence and interest that the laity had no scruple in throwing them- 
selves into the work and casting their alms into the treasury of the 
Church " [45]. 

It was the privilege of Bishop Strachan to witness the rapid 
progress towards independence of these two new dioceses which he 
had done so much to bring into existence. At his ordination in 
1808 he made the sixth clergyman in Upper Canada; at his death 
in 1867 he was " one of three Bishops having together jurisdiction 
over 248 "[46]. 

In 1878 Toronto was reheved of the northern portion of its terri- 
tory by the erection of the Diocese of Algoma, a district then consist- 
ing principally of Indian reserves, but now comprising a population 
nine-tenths of which are emigrants from the mother country. Inas- 
much as this diocese is the creation of the Canadian Church *^ as a 
field of Home Missionary operations," it receives ** two-thirds of all 
unappropriated funds contributed by the laity of this ecclesiastical 
pro'/ince in response to her annual Ascensiontide appeal " [47]. 

The poverty of the settlers, however, has rendered necessary more 
assistance than has been supplied from this source, and in 1880 and 
1882 the Bishop reported there are ** thousands of our members 
scattered throughout this vast diocese, to whom the sound of the 


church-going bell is a thing of the past, thousands who are living 
and djing without any opportunity of participating in the means of 
grace." " Elsewhere the Church ... is converting Pagans into 
Christians ; is it not at least equally necessary to prevent Christians 
becoming Pagans ? *' [48]. The Society has done much to supply the 
required means [49]. It has also contributed (since 1872) £1,658 
towards the endowment of the see [50]. 

By the formation of the See of Niagara in 1876 Upper Canada now 
comprises five dioceses, all of which, except Algoma, are self-support- 
ing. As a separate diocese Niagara has not received aid from the 
Society ; but the Missions contained in it were either planted by the 
Society or are the direct outcome of its work [50a]. It may be 
recorded here that in 1871 the Society initiated a movement for 
collecting and circulating among the Clergy in England reliable infor- 
mation (obtained from the local Clergy) as to openings for emigrants 
in the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, where they could continue 
within the reach of Church ministrations [51]. 

The removal of the Mohawks from the (Jnited States to Canada, 
and their settlement on the Grand River and in the Bay of Quenti, 
has already been mentioned [see pp. 74, 140, 154] : it remains to tell of 
the Society's work among them and other Indian tribes in Upper 

Immediately on the formation of the Mohawk settlement at Tyon- 
deroga, Quenti Bay (1784), " a young Loretto Indian " (Mr. L.Vinceni) 
was appointed Catechist and Schoolmaster there, and on the Rev. Dr. 
Stuart's second visit (in 1785), the Indians expressed their " thank- 
fulness for the Society's kind care and attention to the.m especially in 
the appointment " [52]. They were also " greatly rejoiced " when the 
Society came forward with help for the completion of a church which 
they had begun. The building was so far finished in 1790 as to enable 
Mr. Thomas, a Mohawk, formerly clerk at the Fort Hunter Mission, 
New York State, to perform Divine Service in it every Sunday. A few 
years later this duty was performed by "a son of their principal 
Chief," who valued himself much **on being a godson of the Bishop of 
Nova Scotia"* The church was rebuilt and enlarged by General Prescot 
in 1798. It was furnished with a ** neat altar-piece, containing 
the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, in the 
Mohawk language, surrounded by the Royal Arms of England, 
handsomely carved and gilt, as well as with a fine-toned bell." These 
were given by George the Third. The Mohawks had preserved the 
Communion Plate entrusted to them in 1712 " the gift " (as the 
inscription on it denoted) ** of Her Majesty, Queen Anne, by the 
Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, and her 
Plantations in North America, Queen, to her Indian Chapel of the 
Mohawks." [See p. 70.] This service of plate, being originally intended 
for the nation collectively, was divided, and a part retained by their 
brethren on the Grand River ; and such was the care of the Mohawks, 
that more than forty years later the Missionary of Quenti B^iy 
wrote: — 

" Althoagh it has been confided to the care of individuals of the nation for at 

* Biiihop Charles Inglis, p. 852. 


least one hundred and thirty years, the articles wo have here in use are iu an 
excellent state of preservation. Even ' the fair wliite linen cloth for the Com- 
manion table/ beautifully inwrought with devices, emblematical of the rank of the 
royal donor, although untit for use, is still in such condition as to admit of these 
being easily traced. The grey-haired matron, a descendant of the Chief, the 
present guardian of these treasures, which she considers as the heirloom of her 
family, accounts for the mutilated state of the cloth by observing that during the 
n^'olutionary war it was buried to prevent it falling into the hands of their 
enemies " [53J. 

Visiting the Mohawks at Oswego, Grand River, in 1788, Dr. 
Stuart found thera in possession of a well-furnished wooden church. 
Me baptized sixty- five persons, including seven adults, and was 
accompanied oh his return as far as Niagara (about 80 miles) bj 
Captain ]3raut, the Chief, and 15 other Mohawks, *'who earnestly 
requested that he would visit them as often as possible " [54]. This 
be did, as well as those at Quenti, but in both instances the lack of " a 
resident Pastor " made itself painfully felt. The occasional visits of 
the Missionaries were *' not sufficient to produce lasting or substantial 
benefit," or "to counteract the evils and temptations which on every 
side " predominated. The intercourse resulting from the proximity 
of the white settlers became "a mutual source of inunorality and 
corruption "; and for many years the Missionaries had to complain of 
the relapse of the Indians into their besetting sin — drunkenness [55]. 
Through this time of trial the Indians often showed a desire for 
better things. Those at Quenti frequently went to Kingston to 
" receive the Sacrament and have their children baptized." 

The Rev. R. Addison of Niagara, who with several other 
Missionaries ministered to the Indians of different tribes on the 
Grand River, reported in 1796-8 there were ** about 550 belonging 
to the Church," and the number was increasing, as he had some 
''friendly serious Indians," who under his direction persuaded '' the 
neighbouring villagers to be baptized," and taught them *' the 
principles of Christianity as well " as they ** were able." The 
** serious deportment and devotion " of his flock were " exemplary," 
and he had ** 18 communicants as pious and conscientious as can 
be found ... in any Christian congi'egation." In 1810, his work 
among the s^^ttlers was making great progress, but he was " most 
satisfied with his success anion*^ the Indians : several of whom, belong- 
ing to the least cultivated tribe on tiie Grand River," had been 
lately baptized. In some years he baptized as many as 100 or 140 
Indians. On one occasion a chief of tlie Cayuga Nation and his wife 
were admitted. ** They had been man and wife many years, but 
tiiought it more decent and respectable to be united after the Christian 
Form." The Missionaries were '* greatly assisted by Captain Brant, 
Chief of the Mohawks," in their endeavours " to bring the wandering 
tribes " to Christ [56] . 

In 1820 the Mohawks on the Grand River numbered 2,000, and 
those at Quenti (who had been reduced by migrations) 250. By a 
treaty made in this year, ** 20,000 acres of land in the Missisaga and 
40,000 in that of the Mohawk " districts were added to Government, and 
Sir Peregrine Maitland expressed his readiness to appropriate the lands 
themselves, or the moneys arising from their sale, to the Society in 


trust to provide the said Indiana with Missionaries, Cateckists, and 
Schoolmasters. The Society approved of the proposal, and requested 
the Bishop of Quebec to act in the matter. The Mohawks devoted 
a portion (S^OO) of the proceeds of the land sold by them to the 
building of a parsonage on the Grand Biver, and added a glebe of 
200 acres [57]. 

A resident Missionary for them was appomted in 1828 [58]. 
In 1827 the Bishop of Quebec attended service in their church and 
preached to them, Aaron Hill, the Catechist, interpreting with 
*• astonishing " " fluency." The Bishop was impressed with the sing- 
ing of the Mohawks, who **are remarkable for their fine voices, 
especially the women, and for their national taste for music." The 
communicants *' received the Sacrament with much apparent 
devotion." A deputation of the chiefs " expressed their sincere thanks 
to the Society for the interest " it had ** so long taken in their welfare," 
especially for the recent appointment of the Rev. W. Hough as 
resident Missionary. His influence ** had already produced a visible 
good effect upon then* habits in general, and they hoped it might be 
lasting " [59]. 

Besides the Mohawks there were several Christians of the Tuscarora 
and Onondaga nations, and some of other tribes to whom Mr. Hough 
ministered. The Tuscaroras had a small house for public worship, in 
which the Church Ser\ice was regularly read every Sunday morning 
and evening. He witnessed a " great improvement in their religious 
condition," and they ** learnt to sing their hymns almost as well as the 
Mohawks " [60]. 

On Mr. Hough's resignation, in ill health, in 1827, the Bishop of 
Quebec availed himself of the services of the Rev. R. Lugger as a 
" temporary substitute," and ** permitted him to occupy the parsonage 
house," then unfinished, but which was completed by "the New 
England Company," of which he was a Missionary. The Society at 
first reserved the right of resuming the Mission, but the arrangement 
was allowed to continue. The severance " of the pastoral connection 
that had subsisted for more than a century with this interesting people " 
was not " yielded to without much reluctance on the part of 
the Society." But inasmuch as they would still " enjoy the services .of 
an Episcopal Clergyman " " under the authority and control of the 
Bishop," it "consented to leave them under his charge" and applied 
the resources set at liberty to other portions of the same nation [Olj. 

At this station in 1830 the Bishop of Quebec consecrated " the 
Mohawk Church, the oldest but one in the diocese," and confirmed 
89 persons, of whom 80 were Indians. Arrangements were also made 
for providing a resident Missionary for Quenti Bay, where the Mohawks 
had set apart a glebe towards his support [62]. 

Writing of a visit there in 1840 the Bishop of Toronto said : — 

" The situation of the church and parsonage looks very beautiful from the bay. 
The Bcv. S. Givens, Missionary, came on board in a small boat, rowed by six young 
Indians. The parsonage is very comfortable ; and Mrs. Oivens seems an amiable 
person, highly educated, and well-bred, and a suitable companion for a Missionary 
living in the woods, with no society but the aborigines of the country. The church 
was crowded. Many of the white settlers had come to attend on an occasion so 
solemn. The congregation, however, consisted chiefly of Indians. The worthy 


Missionary brought forward forty-one candidates for confirmation, some rather 
aged. I addressed them through an interpreter, and, I trust in God, with some 
effect, as it seemed from their appearance. We all felt it to be a blessed time, and 
the psalm of praise offered up was overpowering from its sweetness and pathos. 
The voices of the Indian women are peculiarly sweet and affecting ; and there was 
such an earnest solemnity evinced in their worship, as could not fail to strike all 
who were present " [63] . 

From 1810 the office of Catechist at Quenti had been filled by 
John Hill, a Mohawk. ** Sincere and faithful in the discharge of his 
duties, " he was enabled " during thirty years to witness a good con- 
fession before his brethren/' and at his death in 1841 the whit« 
settlers in the neighbourhood united with the Indians in showing 
respect to departed worth [64]. 

While the work at Quenti and on the Grand River was progressing 
satisfactorily, Indian Missions had been opened in other quarters. 
Reporting to Government on the state of the Church in Canada in 
1888, Bishop G. J. Mountain (of Montreal) said : — 

" I cannot forbear . . . from introducing some mention ... of the labours of 
our clergy among the native Indians. There are two clergymen stationed among the 
Six Nations on the Grand River. . . . A Missionary has been sent to the Manatoulin 
Islands and another to the Sault St. Marie. . . . These four are engaged exclusively 
in the charge of the Indians. There are two other clergymen who combine this 
charge with that of congregations of Whites ; one in the Bay of Quints, where a 
branch of the Mohawk tribe is established, and one who resides in Carodoc, and 
devotes part of his time to the Mounsees and Bear Creek Chippewas in his 
neighbourhood. I have never seen more orderly, and to all appearance, devout 
worshippers than among some of these Indian congregations which I visited, and I 
have the fullest reason to believe that the Ministry of the Clergy among them has 
been attended with very happy effects " [65]. 

The Sault St. Marie Ojibway Mission was begun between 1881-3 
by the Rev. W. M*Murray. " The principal chief, with his two 
daughters," soon " abandoned idolatry," and many others were baptized. 

** It is truly astonishing " (wrote Mr. M'Murray) *' to see the thirst there is for 
Scriptural knowledge. The Indians, like the men of Macedonia, are calling for 
help — for Missionaries — from all quarters. . . . Two bands of Indians came to me, 
from a distance of more than four hundred and fifty miles, for the express purpose 
of being instructed in the Great Spirit*s Book, as they call the Bible, and bein;; 
baptized. They stated that they had long heard of this Mission, and had now 
come to see * the black coat,' their usual designation of the Clergyman, and to hear 
him speak the good news, of which they had heard a little. I hope to see the time, 
ere long, when Missionaries will go in search of these poor sheep instead of seeing 
them travel so far in seaich of Missionaries.** 

A church was built by Government, but on Mr. M*Murray*s 
departure they returned to their old settlement at Garden Biver. 
The Rev. F. A. O'Mbara carried on the work from 1889 to 1841, 
when he was removed to Manitoulin Island. Though deserted, the 
Indians retained an attachment to the Church of England, resisting 
sectarian and Romanist efforts to draw them away [66]. 

To the Rev. G. A. Anderson, who in 1848 was sent to re-estabHsh 
a Mission among them, they said : — 

*'We were left a second time without a Black Coat— no one to read the Great 
Spiril's book to us. We were determined, however, notwithstanding the dark 
prospect before us, to attend to the words oX oar first Black Coat and keep together. 


We aceordingl; Bssembled eveij Suadaf , nnd prayed to the great Spirit U 
vith an eye of pily npon us, anil send sorae aoe to iaetruct us in tlie Good Book oi 
Blaok OoAls used to epeak to us about. . . . Now we thank tlio Great Blaclc Coftt % 
thftt he hath gent you Ut ub " [^7]. 

The Misiiion at Mtmatoulin (Indian " Mabneetooabneng ") Isiiuul 
arose out of a, plan originated by Captain Anderson in connection v 
the Canadian Government, with a view to collecting all tbe Indiana in 
the proi-ince on one of the islands on the north ahore of Lake Huron. 
The peoijle for whose benefit the Mission was set on foot were 
Ottahwahs and Ojibwas (or Cbipiiewaha), two tribes of the Algonquin 
nation, speaking the same language with a variation of dialect. The 
Ottahwahs ha^ing been brought up on the rich tanda of Michigan were 
more adapted for farming than the Ojibwas of Lakes Superior and 
Huron, accustomed to a life of wandering, " The superstitions of both 
tribes . . . are ei^sentialty the same, consisting in little more than a 
worship of terror paid to evil spirits, whom they think able to mfliot 
terrible misfortunes on them if neglected." They were extensively 
acquainted with the moat virulent vegetable poiaous, the smoking of . 
wluch would cause blindness. ' 

In May 1830 Captain Anderson, with the Bev. A. Elliot and a 
schoolmaster, began the formation of a Mission settlement on Maua- 
tonlin Island, and the sclieme pi-omised well until August, when Sir 
F. B. Head, who had succeeded Sir J. Colliome as Governor of the 
Province, "ordered" the Missionaries "to leave the work." "The 
Mission buildings" "were left uncompleted, the school which had 
been gathered with much pains, broken up, the self-denying labours 
of the Missionary rendered to all human appearance, abortive ; and 
what was worst of all, an impression was left on the minds of tbe 
Indians . . . that both the Superintendent and the Missionary had 
grossly deceived them." In the following year Cuplaln Anderson was 
allowed to complete the buildings, and on Sir George Arthur becoming 
Governor, a second Missionary stalF was organised with the aid of 
Archdeacou Btrachan. The party (Captain Anderson, the Bev. C. G. 
Brouuh, a surgeon, and a schoolin aster) arrived at the station on 
Oct, 80, 1837, in a snowstorm, to find the Mission-houae in flames, 
and they were obliged to winter at Penetangweshne. Worse than the 
loss of the buildings was the loss of confidence caused by the sudden 
breaking-up of the establishment in the previous year, and the sus- 
picions of the Indians were worked on to no good purpose by the 
emissaries of Eome. To drive away false impreasions the Missionary 
visited the Indians all round the northern shore of the lake, " showing 
them, by the privations he was willing to endure in their cause, that 
he sought not theirs, but them." 

" It ia impossible " (wrote Mr. O'Meara) " lor any one who has not undertaken 
those Uissionary iouriicya to have nu adequate idea ol what has to be endmed in 
them. It is not the intensity oF tbe cold, or tbe snow-drifts . . . that forma the worst 
part ot them ; it is when these are passpd and the Missionary is abont to seat him- 
sell on tbe gronnd by tbe wigwam lire that the worst part of the eipeditiou has (o 
be encountered. Tbe filth aud venrnn by which be sees and feels himself gar- 
rounded are qaile aufheient to make him long tor the morrow's jonmey even 
though it be but a repetition of the biting winds and blinding drifts which he has 
already eiperienced. Still hnppj would ho be. and soon would he Fori^t even 
Ihe&o iucuuYuuiencGs, if la most oases, he were received as a wcluuiue guest, and 


his message listened to with any degree of attention. . . . This is a very inadequate 
description of what hod to be endured by that servsoit of God who preceded me in 
this Mission bnt they did not prevent him from persevering in hia labour of love. 
With all his exertions however not nearly a tithe of those who at the time of the 
first^ settlement at this place gave in their adhesion to the plan, consented to 
receive his instructions." 

After nearly four years' labour Mr. Brouoh removed to London, 
Canada, and the Rev. F. A. O'Meara took up the work [GBJ. Visiting 
the Mission in 1842, the Bishop of Toronto reported : — 

" On the first night 6f our encampment I discovered that one of our canoes was 
manned by converted Indians from our Mission at the Manatoulin. Before going 
to rest they assembled together, and read some prayers which had been translated 
for their use from the Liturgy. There was something indescribably touching in 
the service of praise to Qod upon those inhospitable rocks ; the stillness, wildness, 
and darkness, combined with the sweet and plaintive voices, all contributed to add 
to the solemn and deep interest of the scene. I felt much affected with this 
simple worship, and assisted in conducting it e^ery evening, until we reached the 
Manatoulin Island." 

There a whole week was spent in 

" preparing the candidates for confirmation and endeavouring to convert some of 
the heathen. . . . For this purpose besides private conferences, there was service 
every afternoon. ... I admmistered the rite of confirmation to forty-four Indians 
and five whites. . . . The service . . . long but it was solemn and interesting; 
and no person of a right mind could have witnessed it and heard the plaintive and 
beautiful singing of the sons and daughters of the forest, without being deeply 
aifected. ... I was nearly overcome by the bright promise of this day's service, 
and I felt with becoming gi*atitude to God, that the miserable condition of the long 
neglected Indians of this country would now be ameliorated through the medium 
of our Holy Catholic Church." 

On the occasion of the Bishop's visit over 6,000 Indians were 
assembled at Manatoulin Island from various parts to receive the 
clothing and provisions annually dealt out to them by the British 
Government. Although the number was so great, " nothing could 
exceed the peace and good order which universally prevailed. No liquors 
were allowed them. There was no violent excitement of any sort ; and 
while alive to their own importance they were exceedingly civil, quiet 
and docile " [69]. 

The work of Mr. 0*Meara was lichly blessed. Within two years 
the Indians had " acquired morfe correct ideas concerning marriage — 
a strong desire to have their children educated like the whites — a 
disposition to raise the condition of their women— to abjure idolatry, 
their prophets, and the medicine bag — and a growing sense of the sin- 
fulness of murder, drunkenness, implacable enmity and revenge " [70]. 

In acknowledging contributions from England towards the erection 
of a Mission Church, they wrote in 1846 : — 

** Since we came to hear the good word from the lips of him who first told us 
of the Great Spirit and his Son Jesus Christ, we know that the red man and the 
white are brethren, the children of the same father and mother, made by the same 
Great Spirit and redeemed by the same Saviour. . . . We rejoice to know that you 
regard as as brethren ; for why else should you inquire after us and why else 
should yon give your money for building as an house of prayer ? . . . Brethren we 
thank yoa for the money ... by means of which we will now see our house of 
prayer going on to be built '' [71.] 


At a Confimiation in 1848 the charch was filled with the aborigines, 
and **to the mere spectator all appeared devout worshippers — the 
heathen as well as the Christian Indians." Thirty were confirmed, 
many of them being very aged. Afterwards the Holy Communion was 
administered to fifty-seven persons, chiefly Indians. Dr. O'Meara'b 
services to the Church in his different translations of portions of the 
Prayer Book and the Bible, with his untiring labours among the Indians, 
received very " high commendation " from the Bishop of Toronto [12], 

Constant Scriptural instruction furnished Mr. O'Meara'b flock with 
" a powerful defence from the errors of Romanism," and '* an effectual 
antidote to the fanaticism " with which they were invaded by Dissent- 
ing teachers from the United States [78]. 

The Rev. P. Jacobs was appointed an Assistant Missionary in 1856 
[74] ; and at the expiration of twenty-five years from the time they had 
received the Gospel an annual Missionary meeting and collection had 
become a recognised institution among the Indians of Manatoulin 
Island [75]. 

Previous to the opening of the Society*s Missions at Delaware 
and Caradoc most of the Indians were *'sunk in all the midnight 
darkness of paganism." Some years after, the Missionary, the Rev. 
R. Flood, could add : ** They have now, through grace from on 
high, with but few exceptions, long since cast their idols to the 
moles and the bats, and embraced the Gospel." The majority of 
these Indians were Munsees, a branch of the Delaware nation, who 
came into Canada to assist the British against the Americans (U.S.), 
but Mr. Flood's ministrations extended also to the Pottowatomies, 
Oneidas,and Ojibways in the neighbourhood. The first convert was the 
leading chief of the Munsees, Captain Snake, who was baptized 
in 1888 [76.] At a visit of the Bishop of Toronto in 1842 the great 
Ghippawa chief, Cunatuny, was baptized and confirmed. There were 
then still several pagan Indians in the two villages, and yet they, as 
well as the converted, were accustomed to attend the Church 
services. While they continued pagans they painted their faces and 
refused to kneel. When some doubts were expressed as to the 
Bishop's coming, the Indians exclaimed : " What, is he not the chief 
of the Church ? — he can never have two words — he is sure to come." 
The school house, though large and commodious, could scarcely con- 
tain half the number assembled, and those that could not get in, stood 
in groups about the door and windows. The chief was baptized 
and then confirmed with four others. ''His admission into 
the Church by the sacrament of baptism, and his public profession of 
the faith in coming forward for confirmation had been with him, for 
years, matters of deep and solemn consideration " [77]. 

. By 1845 one hundred had been ad nitted to baptism and forty-five 
had become communicants. Speaking of a visit to them in 1654, the 
Bishop said :- 

'* When we arrived we found them practising their singing, just as might have 
been the case in a country Church in England. They sing in harmony, the men 
leading the air and taking the bass and counter-tenor and a few of the women 
singing somewhat analogous to the tenor. The effect is very agreeable. They 
have A Prayer Book in their own language, which is an abridgement of the EnglisJi 
Fngrer Book. . . • There were a fair number confirmed, of whom two were women 


above forty. After the service according to their custom they all came forward 
to shake hands with the Bishop and those who accompanied him ** [78]. 

In 1847 Mr. Flood established a new station at a village of the 
Oneidas, about six miles from Munceytown. This branoh of the 
tribe— one of the Six Nation Indians — attached themselves to the 
Eepublican side daring the American Revolution, and at the close of 
the war were located on the Oneida Lake in New York State. There 
they enjoyed the Church's ministrations until about 1826, when their 
Missionaries recommended them to dispose of their reserve of land in 
consequence of the encroachments of white squatters, and retire to 
Green Bay, Michigan, where the United States Government offered 
them lands on favourable terms. One half of the tribe did so, the 
others remained until about 1840, when they removed to the 
neighbourhood of the Ojibway and Muncey tribes on the Biver 
Thames, Canada. In the meantime, having been neglected by the 
Church in the United States, '* some ran into dissent, others relapsed 
into heathenism.'* In their new home they were sought out by Mr. 
Flood, who ** took every opportunity that presented itself to bring 
before them the all-important concerns of the one thing needful, as 
well as to remind them of the Church of their fathers, with its dis- 
tinctive character; and blessed be God," said he, *'with the most 
beneficial results, as we have now ranged on the side of the Church a 
majority of the chiefs and people, and thereby an influence vdll be given, 
which under the Divine blessing, cannot fail in bringing back to the 
fold of Christ those who have ' erred and strayed from His ways like 
lost sheep ' " [79]. 

Mr. Flood also assisted in opening a Mission at Walpole Island for 
the Indians there, consisting of the Ojibway (mainly), Ottawa, and 
Pottowatomie tribes. A previous attempt had, *' owing to the mis- 
conduct of the interpreter and other causes," not succeeded as was 
hoped. In Aug. 1842 the Chief visited the Bishop of Toronto at 
Sutherland, and expressed the readiness of the Indians ** to receive a 
missionary kindly '* [80]. 

Accordingly m 1848 the Bev. B. Flood, accompanied by the 
Bev. J. Carey, visited Walpole Island, where they were met by " the 
Chiefs of the Walpole, Sable, and Port Sarnia Indians with most of 
their war chiefs," to the number of eighty. Mr. Flood addressed 
them on our Lord's commission to the Apostles to preach the Gospel, 
and the Apostolic succession, and explained the Gospel. " The 
Indians listened with deep interest," and when it was proposed to rent 
a house for the Missionary (Mr. Carey) the Chief said, " I want no 
rent, but I want the Minister to be near me and to teach me what 
is the good way " [81]. 

None of these Indians had as yet embraced Christianity, and the Bev. 
A; Jamieson, who succeeded Mr. Carey in 1845, found their condition 
wretched in the extreme, their lazy habits fully verifying the Indian 
maxim : ''It is better to walk than to run ; it is better to stand than 
to walk ; it is better to sit than to stand ; and it is better to lie than 
to sit." 

"My congregation during the first year was small indeed," he continued. 
■* Sometimes . • . I would enter the Cbnroh, remain an hour or two and leave 


without having any congregation at all. . . . Instead of going to Church and 
waiting for a congregation that never came, I went about amongst the Indians, on 
Sundays as at other times, and endeavoured to gain their attention to the claims of 
Christianity ... in the course of a few months two or three Indians visited me 
once or twice a week, to ask questions about the Christian religion. . . . And one 
year after the commencement of my labours I was cheered by being able to baptize 
two Indians " [82]. 

From this time progress was more assured : the Indians were gradually 
reclaimed, and in 1854 thirty-two were confirmed [88]. 

By 1861 paganism had so declined that 'Hhe majority of the 
Indians '* were " on the side of Christianity." They were hardly to be 
recognised as the same people, so great had been the change. " Under ' 
the benign influences of the Gospel, the improvident " had been 
made careful ; the drunkard, sober ; the impure, chaste ; and the 
revengeful, meek and forgiving *' [84]. 

In 1862 an epidemic swept over the island and made great 
ravages among the Indians. Mr. Jamieson and his wife were left 
alone ''in the midst of a fatal and loathsome disease" (small-pox). 
The medical man in the neighbourhood declined to assist, '' alleging 
that if he did so he would displease his patrons. The white men kept 
aloof . . . as if the island had been stricken with the plague." But 
the Missionary put his trust in God, and did his duty. In his efforts 
he was nobly seconded by Mrs. Jamieson, who " with her own hands 
vaccinated 280 " of the Indians [85]. 

Large numbers were confirmed from time to time by the Bishop of 
Huron, who also, about 1864, ordained an Indian* to act as assistant 
io Mr. Jamieson, and to evangelise along the southern shore of Lake 
Huron [86]. 

In 1878 the congregation elected and sent two delegates to the 
Diocesan Synod, and paid their expenses. The native delegates were 
much impressed by the large gathering of clergy and laity, and the 
services and proceedings. They witnessed the ordination of eighteen 
candidates, and partook of the Holy Communion side by side with 
many of their fellow Churchmen — members of the same household of 
faith [87]. 

That the Walpole Island Indians were worthy to be represented in 
this Christian Council will appear from the following incident : ** A 
number of Indians being at a distance from home were asked by some 
whites to get up a war-dance, and go through some of their pagan 
ceremonies. They quietly declined, and though bribed by the offer of 
whisky — no trifling temptation to the average red man — they steadily 
refused, saying that they had given up these things when they em- 
braced Christianity "[88]. 

In reviewing the results of the Society's work in Huron Diocese, 
Bishop Hellmuth wrote in 1882 : ^* No more satisfactory or successful 
Missionary work has ever come under my notice, for the 88 years 
I have been on this side of the Atlantic, than that accomplished 
by Mr. Jamieson on Walpole Island. . . . Your Society may con- 
gratulate itself that its funds have been so wisely and beneficially 
employed" [89]. 

On the death of Mr. Jamieson in 1885 the diocese ceased to look to 

* The Bev. H. P. Chase 

j^ or oKtABio. 176 

ilio way of retnm to yonr venerable 
'cceived from it during so many years." 
I. "tlie first-fniitB of a large offering 

■ I cause of Foreign Misaiona," adding 
at we may have our own MiMaionariou 

heathen world; wLen we shall cease 
Uiuoner of our gifts " [92]. 
iilv enumerated form the Ecclesiastical 
Tuij]. The Provincial Synod in 18H8 

I Foreign WissionHry Hociety of tlic 

■ [93], which in IWBl resolved :— 

he Rratt obligationa ol tho Cliun;1i hi lliU 
tiutiona to tho Forei|;ii MisujulDt bv diviilnl 
II the proportion of ^ Ja tu llic tiiriiii-r unJ ji) to 
liriBted bj tbe cootributurii beiriu lakuii into 
'<! tbat thraa amounti be ujiiiliud tu the worlr 
iibcn" [W]. 

. the Bishops of the Provhice attending 
•k8 took DODDsel witli the Koetety with a 
" undertaking direct work in the foreign 

advised not to enter n|M)n the foreign 
<-rtain of a revenue for the pui-pose o( 
ling per annum," but " !ls a tL'Uiporary 

effectively conduce to tJie attainment 
in 1^ the Church in Canada and by tbe 
.G. should receive any moneys entrusted 
iiir Missionary work among tbe heathen, 
Society will he prepar*.'d to receive and 
nut of tbe fuiidM so contributed from 

lidates who may bo pri'senteil to it by 
V in India, Japan, and other henlhon 

iiarantee any grant in iH.'rp<>tuity," hut 

■ <iured that tho Society will not allow 

II Hnglaiid is coiicirnuil in tbe event of 
ly upon the Foi-eign I'iohl inslood of 
■ngh tlie Society for thai pniposo " [fllji. 
liaa been accepted, and in IH'JO tlie 
4 Missionary, the Ucv. ■]. (.). Wallkk, 


ISTABIO* (1H92 1900). 

y otliers, hut, though their MiHiiiiiniiry 
financial arrange men I haa proviid 

.Ir-r rrf,y,,u<-^ -M-IK, .■..,„■,-.„ „..l ....Lj ll,i, IT.,- 
Uo«uhI..u ../ (.■o«u.'«. T., f.rrt,-,a mi«H.ul.r. 
.lUuUtlwIirM-' ( rliHrrh" ••r'^rburrh 
■■tt limilcd I- Ihe Chnnh in •• lA.i KMnianlinil 
IIm Jfoitera CuiHiiLi—UHtil Ihr rr.Ht,ilid»tii'H nf 
/CitnatIatnl»SII,aiMt lAdt thU limUation tliU 


the Society for aid in carrying on its Indian Missions, and from that 
year Algoma haa been the only diocese in Upper Canada aided by the 

Aiihough the diocesan authorities (of Algoma) now regard the 
settlers as having a primary claim on the Society's grant,* the Society 
has assisted in providing and maintaining a Mission shipt by means of 
which the Bishop is enabled to visit the Indians as well as the settlers, 
and some of its Missionaries ar& still directly or indirectly engaged in 
native work. Tliat the earlier Missionst of the Society have borne 
good fruit will be seen from a report of Bishop Sullivan in 1882 : — 

*' The Indians number from 8,000 to 10,000, all belonging to the Ojibewa tribe, 
speaking therefore only one language. Since mj consecration, I have had a great 
many means and opportunities of measuring the need and capacity for social and 
religious improvement. I have preached to them — prayed with them— sung the 
songs of Zion with them round the camp-fire — sat with them at their tables — 
rowed and paddled with them in their canoes —listened to their speeches at several 
*pow- wows '—and, as the result of it all, I herewith avow myself the Indians' 
friend and stand ready to do what in me lies for their social and religious 
elevation. . . . 

" * But,' it will be asked, • are they cnpable of elevation ? * I answer, most 
unhesitatingly, yes. The experiment has been tried, and has succeeded. Despite 
the all but insurmountable difficulties arising, in the case of adults, from the force 
of the confirmed habits of a lifetime, hundreds of these once degraded and 
ignorant pagans have been reclaimed from savagery, and are now settled down in 
their substantially built homes, with the comforts of an advancing civilisation 
round them — pictures hang on their walls- habits of cleanliness pervade their 
dwellings— the social and domestic virtues are honoured and respected, and the 
New Testament lies on their table, not by any means neglected. I could to- 
morrow take the most prejudiced anti-Indian to homes where he could see all this 
and would be compelled to acknowledge that . . . after all, the aborigines are as 
capable, when rightly dealt with, of social and religious elevation as any other race 
of men " [90]. 

His predecessor. Bishop Fauquier, while visiting the diocese in 
1878, discovered a band of pagan Indians who had been ** waiting for 
thirty years for an English Missionary to come to them." About 1818 
their old chief was promised a teacher of the English Church by " a 
great white chief." The old man ** lived twenty years and died in 
the faith of that promise, every year looking but in vain for the 
teacher to come." His last words to his people were that they should 
** not join any other religion but wait for the English Black Coat to 
come and teach them " ; and this they had been doing ten years longer. 
By the establishment of a Mission at Lake Neepigon a great change 
for the better was effected among the Indians, both in temporal and 
spiritual matters, in the course of the next four years [91]. 

The time seems distant when this diocese will be able to dispense 
with outside help ; still, satisfactory progress towards self-support has 
been shown, and some return has been made to the Society for past 
assistance [91a]. 

From the older Canadian dioceses the Society has long been 
accustomed to receive an annual token of sympathy in its work 
in heathen lands. In 1881 the Bishop of Toronto pledged his 

♦ See p. 166. t The ISvangeliiis. 

X The Missions at Sanlt Ste. Marie, Garden River, and Manatoulin Island [ife pp. 
16S-71] are now in the Diocese of Algonm. 

(BOYINOB OP 0KtARt6. 176 

diocese "to do something in the way of return to your venerable 
Society for all the fostering care received from it during so many years." 
Subsequently he forwarded £71, ** the first-fruits of a large offering 
for the future ... for the great cause of Foreign Missions," adding 
that his " aim is eventually that we may have our own Missionaries 
planted in every quarter of the heathen world ; when we shall cease 
troubling the Society to be the Almoner of our gifts " [92]. 

The Canadian dioceses already enumerated form the Ecclesiastical 
Province of Canada [see p. 763]. The Provincial Synod in 1888 
organised **The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Church of England in Canada " [93], which in 1884 resolved : — 

^'That this Board recognisiog the great obligations of the Church in this 
country to the S.P.Q., the contributions to the Foreign Missions be divided 
between the S.P.G. and the C.M.S. in the proportion of jds to the former and ^d to 
the latter, the sums specially appropriated by the contributors being taken into 
account in making such division, and that these amounts be applied to the work 
of [the] said Societies among the heathen " [94]. 

At the desire of the Board, the Bishops of the Province attending 
the Lambeth Conference in 1888 took counsel with the Society with a 
view to the Canadian Church ** undertaking direct work in the foreign 

The Canadian Board were advised not to enter upon the foreign 
field •* until they are morally certain of a revenue for the purpose ol 
at least ;$!15,000 or £3,000 sterling per annum," but " as a temporary 
arrangement" it would ''most effectively conduce to the attainment 
of the objects desired in common by the Church in Canada and by the 
S.f'.G. that meanwhile the S.P.G. should receive any moneys entrusted 
to it by the Church in Canada for Missionary work among the heathen, 
on the understanding that the Society will be prepared to receive and 
place upon its list and pay out of the funds so contributed from 
Canada any well-quahfied candidates who may be presented to it by 
the Canadian Church for work in India, Japan, and other heathen 

The Society is unable **to guarantee any grant in perpetuity," but 
the Canadian dioceses wore ** assured that the Society will not allow 
them to suffer so far as aid from England is concerned in the event of 
the Board . . . entering directly upon the Foreign Field instead of 
senduig their contributions through the Society for that purpose " [95]. 

The advice of the Society has been accepted, and in 1890 the 
Canadian Board sent out its first Missionary, the Rev. J. G. Waller, 
the field selected being Japan [96]. 

Province of Ontario* (1892-1900). 

Mr. Waller was followed by others, but, though their Missionary 
work has been fruitful, the financial arrangement has proved 

* N.B.—Th^ inatleia dealt with umler references 97-105 concern notimhj this Pro- 
vin4:e but tlui Church generally in tJto Dominion of Canada. To prevent miminder- 
standing^it is necessary to bear in mind tliat the term " Canadian Church " or" Church 
in Canada" as liereina/ter quoted, was limited to the Church in " tJw Ecclesiastical 
Province of Canada,**— i.e. ^ practically Eastern Canada— until the consolidation of 
the Church in the whole Dominion of Canada in 1898, and that thi$ limitation still 
appliet to ths Board of Misaiom here referred to. 


unsatisfactory to all parties. While large contributions have been 
diver led from its General Fund, the Society has been appealed to for 
assistance in carrying on the foreign work of the Canadian Board 
97]. An explanation of this appeal is to be found in the fact 
;hat the system of a Board of Missions has not met with general 
acceptance in Canada [98], While in theory every member of the 
Church in the Province of ** Canada" is a member of the Board and 
should support it [98a], in reality a large proportion of the united 
contributions is given to a local branch of the Church Missionary 
Society [99]. When, therefore, in 1899 it was represented that the 
Canadian Board appears to be ** simply the S.P.G. in Canada," while 
the Canadian C.M.S. is ** the C.M.S. in Canada/* and that if the 
Canadian l^oard paid its Missionaries direct, and not through the 
8. P.O., it would be able to show that the Board is *' the Canadian 
Church* in lier Missionary aspect,*' the Society (ever ready to promote 
Church order) agreed to cancel the arrangement of 1888 (page 175), so 
that the Canadian Church might from the year 1900 '* deal directly 
with its agents in the foreign field in financial as well as other 
matters ** [100], After ten years* trial the entrance of the " Canadian 
Church *' * on direct foreign Mission work in 1888 was pronounced 
by one of its Bishops to have been " a great mistake *' [101], In 
reality that work has been carried on at the cost of starving the 
" Domestic Missions," especially those in Manitoba and North- West 
Canada, wnere the Bishops have been embarrassed and disheartened 
by the small assistance received from Eastern Canada, even since the 
consolidation of the Church. By this event, which took place in 1898 
[102], the two existing Ecclesiastical Provinces known as ** Canada ** 
and *' Hupert*s Land," together with two of the three existing dioceses 
of British Columbia, were welded into one great Church, embracing 
all the dioceses of the Dominion except Caledonia, and extending from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific. The first General Synod for the whole 
Dominion was organised at Toronto in September 1898 [108j. The 
Society felt that the poorer dioceses of Canada had now ** a claim on 
the richer far stronger than was the case before the consohdation of 
the Ecclesiastical Provinces, and much more urgent than they have 
on the Society.'* Accordingly the Society reduced its grants to 
Canada for 1897 by ten per cent., excepting in the case of the dioceses 
of New Westminster and Caledonia. In reaffirming this policy in 
1898 and again in 1900 1 the Society expressed its readiness " to meet 
special needs by special single sum grants according to the urgency of 
the case and the funds at the Society's disposal." Indeed, the dioceses 
:)rinci pally affected have already received substantial aid in this form 
104]. In the opinion of the Society, the richer and older parts of 
Canada "have not only the obligation of supporting the poorer, but 
might well rejoice in having the opportunity of doing so *' [105]. 
{See also page 1806.) "^ 

• The Canadian aimual contribation to the Society's General Fmid diiuiniHlied by 
about five-sixtliH in the course of a few years [U7a]. 

f On the latter oc<;aKion the Society htvd before it a memorial from the Ecclesiastical 
Province of Rupert's Land against the reduction policy, addressed to the President and 
Episcopal Vice-Presidents (of the Society) in England [104a]. 


Algoma Diocese (see p. Hi). — The illness of Bishop Sallivan, first 
contracted from esposure on a Missionary tour in 1893, lod to his 
resignation of the Bishopric in 1896* [106]. His last reports showed 
that the Church iu Algoma occupies a strong and abiding position in 
many neighbourhood)!, where but for the Society's assistance it must 
have died out, and tha.t its proportionate growth is in advance of that 
of any other diocese in the Dominion, but, excepting at one or two 
points, the diocese, owing to its poverty, could " never be self-support- 
ing" [107]. The Bishop had established a Clergy Widows' and Orphans' 
Fund, the Bishopric Endowment Fund, and the nucleus oE a Clergy 
Pension Fund [lOd], but he longed in vain (or a partial Endowment 
Scheme or Sustentation Fund, which, while leaving room for the 
offenngE of Churchmen, would at the same time protect the clergymai 
from (he risks created by entire dependence on them, e.g. : — 

" Some Jh7 (or lady) |iope, whose name tlguree InrgBl; on the aubscripLioc liat, 
ifl offended by tometbiDg the cleigyman is alleged to liave said ordoDc.or, 
failed to say or da. Petsoual pridt and vnnity are deeply wonoded, but n 
sweet, and, li.i the Hmmal Babscription is withdniwn, nnd, it lany be. other 
piiriBhionora are induced to (olio* HUit, tha whole pariah being embitrrasBed by the 
action ot two or three fajniliea. Such are some of the aidvantages (?) of the 
volanUry principle on which we are left wholly dependent for loual sapport " [109]. 

The successor of Bishop Sullivan, Dr. ti. Tbomeloe {consecrated 
in 1S97), who hears testimony to the " splendid work " accompHshed 
by Bishop Sullivan, is energetically developing the principle of self- 
support, and his efforts have been encouraged by special aid from the 
Society for the Clergy Sustentation Fund [110], and for Church and 
School buildinq3+[lll], At the present time (1900J the material" 
prospects of the country are brightening; but the gitins of the 
Church will be counterbalanced by ihc fresh demands for ministra- 
tions as new settlements are created and by the growing competition 
on the part of other Christian bodies. lo the diocese, which is " at 
least as large as all the English diocese.<j put together," the work of 
the Society's missionaries is, in most cases, quiet, monotonous, and 
nueveutfiil — work which lacks the stimulus of excitement and adven- 
ture met with in heathen lands. For this reason it is often lia.rder 
than more adventurous work, and lays under heavier contribution the 
missionaries' powers of heart and mind and will [112], 



(For Siitlalkal S 

If p. IDS.) 

* He then lieciime Reelar ut St. Junta' Cathedral, Toronto, t, post vlu'ch he huld till 
. hia death, wHich took p'oce at Metit^ne on Jauuary B, IHI'l). 

■ 'volad in 1NW7 from tliB Miirriotl bsiiinHt.lowarda Iheersi' 

it UiB Wawujiosb Uoins at Sault Sta. Maria tor Lrainiug Iiidiaa gitli. 



Tut. Must lliov. llonMir Macurav, D.D., I,I,.l]., ii.C.r,,, .Uumiiiitoi' or Hu't 

ill-rfim ArdiHt^uji iif II r A'riyliiA ('u/iixliil Omr-'i.) 

Pi:oi,i[o o( All Cniman. rvaUte o( tlie Order of St. Michnel nai St. GEorge. 
iSc» p. 180c.] 




(formerly RUPERT 8L AND), 

Th£ couutry was discovered by Hudson in 1610, and in 1670 assigned by Charles II. 
to Prince Rupert and others — a corporate body commonly known as the Hudson's Bay 
Company. The original colony of " Rupertsland " comprised " all the Lands and 
Territories upon the countries, coasts, and confines of the Seas, Bays, Lakes, Rivers, 
Creeks, and Sounds, in wliatsoever latitude they shall be that lie within the entrance of 
the Straits commonly called Hudson's Straits that were not actually possessed or 
granted to any of his subjects or possessed by the subjects of any other Christian Prince 
or State." On the surrender of the Company's Charter to the Crown, " Rupertsland " 
was incorporated in the Dominion of Canada, and representative institutions were granted 
(1870) to the province of Manitoba then erected. The Nortli-West Territories were 
formed into a distinct Government in 1876 ; in 1882 the organised Territories were divided 
into four provisional districts — Assiuiboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Athabasca; and 
in 1805 the unorganised and unnamed Territories were divided into the provisional districts 
of Ungava, Franklin, Yukon, and Mackenzie, and the boundaries of Athalmsca were ex- 
tended. In 1897 the Yukon district was constituted a separate t<;rritory. Under the Earl of 
Selkirk an agricultural settlement was formed on the banks of the Red River in 1811. When 
CKyvemor Semple was sent out from England in 1816 he was required to ascertain if any 
trace existed of either temple of worship or idol, and whether it would be practicable to 
gather the children together for education and industrial training. In his report he 
said : ^I have trodden the burnt ruins of houses, bams, a mill, a fort and sharpened 
stockades ; but none of a Place of Worship, even upon the smallest scale. I blush to 
■ay that, over the whole extent of the Hudson's Bay Territories, no such building 
exists." Ere this "foul reproach" was removed "from among men belonging to a 
Christian nation " the Governor was slain in an incursion of the natives. The Hudson's 
Bay Company had not been entirely unmindful of their religious duties : the chief factor 
at each post being required to read the Church Service to their employes every Sunday. 
In 1820 they sent out the Rev. J. West as Chaplain to the settlement. Desirous of 
benefiting the heathen also, he offered his services to the Church Missionary Society, 
with the view of establishing schools for the Indians, and that Society provided him 
with £100 to moke a trial. In 1822 the Company solicited the aid of the S.P.G. in 
"furnishing them with a Missionary or in a donation for the erection of a Church at the 
settlement on the Red River," but no help could be spared [1]. Mr. West opened a 
school, and in 1823 a church was built near the spot where Governor Semple fell ; 
and the Rev. D. T. Jones was sent out by tlie C.M.S. to form a regular Mission 
under Mr. West, who, however, returned to Phigland the same year. In 1825 Mr. Jones 
was joined by the Rev. W. Cockran (C.M.S.) Up to this time the lalKturs of the 
Missionaries bad been directed chiefly to the European settlers and (heir descendants of 


miiod bicod. Owing ta Ihe wsndeiiog habits of the lodiuiB no s;[BtoiuB(ic eBott hud 
been mode im UiBir behuU, nith the eideptioD of the Indiim School ; but Mr. Cockrsn 
lonned im mdnBtrial eettUment in ISSa, tnd in lB3i baptised SB Indians— 10 hiding 
udultB. Under his maDogeuient garh piogrCBS was miido that when in 1844* Bialiop 
O. J . Moautoiu of (^uebeo visited the Bettlcmeat ho tonnd four churches attended by 
l.TOU persona, and nine nehncilH with iSB scholia. Xnolading h«I(-brei>dB and Earoiwuns 
B4a persons were coofnned. Tlie nnmber of oamniunicantB was 4G4 ; but in two of llie 
ohurchLfi there was " no Communiou table and no plnce reserved (or it." The "neoesiil; 
ot entablinhiiig a. Biabnp in IboHe territoriee" woe so powerful)]- urged b; Dr. Monntaiu 
that in lB4fi Rnpertstaud woe erected into ■ diocese and the Iter. DiiTid Anderson cou- 
■eoralcd its first Bialiop [ire p. T04], 

Ik 1850 the Society responded to a request of the Bishop to enter 
the field [la]. Its first MisBionary, the Rev. W. H. Taylok (of New- 
foundland), T\-ho was placed in clmrge of the district of Assiniboia 
in 1851, thus describee his arrival in the diocese in 1850 : - 

" Wa bad been sii weeks or mnrejOQriiejiDgaTer the extensive pi airies nhich lie 
between the United Sta(«ii and thJB caiinti}'. We hut been in the wilderness exposed 
to the savage hordes ol Indiana . . . and tlic wild beasts, Ecarrely leas (earful . . . 
and the sight a! neat and quiet dwellings with their apparent safety and comfort 
was most pleaaiog. ... As we travelled down the Aasiniboine to the settlement on 
the Red Biver, ne could see the little farms on the river's side and the buiikH 
filled with stacks of ooro nnd fodder, with vitst herds graiiiog at large in the 
plains. . . . Then the French Church, the fort . . and in the distance the English 
Church and the Bishop's house, told us that we were again in a land where the 
true God was known and worshipped" [3]. 

Mr. Taylor's charge embraced a district about SO miles in extent, 
containing a scattered population of European, French -Canadian, 
mixed (half-breeds) and Indian races. Service was held at first in a 
schoolroom in the centre of the settlement, Si miles above Fort 
Garry. Near Ihe rendezvous of the Indiana who 'visited the settlement 
in the summer, and within sight "of the scalps suspended over the 
graves of the poor dark departed onea," and "on tliG spot where for 
years . . . the heathen revels have been performed," was built in due 
time (witli the Society's aid) "a temple to the living God." In May 
1832, before either church or parsonage was finished, a mighty flood 
swept over the surrounding diati-ict, and the parsonRge and glebe 
became "a place of safety for a homeless, houseless, poi>nlution " 
including the Bishop and his family [B]. In their battles with the 
elements the early settlers were often worsted. Thus in one winter Mr. 
Taylor wrote of the " freezing of tiie ink in the pen while filling 
up tiie marriage register. Immediately the pen came in contact with 
the air in the church theink became solid . . . though agreatfire was 
burning hi the stove" [4j. In 1855 the Mission became the organised 
parish of St. James, Assmiboine. with a consecrated ehurch,t calculated 
to raise the tone of public worship in the Diocese [5]. The district for 
many miles ronnd continued to benefit from Mr. Taylor's labours 
imtil 1807, when illness obliged him to remove to England [6]. 

In 1852 the Society made provision for stationing a clergyman at 
York Fort in response to an appeal which the Bishop forwarded from 
the Indians there. They had had " occasional visits from Protestant 
mmisters," and were endeavouring, so far as their knowledge went, 
to worship God " in spirit and In truth," reading the hooks printed 
in their own tongue, praying night and morning, and observing the 

* The total population ol the Red Biver Scttlenieat was then [:,lliI-ol whom 3,708 
were Itoman Catholics. 

f Consecmiicd May 20. 18S6. 


Babbath. But tliej felt " like a Sock of ebeep wilhont a shepherd.'' 
" Long have we cried for help " (they concluded) ; " will you not take 
pity upon us, our ignorant wives, our helpless children, many of whom 
are stitl unbaptized, and some of us too ? " [7]- 

The Bishop's selection of the Bev. B. SIcDosald for this posl 
was approved by the Bocietj, but it was deemed advisable to send a J 
clergyman of greater experience, and such an one could not he ob- 
tained until 18J)4, when the Mission was undertaken by the CM.S. [H] 

From 1S54 to 1859 the Society supported the Rev. T. CocHnANR ' 
at St. John's, Red Bivor, who was entrusted with the charge of the 
Collegiate School for the training (among others) of candidates for the | 
ministry [9]. , 

The next Mission of the Society was formed at Fort ElUce, or 
Beaver Creek, 240 miles to tlie westward of the Assiniboine River, j 
where the Rev. T. Cook was appointed in 18G2 to minister to the i 
Indians, half-breeds, and the few English of the district. Being " native 
bora " Mr. Cook was " equally familiar with both languages," and at i 
Bishop Machray's first ordination he " preached in the Cree language 
for the benefit of the Indians present" [10]. The new Bishop (who 
succeeded Dr. Anderson in 1866) was much impressed by " the great 
good going on" in the diocese, and " the great difference between 
Indians in a heathen ntate and those even but nominally under the 
softening and yet elevating influences of the Gospel " [llj. 

The Bishop doubted whether the Society had " another Heathen 
station so removed from the conveniences of life as Fort Klllce ; above 
700 miles from any market with a people in the vei7 lowest condition 
. . , and, alaa ! for many a long day, no hope of improvement in tem- 
poral things." The few things the Indians possessed — huts and 
blankets or coats— were generally deeply pledged for skins [12]. 

The wandering habits of the Indians added to the task of their , 
conversion. The half-breeds could be regularly assembled for 8er\'ice 
and instruction at Fort EUice, but to win the pure natives it was 
necessary to follow tliem in their wanderings over hill' and plain, and 
instruct them in wilderness and wigwam. Fort Pelly, Touchwood Hill, 
Qu'Appelle Lake, and other places were visited, and among the pure 
natives ministered to were tJie Saulti?au\, Crees, Assiniboines, and 
Sioux. Since buffalo -hunting could no lon^'er be depended upon for 
obtaining a subsistence Mr. Cook sought to teach the Indiana ploughing 
and to induce them to settle and farm for themselves. In this he met 
with little success, but as a Missiooarv he wns generally acceptable, 
and his useful labours were continued for twelve years [13]. 

Prenoualy to 1870 the Church Missions in Riipcrtsland had been 
c&rried on in days of " hopeless isolation," when no increase of the 
white population could even be expected except from the servants sent 
out from Great Britain by the Hudson's Bay Company [14]. 

Direct intercourse with England was maintained by wayof Hudson'a 
Bay, which was navigable only about four months in a year. Annually 
in the autumn a ship came to York Factory, but goods hod to he 
carried inland nearly 800 miles. Even in 180.?, the year of Bishop 
Machray's arrival, " there was a complete wilderness of 400 miles in 
width still separating Manitoba from the nearest weak white settle- 
ments " [Ifi], 


The union of the country with the Dominion of Canada (in 1870) 
was followed by a magnificent development. In 1871 the Bishop 
wrote: *'Iam anxious that the Society. . should seriously consider 
the extraordinary circumstances of the south of my diocese. I do not 
suppose that a doubt is anywhere entertained of the fertility of the 
province of Manitoba, and of a large section of country to the west of 
that province for a thousand miles to the Bocky Moimtains. . The 
rapidity with which this rich country is being made aC'Cessible is mar- 
vellous and unexampled. . Language could not too strongly represent the 
extraordinary result to be anticipated within the next ten years " [16]. 

The opportunity of " taking the initiative in the great work of 
evangelisation for the people that are coming here " was urged with 
force by Lieut. -Governor Archibald at a meeting held at Winnipeg in 
1872, when the Society was appealed to for increased aid [17]. At 
the time these appeals were made, Winnipeg had just '' started as a 
village of a few hundred people " (300 in 1871). By 1880 its popula- 
tion had reached 10,000, which number was more than doubled in the 
next six years [18]. 

The Society has made and is still making great efforts to provide 
for the spiritual wants of the settlers. The Bishop of Bupertsland 
stated (in 1884-1888) that it came forward to help the Church in 
the most generous and sympathising manner, and with surpassing 
kindness and consideration : — 

" These are not words of flattery for the ears of the Society but words of sober 
heartfelt truth from our own hearts. The Society had assisted us in some measure 
for many years but as the work of settlements grew it continuously increased 
and extended its aid, so that the position we hold in the vast tract of settlement 
between this and the Rocky Mountains is almost entirely owing to this noble 
Society. ... It has given grants to bishoprics and colleges . . . furnished part of 
the salaries of Bishops till endowments were secured, given studentships for 
candidates for orders, and above all given large and generous grants for the 
support of Missions *' * [19]. 

At this period the original diocese of Rupert's Land had been sub- 
divided into four, viz. : Ruperfc*s Land, founded 1849 ; Moosonee, 
1872 ; Saskatchewan, 1874 ; Athabasca, 1874 ; and since then five 
more dioceses have been founded, viz. : Mackenzie River, 1883 ; 
Qu'Appelle, 1883 ; Calgary, 1887; Selkirk, 1890 ; andKeewatin, 1899 
[20]. These dioceses form the ecclesiastical Province of Rupart's 
Land, and those which have been assisted by the Society it will now 
be convenient to take separately : — 

Rupert's Land (with Keewatin) (1892-1900). 

The formation of the diocese of Keewatint will relieve Rupert's Land 
of the part of it in the Province of Ontario and make the diocese 
almost conterminous with the Province of Manitoba. Till the pait four 

* Tlie annual grants for tlie Hui)port of the Bishops referred to have extendod in the 
case of Saskatchewan from 1874 to 18HC, and in that of Qu'Appelle from 1884 to IMOl, in 
addition to which the Society (np to May li>01) has contributed towards the ondowmont 
of the Bishoprics of Saskatchdwan (£2,002*, Qu'Appelle (£3,868), and Calgary (£l,K04l ; 
and to Clergy endowment : £8,500 for Rupertslaud, £1,000 for Qu'Appelle, £250 for 
Saskatchewan, and £250 for Calgary ; and £1,600 for Collego endowment in the Diocese 
of Rupertsland [19a]. 

f Keewatin diocese relieyes Moosonee of its western lialf aa weU as Rupert's Land of 
/Af eastern half, and alMis with 11 Clergy [80aJ. 


^ears Northern Manitoba was mainly in its original wild condition, hav- 
mg only a few isolated settlers ; but the rapid extension of railways in 
the western section of it has entirely changed this, and a large extent of 
fertile land is being rapidly settled on. The eastern part of North Mani- 
toba remains in a wild condition, being largely taken up by lakes and 
swamps. In Southern Manitoba the provision of railways in advance 
of settlement has led to the scattering of the population, numbering 
only about 200,000, over an area as large as England, and the 
difficulties of ministering to them are enormous. Throughout the 
whole area are settlements set apart for French, Belgian, German, 
Scandinavian, Icelandic, Scotch crofter, or Eussian Mennonite 
colonists, in which (as yet) there are practically no Churchpeople. 
Generally, throughout Manitoba the Presbyterian body is strongest, 
both in numbers and means [21]. The Anglican Church is the largest 
body in Winnipeg, and though its membership for the whole Province 
is only about one-fifth of the English and Indian population, the pro- 
gress of the diocese will be found to be remarkable, and in the 
matter of self-support far in advance of most colonial dioceses. In 
1879, when the colonial life of Rupert's Land began, there were but 
two clergymen among the new settlers. In 1897, though fourteen 
parishes had become self supporting, and were liberally contributing 
to Mission funds, fifty- five Missions for settlers were being supported, 
and there was '' not a Mission in the diocese with a village in it having 
200 Churchpeople, including men, women, and children,** which was 
" not self-supporting " and helping the Missions of the diocese [22]. In 
1900 there were 21 self-supporting parishes, with (altogether) 27 clergy.* 

Though still receiving large help from outside, the diocese now 
depends mainly on the voluntary support of its members. 

In 1893 the Diocesan Synod resolved, " as a venture of faith," 
oa the policy of establishing a Mission wherever a district of new 
settlements guaranteed £Q0 or upwards towards the salary of a 
clergyman. For a year or two the Church advanced ** with leaps and 
bounds,'* and twenty new Missions were started ; but further extension 
on this scale was beyond the power of the diocese, which had reckoned 
(but in vain, as it proved) on substantial support from the Church in 
Eastern Canada. ^It is still, however, attempted where the people 
can raise £80, and m the case of large new Missions even £60 for a 
year or two in hopes of £80 being then raised) [28]. 

Far different was the position of the Presbyterians and Methodists, 
who, owing to the unstinted aid from their central bodies in Eastern 
Canada, were enabled to place two or three ministers in the new 
districts to the Church's one. In 1899 one-third of the Churchpeople 
in Manitoba were reported to be " outside the services of our clergy *'[24] 
and over 120 congregations were without churches, almost all tlje 
Mission districts being larger than the English diocese of Sodor and 
Man [24a]. 

Failing to obtain due sympathy and support from Eastern Canada, 

• As an examx^lc of the growth of Mottloment and of the Cliurch may be mentioned 
Dauphin, on the Canadian Northern Railway. Four yars ago it wa« a wheat-field. At 
the end of 1000 it was a town of 1,000 souls, and was entirely supporting its clergyman, the 
Rev. C. N. F. Jefifory [tiVt]. 


the Church in Manitoha and North- West Canada naturally appealed 
to the Society. The Society, however, felt that the wisest policy 
would he to take such steps as would lead to the Church in Easteni 
Canada undertaking its duties and responsibilities, instead of being 
relieved of them. It therefore, in 1896, decided to reduce its grants 
to the Canadian dioceses by 10 per cent, annually [25 & 26]. {See 
page 176.) 

The reductions have been mitigated by special gifts from the 
Society, including liberal grants from the Marriott bequest, for church 
building. These building grants have drawn out a fine spirit of 
generosity and self-help [27]. Gratifying as this is, it is only right 
to record that, as yet (1900), the response from Eastern Canada has 
been miserably inadequate, and urgent appeals against the reduction 
policy have been received by the Society from the dioceses affected in 
Manitoba and North- West Canada [27a]. 

Amid all the pressure of Mission work, other institutions needed 
for the healthy existence, life, and growth of the Church have not been 
forgotten, in laying his plans for founding a cathedral establishment 
in 1874, Bishop Machray made provision for a body of Cathedral Clergy, 
who, besides being Clergy of the Cathedral Church and parish, should 
be Professors in Divinity and Lecturers in Arts in St. John's College, 
and also be more or less free to make themselves generally useful in the 
work of the whole diocese. The* system has proved of inestimable 
value, and in St. John's Cathedral is to be seen an institution serving 
as the nucleus for most helpful work, not only in Winnipeg itself, but 
also for outlying districts, where, for fifteen years, services have been 
maintained by the staff with the aid of the Society, and Missions have 
been organised and supervised [28]. 

St. John's College, Winnipeg, in the University of Manitoba, is an 
institution entirely under Church government, in which students study 
arts as well as theology, and in both respects it has done a noble service 
for the country. It still provides *' the only important boarding school 
for boys between Toronto and the Pacific coast." For some years Arch- 
bishop Machray, the founder of the College in its present form, and 
Warden from 1874 to the present time, himself undertook the teaching 
of the higher mathematics to the studebts — a duty now performed 
by the Machray Fellow. The Divinity students constitute a band 
of willing and valuable missionaries, working in outlying districts in 
connection with the ** College and Cathedral Mission," both during 
" term " and vacation. Besides helping to endow the College, the 
Society has provided additional scholarships . by annual grants. In 
1893 the Institution had more students than any Church University in 
Canada had when Dr. Machray first arrived in the diocese [29]. *' But 
for its existence " (he wrote) ** a very different history would have had 
to be written of our Church in this country " [29^]. 

As it is, that history shows a wonderful growth. The province 
which Dr. Machray found ** simply an Indian hunting field — valuable 
chiefly for fur," has been divided into nine dioceses, with some 190 clergy, 
and the increase of clergy has been tenfold in his own diocese [80]. 

While Dr. Machray says that **the obligation of the Church in this 
field as a body . • . to the S.P.G. • • • cannot be over- 


estimated " [80a], it must not be forgotten that the re^ instigator and 
promoter of all this Church activity has been the Bishop himself [SOb], 
His services were recognised by the late Queen,* while the esteem in 
which he is held in Canada nas been shown by his appointment as 
President of the Board of Education for Manitoba and the first 
Chancellor of the University of the Colony [81] and by his election as 
"Primate of all Canada." This election took place on September 19, 
1898, on the occasion of the consohdation of "the Church of Eng- 
land in the Dominion of Canada/' when, according to the constitution 
adopted by the General Synod, he became, as Primate, "Archbishop " 
of Rupert's Land. Afterwards the General Synod passed a resolution 
conferring the title of Archbishop on the Metropolitans of Province?. 
This was the first instance t in which the English-Colonial Church 
adopted the title of Archbishop [82]. 

Rupert's Land has been fixed on by the Provincial Synod as for ever 
the Metropolitical See of the Province, and the Diocese of Rupert's Land 
has been given " a main influence in the election of the Archbishop and 
Metropolitan, "as in ancient times the metropolitical dioceses had [826]. 

Saskatchewan and Calgary Dioceses (1874-1900). 

visional diBtrici of Alberta and portions of Saskatchewan, Athabasca, and Assiniboia. To 
this was added in 1883 that part of the then diocese of Rupert's Laud in the rest of the 
district of Saskatchewan lying north of the Province of Manitoba, bat in the same year 
relief came by the formation of the diocese of Assiniboia or Qu'Appelle, &nd in 1887 the 
district of Alberta was formed into a separate diocese, named Calgary. The combined 
area of the two dioceses, viz., Saskatchewan 200,000 sgnare miles , and Calgary 100.00 
square miles, with the part of Assnnboia lormerly niciuaea, is less than tUaTTrSTteato 
(he original diocese -viz., 490,000 square miles, but an overestimate of the size of the 
territory may be excused in view of t he enormous difBculties encountered in planting th e 
Church in the field . For at its formation me uiocese of Saskatchewan had ^' no endg^ - 
mentsy " no missionarie s," excepting one at Stanley and another at Nepowewin, and 
* TRrcnurcne8~ eYerytnin <^ had to be begyn as far as the Church of England was con - 
Qehied ," iftfl this^nyvast area coniaming over iu.uu6 neaOien Indiartfl ftflfl &Tew 
wJEEfR'red settlements of white people, but no ronis, public conveyances, or hotels. For 

• In 1893 Queen Victoria conferred on him the dignity of " Prelate of the Most Dis- 
tinguished Order of St. Micluiel and St. George," in succession to the latQ Bishop Austin 
of Guiana [80c]. 

t The example has been followed by the Churches in the West Lidies, -South Africa, 
Mid AustroUa [a2a]. 



travelling, men, horses, and yehiolea had io be hired at great expense in the summer^ and 
Indian gaides and travelling dogs, at still higher cost, in the winter. On the wmter 
joomeys travellers had to sleep on a bed of bnflalo hides spread over pine branches. 

From a spiritual point of view the field was an important one, and 
one in which the Church was imperatively called to labour, not only on 
account of the baathen Indiap R. but also because of the neglected 
Church a^tdftrfl . 'Kngbah and ftalf-hreedp. some of whom, it was after- 
wards found, had temporarily joined Nonconformist bodies out of 
'* necessity," not of choice, and were *^ yearning after old times and the 
self-sacrificing love of their former pastors." Happily the duty of 
bringing the claims of the district before the Church of England fell 
upon one who was well qualified by his knowledge of the country and 
the energy of his character to procure a favourable hearing, viz., the Yen. 
John McLean , D.D., D.C.L., Archdeacon of Manitoba, who was con- 
secrated M Tambeth Church on May 8, 1874 . as firflt RiHh<;>p i^ 
Saskatchewan. Before his consecration he began to raise an endow- 
ment tor ihe Bishopric, and, though advised by a prominent banker in 
London to abandon the effort for the time, he persevered, and when he 
left England £6,200 had been actually invested for the fund. The 
Society aided the endowment (by grants amounting to £2,092), and 
supplemented the Bishop's income from it by an annual allowance up 
to the year 1886, when the fund was completed. 

Leaving England in August, 1874, the Bishop engaged two clergy- 
men in Canada, theBevs.Dr. Newton and J. Barr [l],and on January 28, 
187^ he himself set out from the Red River for his diocese, travellin g 
o ver the snow by the lakes route in a cariole drawn by dogs. The dis- 
tance was eOO ini les to the nearest' Mission station in Saskatchewan, 
and the cold often 35° to 50° below zero. On the way through Rupert's 
Land he held visitations and confirmations for the Bishop of that 
diocese. At Birch Island he passed into his own diocese, anT'soon after 
met a party of Indian hunters, to whom, after evening prayer, in which 
they joined, he *' preached a sermon on the love of God in Christ Jesus." 
They were very attentive, and left with many expressions of kindly 
feeling [2]. At Prince ^I bert. which he made his headquarters, the 
Bi'^hop found a population of about 500. At least three-fourths of them 
were Churchpeople, but, having no clergyman, they had been atteuding 
Presbyterian services. For a month the Bishop himself held services 
for them in two large rooms, and on Easter Day there was a confirma- 
tion. One of the settlers (Mr. Beads) gave a site, and others contributed 
material and labour, and on Christmas Day, 1815^ a church was o pened 
and named St. Mary 's. In this year the Rev. J. T3arr resigned, oeing 
unable to sustain tne burden of this remote station, and the Bishop 
undertook the duty until another clergyman could be found. 

In May, 1876, a confirmation was held in St. Mary's Church, 
parents and even grandparents being confirmed with their children. 

Tokens of increased earnestness at Prince Albert were now appa- 
rent, not only in the large gatherings at Church services, but also in 
the practice of fieunily prayer, the Bishop having gone from house to 
house urging this duty, and supplying a form taken from the Prayer- 
book [8]. 

In 1877 a second church was opened some miles from St. Mary's, 


and during the next five years MiBaions were establisbed at sevei 
settlemeiitu in Prince Albert district— St. James', St. Catherine's' 
(Pochaj, St. Andrew's (Halcrow), and St. Aiban's, the last-named being 
selected us the site for the future pra-cathedrd of the diocese (which 
it became in 1891) and a native training colipge was founded. 

In IH80 in no part of Canada was the Church stronger relatively 
to the population than it was in Prince Albert, and this wasattribui 
by the Bishop to ihe wise and steady support given by the Society 
those early days of struggle and difticully [4]. 

At this time the nearest railway station vio,s Btill 500 'piles d i^^tant i 
from I'rince Albert, and an irtea ot tQe episcopal worK could be gained 
by imagining "a bishop living on the south coast of England with I 
Missions to visit at the extreme points of the north of Scotland, with 
no roads, no bridges, and no house for one or two hundred miles at a 
stretch in nome parts, with a necessity of carrying provisions, tentd, 
and taking his own vehicles and horses '' [5]. 

Nevertheless, Missions had already been organised at several other 
centres— for Indians as well as settlers. At Edmonton , the second 
district in the diocese occupied by the Society, the Wesleyans had. in 
the absence of all Church ministrations, gained over the whole English 
speaking papulation. Nearly all of these had been brought up in the 
Church in Various parts of Rupert's Land [6]. 

In the next two stations established for the white settlers— vi/., 
Battlefo rd in 1877 (on its becoming the new seat* of the Nortb-Weat 
uovernment transferred from Rupert's Laud), and FortMi^Ltod in 1878, 
Church ministrations were also extended to the Mounted Police — a 
body from whom the Society has received a substantial proof of 
gratitude (7j. 

By IH'^'2 there were twenty-nine Mission stationg in the diocese, 
and the numbi'r of cler g y nag nsgn to s ixtee n, six iiaving been trained 
at Emmanuel College, and feight being connected with the C.M.S. 

At the first meeting of the Diocesan Synod held in 1882 the 
Bishop stated that the S P.(i. had " from the outset of the history of 
the diocese encouraged and sustained its work in every possible way 
... in the formation of the Bishopric fund," the support of misaion- 
nries both for settlers and Indians, and of the Training College, while 
towards himself "they have acted with a considerate kindness and 
courtesy that form one of the brightest memories I retain " |8]. 

Visiting England in 188.S, the Bishop returned in IHe-l "with his 
see adequately endowed," the Divinity Professorship in his College 
endowed to the extent of Si 0,000, and "with httle anxiety about 
mooey for the work of his diocese " [9]. 

Already, however, new settlements had been rapidly forming in 
advance of the approachinn railway, th e population in Prince A lbert 
diatekt alone having risen from 800 to nearly 5,W0 m the two"" years 
1881-2, and during tlie remainder of Bishop McLean's episcopatf 
several new Missions were opened [lOj. 

The '■ Riel R ebellion " in 1S85 subjected the Bishop and clergy to' 
much inconvenience and not'oThttle peril. The risinK of th e French 
balf-breeda would liave been comparatively a small matter by itself, 

" • Oittlelord Lilut ou ueasoi-l Ui oc'i^uiiy Hint uobi'ioii [Tilt 



but th e heathen Indtaua throughout the districts ol Alberta and 
Saskatchewan grew rcstluss, aud iu two places they rose and coni- 
milted great depredaticns, indiiding several murders. On the outbri^ak 
of the rebellion on March 19 Riel established himself at Ilatoche's 
Crossing, about fi% miles from I'rJnee Albert, cutting off communi- 
cation with Winnipeg. The town of Prince Albert was crowded with 
refugees, some occupying the MisBJon cliapel iu the town, and rlunng 
the two months in which the people were " in great danger " ol their 
lives Church services were held in the open air aud in houses and 
stores. 8i\ uf the clergy took refuge in Prince Albert ; another, the 
liev. tieorge McKay, joined the loyal forces as chaplain and interpreter, 
and voluntarily performed "the dangerous task of alone seeking Big 
Bear's camp, with a hoj* of tracing the unfortunate ladies in captivity." 
The ladies had, however, heeu previously liberated. 

In the opinion of the Bishop of Bupert's Land the rebellion of the 
half-hreede was due to the " procraattnatiou of the Government iu 
settling squatting and other claims," aud the risii g of the Indians 
was '-simply owing to their starving and wretched condition,*' and 
this notwithstanding the grent help attorded them by Government. 
The buffalo had gone, and the Indians were " inexperienced in 
farming, and do not take to it." 

Some progress in Industrral training had, however, been made in 

the diooeso of Saskatchewan, and more vigorous efforts were advocated 

. by Bkhop McLean, who felt that " it is only the Gospel of Christ tbat 

' will make them safe neighhonre, to take even the lowest view of the 

'■ subject" [11], 

Enormous aa were the demands of this vast diocese, they were but 
so many opportunities tor the exercise of the marvellous energy aud 
spirit of Bishop McLean. 

For several y^'ars after his arrival he travelled over 1,000 miles 
every winter hy dog cariole on the snow and ice, sleeping at night in 
the open air with the thermometer ranging from 20 to 40 degrees 
below zero, the journey at timed taking buu through " an untrodden 
and almost unknown wildenieas." Then, when the railway came, if 
no regular passenger train were available, the Bishop and Mrs. McLean 
would take their passage " in a conunon freight ti-ain," 

In 188C, while on visitation, an accident caused him to be thrown 
from thTwa)t|;on in which he was travelling. Returning to Edmon- 
ton, ne there lay for three weeks amid miserable surroundings, 
freijuently delirious, and without proper attendance. The winter was 
coming on, ho could not endure the shaking of any carriage, aud only 
hy the river tbat would soon be frozen over could he hope to reach his 
home. Fur twenty-two days aud nights he lay on a mattress under n 
rude shelter erected at the end of an open boat, his son, a lad of fifteen, 
his only companion, and he reached home at last saying, " This 
■journey has given me my death." For eighteen more days he lingered 
in pain and fever, but the hardships he had endured aggravated a long- 
standing complaint, and he died on November 7, 18>H>, and was laid to 
rest ill St. Mary's. Prince Albert, " the first church be had huilt and 
held service in in his diocese " [12]. 

Uia Bucceasor, the Yen. WilliMU Cyprian Pinkham , Archdeaoon of 


Manitoba, was the third student of St. AuguBtine'e College, Canterbury, 
to be raiseil to the epiecopute. Going to Hiip<3rl'B Laud in 1S6H as 
ft missionary of the Society, he contributed, in several poaitiooB of 
naefulnesB and dignity, to the development of the Church in that I 
diocese. As Superintendent of Kducation for ■• the Protestant Public 
Schools of Manitoba " from 1871 to 1H85, it fell to hia lot to organise 
the public school .system of that province. 

He was consecrated in HolyTrinityChurch, Winnipeg, on August?, 
1H87 [18], and three days later the Provincial Synod of Rupert's Land ' 
decided to form the civil Province of Alberta into a aeiiarate diocese 
under the name of Calgary, us it was impossible for the clergy and lay j 
delegates of the diocese lo combine in synodal action owing to the | 
great distance between them. It was, however, arranged that Calgary < 
should remain in charge of the Bishop of Saskatchewan until suitable | 
provision were made for a second Bishop [14]. Tho need for this has ( 
become very pre.sBJiig. and the Society lias promoted the object by | 
contributing to the formation of an endowment fund* and by 
consenting to the transfer to it of a portion (.l'8,'2I0) of the Saskatche- 
wan Bishopric Endowment Fund. When each fund is provided 
tvith JlH.QOO, Bishop Pinkham proposes to retire from the See of 
Saskatchewan [15]. 

The improved organisation led to a great growth o( Church work, j 
the number of clergy in the LOiubined jurisdiction having more than j 
doubled in the uent eight years. 

But though in both dioceses the Church of England was in 1H02 
" the strongest religious ho dv." the number of clergy has been 
inadequate to cope with the tide of immigration which has since 
been rapidly flowing into the country— especially into Calgary diocese.t 

The immigrants into this diocese include British, French, Ameri- 
cans, llusaians,!- Scandinavians, Germans, Galicians, Roumaniaua, 
liuihenians, Bulgarians, Cilecians or Silesians, Pomeranians, and 
Icelanders. While some of these profess a definite i-eligious faith, 
others appear to be ignorant of the most elementary principles of futlh 
and morality [1G & Itia]. 

While at present the Mission work generally of the diocese " could 
not exist, still less be developed," without the Society's aid, every effort 
haB been made by Bishop Pinkham fi om the outse t to make the Chut cli 
aelf- support! ng.and his administration has met with marked success [l?]. 

Til us the Mission of Calgary became self-supporting in three years 
(188i-7), Lethbridge in l«yO, Edmonton in 1H04, and Maoleod, 
Pincher Creek, and Strathcona in 1900.5 The work in these 1 
parishes is wholly supported by the freewill offerings of the people, , 
(here being no endowments, and the transfer of the Society's help / 



* i%ua una t{ru]l«d in 1S1 
in 19U0. uid a. turlhui lum i>' 

t One of tlio clergy in IB 
Bnnuii Cfttholira bad (our 
lift««n [ISu]. 

I OviT S.OOO noHkli"l«irtiii Iroin RusBia arrived i. 
Mnliitoba iiTiTTToIno m SSFtlTWest Ciiiiiii. 

§ A Hlnkuiit cuDtnat to somo oC the Hiasioiu in ] 
OD tlie Societ} eilcuded ovot 100 jeast. 

ted u IcesL gnut of XfiOO viu 

.WiuuiiK^ in 1BD9, soma Milling In I 

180/t BOCIEtY rOB tfiE PftOt>A(^AT10N OV 1?HB GOSPBlJ. 

to needier Missions has been of the greatest value in extending Choroh 
work among settlers. The returns for 1899 showed that Church- 
people in the diocese were contributing at the rate of ;$ld.60 a family 
for all Church purposes. Two Archdeaconries were formed in the 
diocese in 1895, that of '' Calgary " embracing all work among the 
settlers, and ** Macleod " for all the Indian work. Three honorary 
Canonries have also been constituted, the holders of which are to 
promote, respectively, the study of Church History, Mission work, and 
the study of the Book of Common Prayer. Generally speaking, the 
work in the diocese suffers for want of men and means, but it is 
worthy of note that " there never have been any pew-rented churches 
in either diocese.*' 

Calgary, which had no existence in 1882, and in five years had 
become the chief town in Alberta, was selected by Bishop Pinkham 
as his residence. The first clergyman placed here, the Rev. E. Paske 
Smith, worked to such purpose that the "Church of the Redeemer," 
erected by the people, was opened on August 8, 1884, that is, within a 
few months of his arrival. This church was made the Pro-Cathedral 
of the diocese of Calgary in 1888. It has been enlarged, but a new 
building has become necessary [18 & 18a]. 

In 1897 it was reported that " almost ^«-ll t.V)ft ^Jhgjlf-hr^ftfla * " (^ 
Saskatchewan were "staunch Church^eople," and that in both 
dioceses tne mdian "MTssions had made encouraging progress [19]*. 
It now remains to notice more particularly the Society's share in this 
work. Among the half-breeds it has been a considerable one, and it 
dates from the arrival of Bishop McLean in the diocese. Many 
proofs have been given of their attachment to the Church.t Some of 
the half-breeds are as dark as full-blooded Indians, of whom we now 

At the time of its formation the original diocese of Saskatchewan 
afibrded by far the most important field for Missions to pagan Indians 
that the North- West Territories of Canada, or Rupert's Land, could 
supply. It contained all the " Blackfoot Indians " owing allegiance 
to Great Britain, and most of the Plain Cree?, to which were 
temporarily added (soon after) the whole of the refugee American 
Sioux under Sitting Bull, some 10,000 in number, making a total 
of about 25,000 heathen Indians.t 

Bishop McLean's first act on entering his dioceso was to preach to 

♦ N.B.— 1JK)0. Nearly all the half-breeds m Saskatchewan cither lived first of all in 
^^anilobo, where tliey were Churchpeoplc, or else were born in Saskatchewan; though 
they certainly attend church well, it i» difficult to got them to supiwrt the Church. 

t At the Lopstick nettleinent a Methodist minister who Bought to intrude on them 
was told that he was " breaking the tenth commandment," as they were, and desired to 
remain, " Church of England people." In another instance a half-breed drove 240 miles in 
the bitter winter weather in order to have his sick child baptised, and on the jouniey kept 
praying to the Good Spirit to keep the little one olive till the praying man should get to 
Uie house. 

1 By the disupiwarance of the buffalo, their chief means of sustenance, most of tho 
Indians had been reduced to a state of starvation, but gradually the Government collected 
them into reserves of land ajid organised an excellent Bystcm of instruction to train them 
to agriculture and the arts and habits of civilised life ; the same paternal bwly also (by 
the agency of the Mounted Police, intioduced in 1874) suppressed the iniquitous liquor 
traflSc carried on by American traders, which was bringing ruin on tho Indians, who 
would part witli their all in order to obtain the '* fire-water." 


the Indians {see page ISOd), and throaghout his episcopate be never 
ceased in his efforts for their conversion [20]. 

In 1877 a Mission was opened at South Branch among a band of 
Christian Indians who had migrated from Prince Albert and guaranteed 
a large plot of land for the Mission and help in building a church, 
their chief, "a most attached member of the Cluirch," undo;taking 
part of the service in Cree. In the reserve granted them under 
the Indian treaty they took their place "as law-abiding citizens of the 
Empire, making their living by ordinary industry, and conforming not 
only to the ordinances of Christianity, but to the habits and customs 
of civilised hfe " [21]. 

I n Prince Albe rt itself the Bishop established in 1879 a College, 
with the primary object of training native missionaries and teache rs 
for work among the various iribes. i^'or ibe purposes of the College 
J 12 acres of land were given by Mr. Jacob Beads to the Bishop, and 
the buildmg was placed in the midst of encampments of painted Indians, 
the noise of whose heathen dances could be heard at all hours of the 
night. The opening of the institution, which was named Emmanuel 
College, took place on November 1, 1879, it then being **the 
finest building in the North-West Territories." Several of the clergy 
received their training there, and many teachers. The College still con- 
tinues its useful work, being at present wholly devoted to the teaching 
and training of Indian children* [22]. 

At the time the College was founded there were " several very 
thriving Missions among the Crees," and another was opened at the 
Pocha settlement in 1882, but hitherto '* nothing" had been " done to- 
wards evangeUsing the Sioux and Blackfeet *' [23]. The former were 
specially to be commiserated, being exiles and dependent on the charity 
of strangers. Their name "Dakota,'* or "Sioux,'* means "leagued" or 
"allied,** and they spoke of themselves as " Ocete Sakowin,'* or the 
" Seven Council L ires.*' The band which under Sitting Bull, and after 
many fierce battles with the United States troops, had been driven to 
seek refuge on British soil, was the Titonwans. Each man had his 
own particular god — a spiritual existence inhabiting some animal with 
which he believes himself to be in direct communion. They had several 
ceremonial feasts— the principal being one at which " a white dog '* was 
offered as " a propitiatory sacrifice.** Of the One Perfect and Suflicient 
Sacrifice the first successful effort that was made to teach them was the 
Mission opened in 1880 at Prince Albert, which continued until they 
left the diocese [24]. 

In the Fort Macleod district a work among the Piegan Indians, 
began in 1878, " resulted in a marked improvement among them,** and 
the head chief (" Eagle with the spread tail, sitting on a rock,** or 
" Sitting Eagle '*) expressed to Bishop McLean his thankfulness for the 
religious instruction given to them. More intelhgent than the Black- 
feet or Bloods, the Piegans soon acquired industrial habits, and by 1883 
they had settled down to cultivating farms [25]. 

In the Edmonton district ministrations were extended to the Indians 
in 1879, and in 1880 the Rev. B. Inkster, a half-breed, speaking the 
Cree language, was stationed at Saddle Lake, 125 miles distant, among 

' See page 780. 


a l argg band of Grees, who had earnestly pleaded for a missionary, 
" We are poor ancl ignorant," they said, and •* we know nothing. 
Nobody takes any heed of us — what can we do ? We wish to know how 
to live as civilised and Christian men." 

In 1886 Mr. Inkster was transferred to Fish Greek, about ten miles 
from Calgary, in order to assist in opening a Mission among the 
Sarcees, a branch of the Blackfoot nation, but with a distinct language. 
He won their respect, but, as he preferred to be among his own people, 
he was succeeded in 1888 by the Rev. H. W. G. Stocken. Mr. Stocken 
found the Sarcees '* quite content as they were," and possessed with a 
hatred for the whites ** because of the moral mischief which they had 
wrought among them." Eventually the Chief — ** Bull's Head " — sent 
his child to school, and the adults attended service, the Chief him- 
self acknowledging that the white man's religion can give ''the 
laughing heart " [26]. 

At the request of the Bishop of the diocese this Mission was in 
189B transferred to the Church Missionary Society, which had received 
a large bequest for Indian work, and the S.P.G. money thus set free 
was transferred to a new Mission for settlers [26a]. 

On the whole it appears that the Indians " are well looked after by 
the Church." 

A report on the Missions generally in the Diocese of Calgary in 
1888 stated that the work ** is growipy ra pidly." and that "in all the 
reserves prejudi ce again st C hnstian Missions and schools is dying out," 

Since the formation oTIEeTiocese ChurcET)oarding scCools for Indian 
boys and girls have been established on all the four reserves where the 
Church is at work, and (in 1896) a Church Indian Industrial School at 
Calgary, under the Kev. G. H. Hogbin. These boarding schools are 
largely, and the Industrial School is wholly, supported by the Govern- 
ment. Christianity is now making rapid strides among the Blackfeet, 
hPiegans, and Sarcees. " The Indian Churchpeople are, in Synod and in 
all other matters, treated as fully the equals of the whites" [27 & 28]. 

Qu'Appelle Diocese (1882-1900). 

The great tide of immigration flowing into North-West Canada in 
1882-8 created a corresponding spiritual want, " the most pressing " 
or "striking necessity" being in the Territory of Assiniboia, which 
was then included in the dioceses of Rupert's Land and Saskatchewan. 
For those two dioceses and Algoma the Society voted in the two years 
in question a sum total of i?l 4,290 [1]. Pioneering work was most 
ably done by the Rev. J. P. Sargent (in 1888-4), and the Rev. W. H. 
Cooper (in 1883) [2], the Rev. A. Osborne having been previously 
stationed at Regina, arriving there on December 18, 1882. At that 
time the only other settled clergyman in Assiniboia was a C.M.S. 
missionary at Touchwood Hills. Three months before Mr. Osborne 
arrived at Regina there was ** not a soul at the place," but the location 
of the seat of Government of the North- West Territories had already 
attracted a population of 1,100, and around it, for many miles, villages 
and settlements were springing up. The first three Church services 
were held in " a canvas hotel," and subsequent ones in a hall, from 
December 81 to April 1898, when a temporary wooden church, erected 



by the people on a Eite given by the Duke of Matiobeater'e Company, 
w&B opened. The Charcb memberB (at this time nmnbering eigbty- 
seven) also provided a parsonage, and showed Buoh a disposition to 
establish the Church that within four years the Mission became self- 
supporting [3]. 

The second Mission founded by the Society was at Fort Qu'Appelle, 
where the Bev. D. Lewis arrived on October 20, 1888. Some of the 
settlers bad not been to a place of worship for years, and there was 
" a great danger " of regular churchgoers becoming " white heathen, " 
bat the services which Mr. Lewis held there (in a ball) and at Indiau 
Head, twenty miloa distant, were gladly attended by all the people, 
rresbytcriaDB included, and the Nonconformiste expected to be visited 
hke the Chnrchponple, and appreciated it [4]. 

The third Slit^aion ranks first in order of merit. Situated 400 
miles from Winnipeg, Moose Jaw when first settled was " the most 
distant town of any importance in the fat West." 

Among the earliest settlers were " a few godly laymen, stauncli 
Cburchmen." They at once organified a Church service, taking it in 
torn to read the prayers and a sermon every Sunday. Tbey gathered 
a httle congregation, formed a choir, and built a church, all by their 
own unaided efforts and before any clergyman of the Church visited 
the place, which indeed had been in existence only a few mouths. 
The church was opened on 8t, John the Baptist's Day, 1883, by the 
travelling missionary, the Bev. W. H. Cooper. 

In the next year Moose Jaw was made a regular Mission of the 
Society. It is now a self- supporting parish or rectory [5]. 

Mr. Cooper, who organised Church Committees and held the first 
Church services in many other places in Assiniboia, had been moved 
to offer himself for this work by the story of the growing spiritual 
needs of North- West Canada as made known by the Society [5a]. 

In the same way the Hon. and Rev, Canon Adalbert John Robert 
Anson, Eector of Woolwich", was led (in 1883) to give up his valuable 
and important living, and to dedicate himself to the Mission work of 
the Church in the North- West field. 

In 1883 the Provincial Synod of Rupert's Land formed " Assiniboia " 
(area 96,000 square miles} into a separate diocese, and ou June '24, 
1881, Canon Anson was consecrated in Lambeth Parish Cliuroh first 
Bishop of "Assiniboia" — the name of the diocese being altered to 
Qu'Appelle in 1884. Previously be had been acting as Commissary 
for the Bishop of Rupert's Land, and his selection for the new office 
was the act of the Archbishop of Canterbury as the then " Primate of 
fluperfs Land " [6]. 

For the support of the new Bishop the Society had begira to raise 
an endowment fund,* and had promised £'400 a year for bis income 
till the fond had been completed [7], and it provided funds for the 
maintenance of additional clergymen and (£500) for the erection of 
churches, &c. The Bishop arrived at Begina on July 25, 188!, 
accompanied by some clergymen and laymen, and these, with othtrs 
who joined in the following year (bringing the total Clergy in the 
diooeae up to thirteen), came " without stipends, receiving only out of 

• To (hu (he Sooiebj ooDtribated £SfiBi. 


the common fund '* what was *' necessary for their maintenance and 
for carrying on the work " [8]. 

Chiefly hy the generosity of two donors in England the Bishop 
was enabled to erect a *' College for Agricultural and Theological 
Students " (opened on October 28, 1886), near Qu'Appelle, where he 
also removed his residence (his house at Eegina having been de- 
stroyed by fire). Though the College founded with "such noble 
aims *' ceased to exist in 1893, " some of the best workers in the 
diocese were trained there during its short life *' [9]. 

By a census published in 1886 the population of Assiniboia, which 
had been greatly overestimated, proved to be just 22,000, of whom 
5,600 were Indians and half-breeds. The colonists were not only 
scattered over a vast area but many were constantly moving their 
homes. Some, owing to the ** want of care of many of the English 
clergy " in not giving them letters of introduction on leaving 
England, were lost to the Church, which generally had only one 
missionary where the Nonconformists had four or five. Nevertheless 
the Church in 1886 was in the majority, having 5,722 members, and 
her services were being held at fifty-one plcices [10]. 

It was thus that " the characteristic of our Church . . . that she 
has the instinct of a mother in caring for the few scattered abroad," 
found " its expression here.'* 

These were the words of Bishop Bum, the successor of Bishop 
Anson. The latter, having laid the foundations of the Church, both 
among the settlers and Indians, resigned in 1898, though against the 
unanimous wish of his diocese [11]. 

The new Bishop (Dr. W. J. Bum), who was consecrated in West- 
minster Abbey on the Feast of the Annunciation, 1898, found that the 
diocese had ** really bet^n made by the S.P.G. ; none but those working 
here,'* he added, "can realise the debt the Colonial Church owes to 
the Society in the years of struggle and difficulty through which they 
must pass to a hfe of independence '* [12]. 

The duty of self-support in regard to spiritual things had been 
advocated by Bishop Anson from the very first and in the strongest 
possible terms ; e.g.t in his pastoral of 1885 he said : 

" Moral wrong is do?i4i by anyone who depends on the charity of 
others, even in spiritual vmtters, more than is absolutely necessary *' ; 
and in the case of the Society*s help, which is largely drawn from the 
poorer classes, he considered that undue dependence would amount to 
** defrauding the poor *' [18J. 

The same policy was observed by Bishop Bum, and in each case 
the results have been encouraging [14], both Bishops having found the 
need of clergy as great as that of English funds — sometimes greater [15], 
though probably financial difficulties pressed more heavily on Bishop 
Bum, partly in consequence of a loss of funds caused by a diocesan 
treasurer. In this case the Society's help saved the work of the 
Church from being crippled [16]. 

For three years Bishop Burn lived in great discomfort in a house 
not fit for human habitation in the severe climate. In 1895 he 
removed to Indian Head, where Lord Brassey had munificently 
provided an episcopal residence and a church and other buildings, 


but the Bishop's death took place on June 18 in the following year, 
and he was buried in the cemetery one mile and a quarter from 
Qu'Appelle Station, his clergy carrying the coflBn that distance on 
their shoulders. His record was that of *' a prelate of singular beauty 
of character, of great devotion and learning," and (in the words of the 
late Archbishop Benson) ** a very holy man, who was moving on 
good lines for the people *' [17]. 

The feeling of his successor. Bishop Grisdale, was one of " great 
obligation to " those who preceded him, and " did such splendid work 
in the pioneer days." Bishop Grisdale, whose missionary career had 
commenced in India, and for the past twenty-three years had been 
spent in Rupert's Land — latterly as Dean of Rupert's Land — was con- 
secrated in Winnipeg on August 80, 1896, and, after he had travelled 
4,400 miles in visiting his diocese in 1897, he expressed himself as 
"lost in admiration at the self-sacrificing devotion of the clergy." 
The population of the diocese was now 40,000 (8,000 being Anglicans, 
8,000 Presbyterians, 6,500 Methodists, and 4,000 Romanists). 

A year later he reported, as no small cause for thanksgiving and 
rejoicing, that, although only fourteen years had passed since the first 
bishop was consecrated, already the See Endowment had been com- 
pleted, "a Clergy Endowment begun, nearly forty churches built, 
parishes formed. Church work organised, and the whole country, in a 
rough sort of way, mapped out into districts." 

The value of the Society *s aid had been "incalculable," and in 
order to meet its gradual reduction he is raising a Clergy Sustentation 
Fund. Towards this object the Society has contributed* [18]. 

Work among Indians and Half-breeds. 

When the diocese was founded in 1884 the Indians were said to 
number 5,000, nearly all being pagans. Ten years later there were 
8,494, of whom 1,509 were nominal Christians. 

Great as the needs of the settlers were, the Indians received a 
share of the Society's attention from the first, and in 1886 a Mission 
was opened for them and the half-breeds at Fort Pelly, where the 
Indian Reserve had been divided into three parts, assigned to the 
Anglican, Roman Catholic, and Presbyterian Missions respectively. 
Most of the half-breeds there were already Christians. Many were 
prepared for confirmation in that year. 

The Indians, who had been "injured and demoralised by contact 
with Europeans," were reported in 1894 to be decreasing in number[19]. 

In appealing for the estabhshment of an Indian School at Fort 
Pelly, the Rev. Owen Owens, in 1897, gave some valuable information 
regarding the Swampy Cree Indians and the half-breeds.t 

At Touchwood Hills the Hudson's Bay Company opened a trading 

• The capital invested for the fund was over £3,000 in 1900. The Society gave £500 
in 1899 and £500 in 1901. 

t The following is worthy of record as applying not only to his district, bat also to 
Manitoba and Notth-West Canada generallv. The Swampy Crees are found on the lake 
and river districts of Manitoba and North-West Canada. Their dialect is not very 
different from Uie Plain Cree. On the advent of traders the Swampy Crees naturally 
became their boatmen and carriers, and some were constantly in the service of the 
Hudson's Bay Company as guides, interpreters, pilots and boatmen. At the trading 
posts the In^ns received their first impressioDS of the white man and his religion, 


[Km in 1837, aod in 16C7 yie C JC.S. bcgmn a Miskn, which ft Idk ih^ 
jeara I&ter, since which time ii has been in the hands of the S^.G. 
Work WM begnn inFebroafj l>s^ bj the opening of a daj schocd, with 
'* a wild-looking set of papils," speaidng Ciee or English or Saolteaux. 
At first most of the heathens woald not let their children attend, bat 
by the end of Ihhl all the children of the band had been enrolled. A 
boarding department was added in 1889, and on seTeral occasions 
"Gordon School" has taken the Goremment prize *'a3 the best 
Indian School in the Territories." There haTs been many baptisms, 
and the work is foil of hope for the children. 

Of the religion of the heathen parents, the Bev. Owen Owens, who 
lias had charge of the Mission SLOce 1886, says : *' There is no word of 
lore or mercy in their faith at alL * The soul that sinneth it shall 
die ' is their creed." The prospect of the conversion of the old Indians 
is remote, bat one man on consenting to the baptism of his two daaghters 
said, " Let me and my two wives alone, don't make as come. I believe 
that we will have all to come some day, bat not yet " [20j. 

Daring his connection with Toachwood HiUs in 189i-3 the Bev. 
L. Dawson was enabled to break new groand in the northern part 
of the district, and to toach tribes whom neither Christianity nor 
civilisation had previoasly reached. The Mission now indaded the 
two Sanlteaax Reserves at Fishing and Nat Lakes, bat work at these 
two reserves has recently been suspended for want of fands [21]. 

On the Moose Mountain Reserve an attempt in 1886 to establish 
a school failed, the Lidians not being prepared for it [22]. 

At Medicine Hat, a boarding school for Indian children (began by 
ihe^Re/. £. F. Wilson, of Saalt Ste. Marie) was, by the aid of the 
Society and its missionary, the Rev. W. Nicolls, completed in 1898, 
but, owing chiefly to lack of funds, the building has not yet (1900) 
been used as an Indian School [23]. ^ I - 

Selkirk Diocese (1892-1900i. - '- ' ' ' "- 

This, the moBt remote of aU the Canadian dioceses, is a sab-diWsion (area 900,000 w/y 
miles; of the diocese of Mackenzie Birer, and when formed in 1891 it was a wild waat« 
occupied by a scanty Indian population and by a few hundred miners. 

In 1892 the Society was appealed to by the Bishop (Dr. Bompas) 
to provide a clergyman for the miners who were '* liable to comipt " 
the *' Indian converts *' as well as themselves. The Society repre- 
sented the matter to the Church Missionary Society (which had made 
the Indians its sole care) and pointed out the injury which the Mission 
cause sustained by the neglect of the miners. But, while admitting 
this, the C.M.S. regarded such work as beyond its scope [1]. 

With the opening of the Klondyke goldfields came an offer to the 
Society from the Rev. W. G . Lyon to devote himself to the work of 

whu.'h were favourable on the whole. It is wrong to regard the presence of the large 
number of hidf-broeds in the country as a proof that immorality was rampant in ths 
earlv days, as they are ** the children of men legally married — if not religiously — to 


Indian women." Though the attitude of the traders towards the Indians' reUgion 
generally one of non-interference, they were " the first to ask the Church to send mis- 
sionaries to the Indians," and they gave them ** a vast amount of support in their work." 
On their arriyal the missionaries found a certain number of Indians ready to hear them, 
ftnd some embraced Christianity almost at oinoe. Of the half-breeds " almost all became 
Ghristiaus," and they ** played a rery prominent part in spreading Christianity 
fths Indians," some becoming ordained missionaries and others cateichists [19a]. 



ministering to the minera who were being attracted there b; thousands. 
Regarding this as a work for the Canadian Church, the Society voted 
i.200 " to assist and stimulate " it " in sending a Alission to Klondjkt: 
and supporting the same without further aid from the Society." 
Starting from Dawson City, Mr. Lyon, in May 1H9H, safely reached thf 
Chilcott Pass, on the summit of which, camped on thirty feet of snow. 
he ministered to the Canadian Mounted Police, but on Jane 24 he was 
drowned in Lake le Barge with his servant — a man named Monte- 
gazza-^while endeavouring to save their supplies which had been 
upset in the lake. His body was recovered (by the Mounted Police) 
and buried on the banks of the lake. Mr. Lyon's kind actions to those 
whom he had met on tlie journey had won him golden opinions, and 
hundreds of men and women in Dawson City grieved for his loss [2]. 

In view of the provision made by other Societies for Klondyke 
itself, the Society's aid to Selkirk diocese has not been renewed except 
in connection with a Mission undertaken in 1609 by the Bishop and 
staff of Caledonia (see page 1916) [3]. n, pi . \flo5 


Thk ialands IjiiiE atS Lhe Nurth Fwiifii 

liniOD at CuiidiL io 1871. 
, .. u of coIcmiimtiaD, BottlumoiitH nppaiiliid in Tkin to the i 
eouiitij fen m Bishop lor mora bb&n ft centiu?; bat BnLish Columbia was no 

1..- — 1 .__...L__=.i ,■ . J. of iho EutUuh Clmrch. An endu 

roneaa) Borfett-CootU,' Biehop Hil 

wUimed $, colony than 

ilony a 
Lng been pTOviclcd by Miss (i 
Duseareted to tba sea in ISSe [Ij 

In response to applications made by the Bov. Mr. Bayley in lb54 
and the Bishop of Rupeitsland in 1857, the Society in the latter year 
set apart funds for establishing a " Mission to the Heathen " in Van- 
couver's Island [2], 

Its first Missionary, the Rev. R. Dowson, arrived on Feb. 2, 1859 
At that time Victoria {V. I,), the capital of the colony, was " a strange 
assemblage of wooden bouses, with a mixed population of every nation 
numbering about I,S0O." Mr. Dowson found but one small village of 
Indians near Victoria, and tho men were " idle and diseased " [B], 
He therefore started " on a voyage of discovery to the north of tho 
island, and so on to Fort Simpson upon the mainland." Ue sailed 
in a vessel of the Hudson's Bay Company, and for his "long and 
tedious journey " was well repaid by the knowledge he gained of 
the island and of " Indian life in its wildest and most natural aspect." 
Nanaimo, the next white settlement north of Victoria, had a population 
of about 160 whites and half-castes, with a few hundred Indians 
camped round. The "village or town" was "a most mieerable affair, 
simply the wood cleared away and . , . small wooden houses . . , 

* Tha tmloinaent givoD by this lady included proTiBian fat two Aicbdeacous &lu ^ot 


sprinkled . . . amongst the mud and stumps." The Hudson's Bay 
Cumpaiiy maintained a school there for the white and half-caste 
children, and Mr. Dowson held service in the building — " the room 
being quite fall and the people exceedingly attentive." Previously the 
place had been only twice vigited by a clergyman — chaplains from 
Victoria and a passing steamer. The Indians there were chiefly 
wanderers, " coming for a short time ... to work at the coal mines 
and earn a few blankets and then taking themselves oflf again." Some 
distance to the south were numbers of Cowitchins, amongst whom 
a Roman Catholic missionary tried to live, " but as soon as he had no 
more blankets, calico, &c., to give them they drove him away." 
" Nearly all the different tribes " hated " each other." At Fort Rupert, 
200 miles further north, there were about six whites— employes of the 
Hudson's Bay Company. Outside the fort were encamped a thousand 
OuackoUs, "the most bloodthirsty of all the Indian tribes on the 
North-West Coast." " Plenty of heads and other human remains" 
lay on the beach ; " one body of a woman . . . fastened to a tree, 
partly in the water, and . . . eaten away by the fish." A short time 
before some canoes came in from a war exi)edition and landed a 
prisoner, " when all the other Indians rushed down in a flock from 
their houses and ate the poor wretch alive." 

At Fort Simpson, on the mainland, there were about 20 whites, 
surrounded by the Chimpsian tribe numbering 4,000, of whom several 
had been tau;>ht to read a httle English by a C.M.S. schoolmaster. In 
contrast to the dirty houses of the Ouackolls, those of the Ghimpsians 
were " the best and cleanest " Mr. Dowson had seen. The houses of 
both tribes wore " ornamented with grotesque carvings on the out- 
side," . . . but they did not " seem to regard any of the figures as 
objects of reverence." Indeed, these Indians appeared to be "as 
totally without rehgion of any sort as it is possible for human beings 
to be." " Their only idea of the future " was " annihilation." 

The Indians on the North-West Coast burnt their dead; those in 
the South placed the bodies in boxes on the surface of some small 
island. The Northern Indians were " very clever at carving," and 
"ingenious at alraoj^' any handicraft work," but frequently destroyed 
their property to obtain popularity. Among the Ouackolls it was not 
uncommon for a man to " kill four or five slaves at once, to show his 
contempt for his property," and they were " almost invariably eaten." 
All the Indians on the coast treated their slaves " very cruelly, and 
generally cut some of the sinews of their legs so as to lame them and 
prevent them from running away." The costume of the tribes generally 
varied little, " consisting of a blanket," and " red paint for the face " 
when they could afford it. The manner of inducting a medicine man 
into his office was also "much the same among all the tribes." The man 
wont alone into the bush, without food, and remained several da) s ; 
the longer the more honourable for him, as showing greater powers of 
endurance; he then returned to the village, and rushing into the houses 
bit pieces out of the people till he was completely gorged. Then 
he slept for a day or two, and came out a " duly accredited medicine 
man." But the medical profession was not a safe one, the death of 
the patient being " not onfrequently followed by the shooting of 
the medicine man." These Indians had "little knowledge of the 



healing " art. When a man was sick they laid him in a comer of the 
house, stuck several poles around him, and hung them over with 
feathers stained red. The medicine man then came with a large rattle, 
made of a hollow piece of wood filled with pebbles, and generally 
carved in the shape of a hideous head, which he rattled incessantly 
over the patient's head, howling meanwhile, the supposed effect being 
to drive away bad spirits." In their natural state the natives were 
subject to very few diseases,'* but those which the white man had 
" introduced among them " were ** destroying some of the tribes very 
rapidly" [4]. 

On his return from his expedition to the North Mr. Dowson took 
up his quarters temporarily "in a little dilapidated school-house 
belonging to the colony," about four miles from Victoria, and made 
preparations for establishing himself in one of the Indian villages. 
He tried in vain to find any European who was both able and willing 
to teach him anything of the native language. As a rule the only 
means of communication between the Indians and whites was Chin- 
hook — a jargon of " little use except as a trading language : it con- 
sists nearly altogether of substantives, and has no words to express 
thoughts except the most material and animal wants." Chinhook 
acquired, the Missionary began the study of Cowitchin by having 
a native to live with him. The first he tried soon went away with- 
out notice, and a few days affcerwards was glorying "in all his 
original dignity of paint and feathers." A yet greater discouragement 
than this was the " utter indifference, if not somethinc^ worse, of the 
white settlers towards the welfare of the natives." Personal kind- 
ness Mr. Dowson received abundantly, but it was " to the English 
stranger and not to the Indian Missionary." Almost everyone 
laughed at the " idea " of his " teaching Indians,'* saying there was 
" no good in them and no gratitude ** ; and frequently it was remarked 
that "they ought to be rooted out like tree-stumps'* [5]. In this 
respect the Americans were the worst offenders, and the feeling was 
reciprocated. The Indian freely imitated " the white man's vices." 
In his first report to the Society Bishop Hills wrote : — 

" I saw an Indian running roond and round in a circle. He was intoxicate J 
and almost a maniac. I listened to the sounds he was shouting. Thpy were 
the words of a blasphemous and obscene oath in English I It is a common thing 
for Indians, even children, to utter oaths in English. Thus far they have come 
io close contact only with our vices. We have yet to bring amongst them the 
leavening blessing of the Gospel of Christ " [6]. 

Owing to the illness of his wife the first Missionary was obliged to 
return to England in 1860, but during his short stay Mr. Dowson had 
succeeded in gaining the confidence of the Indians around him, and 
proving that they were capable of receiving good as well as bad 
impressions. *' You teach savage good — savage's heart good to you," 
was the expression of an Indian on experiencing, probably for the 
first time in his life. Christian sympathy and love. A knowledge of 
medicine was of great assistance to the Missionary, and his reputation 
for doing good reached the Saanechs, whose three principtJ chiefs 
came to invite him to live among them, promising to give gratis, 
" plenty of good land to build a house upon, and that • • • not one of 
them would steal or do any wrong.** 


Mr. Dowson was able to be of some use to the white settlers also. 
Though " nearly all Scotch Presbyterians," they attended regularly, 
to llie number of forty, some from a considerable distance, and joined 
" very lioartily " in the " Church service " held in the sohookoom [7]. 

The second 8.P.G. Missionary to British Columbia was the Hev. 
J. Oaumaoe, who was appointed to minister to the gold diggers [8]. 
When he arrived in April 1869 the gold-mining district was con- 
fined. to the mainland, and extended 400 miles from Hope, on the lower 
Fraser, to the Queanel River, in the north. The population con- 
sisted " for the most part of emigrants from California, a strange 
mixture of all nations, most difBoult to reach " [9]. Everywhere in 
tlie colony a primitive style of life prevailed. Gentlemen cleaned 
their own boots, cut their own firewood, ladies were "their own 
cooks, housemaids, dressmakers, and almost everything else " ; there 
were " no servants " ; " even the Governor " had " no female servant 
in his establishment." The expense of living was great. In Victoria, 
water for drinking cost Gd. a backet. The washing of clothes cost, 
in ntnuy cases, "more than the price of articles when new." No 
copper coin was in circulation ; sixpence was the" smallest coin in use," 
and "no distinction" was made "between half-crowns and two- 
shilling pieces " [10]. In Douglas the population consisted of U Chinese, 
7 coloured men (Africans), 14 Mexicans, 3 French. 8 Germans, 15 
British subjects, 6G citizens of the United States— total 109 males 
and two females— besides the surrounding Indians. Mr. Gammage's 
ministrations were chiefly among the British and Americans, and tlie 
moving mining population. Generally they were men of the world, 
" very keen for gain ... in many cases educated " in " secular know- 
ledge," but "very ignorant . . , even of the principles or elements of 
Christianity." Few possessed a Bible, most of them did not know 
whether they had been baptized or not. Some had not attended 
any jplace of worship for ten years, and had "no idea of reverence." 
The blusphomoua expressions freely used were "truly shocking." By 
gentle remonstrance this evil was checked, and the messenger, if not 
the message, was generally well received. A small room was opened 
for service, and on Sundays Mr, Gammage passt^I through the streets, 
bell in hand, calling the people from the worship of Mammon to the 
worsliip of the true God. Thirst of gold had in many instances 
absorbed *' every moral quahty that ennobles or dignifies humanity, 
leaving nothmg but a dry and barren stock, which the spirit of God 
alone can vivify." 

The Americans were "exceedingly bitter against the EngUsh " ; 
very seldom could " even one of them " be prevailed upon to join in 
Divine worship. They, however, contributed towards the building of a 
church which was consecrated in March 18C2. In it he " ministered 
for three years and proved with . . . his wife a great blessing to a 
township which without a Minister of God would have necessarily 
fallen into open huentiousness." He also did what was possible for 
the Indians, amongst whom prevailed great sickness and mortality, 
partly caused by " vices introduced by the white man." At a service 
held in 1861 the Bishop addressed 120 Indians in Chinhook, a native 
girl interpreting [11]. 

Between 1800 and 186fi twelve Missionaries were added to the 



diocese, and tLe following centres were occupied : — ^Victoria 1860, Hope 
1860, New WeetminBter 18(>1, Nnnaimo 1861, Albemi 1804. Saanich 
1864. Lilloet 1864, Sapperton 1866, Esquimalt 1865, Leech 1865 [12]. 

In regard to " that very diiEcult circumBtauce " arising from " the 
mixtarc of race," the Bishop reported in December 1860 that eveu in 
tiiis respeot there was " encouragement and a foieahadowiug of the 
gathering in of all nations to the fold of Christ by the way in which 
we are helped in our work by those who are not of our nation," In 
one place service was held first "in the upper room of the store of a 
Frenchman," and afterwards " at a tierman'e," and a Bwede joined the 
Committee for builihng a church. " In another place a Bwede offered 
the land for a church." In a third "two Norwegians joined with 
three others in presenting" a parsonage hoose. "A Chinese mer- 
chant gave £15 to two ohurches, and twelve Jewish boya " attended 
" the Collegiate school " [13]. 

Writing in 1862 Archdeacon Wright said : — 

" The more I can grasp the state of tliinga, the more do I feel the 
importance of a Bishop heading missionary labour in a new colony. 
Our dear friend has, under God, done already a great work. There 
is scarcely a single township which has not its Missionary Clergyman 
and Parsonage, and attention is being tnmed to education. ... In 
Victoria there are two crowded churches, with Ber«ces conducted as 
well as those of the best-managed parishes at home; and in New 
Westminster we are, thanlc God, equal to our brethren over the water, 
as regards church, rector, choir, and all that is necessary for deoenoy 
and order" [14]. In summarising the work on the mainland the 
Archdeacon wrote in 1865 : — 

"Hov has tba Gospel bcru prKpeuted to the Calon]' ot Britieh Oolumbin, ia 
which tour of the Sooietj'a Missioiiaries have beeastGadilf eDgoged? I ansaer. 
it has been offered liberally, most liberally, to the hoasehold of (oitll. In every 
place where men have (fathered, there a house of Qod has been orectpd, and u 
resident clergyman stationed. At Langley, Hope, Yale, Douglas, Llllouct, Cariboo, 
Bappertoo. and in New WeBtminEtor, honsea ot Qod have been boilt. . . .Five ot 
those ohurches have bceo served by reaideut ministers, whose work it has been to 
deal with souls gntheied together from various uationa of the earth, ot all oreedii. 
aud DO oreed. Manj who ooae hs^ a oreed and a love ol Qod, by bug wa&dering 
hnre lost their faith and forgotten their Ood. . . . The gcnisral iiitluence of the 
Church upon the white man has been great, and witb the red man not a little has 
been effected" [15]. 

Among the Indiana in Vancouver's Island the Kev. A. C, Gabket* 
organised a Mission at Victoria in 1860. His greatest difGculty was 
the contaminating influence of the white man, who carried on a traffic 
" in poisonous compounds under the name of whisky," whereby the 
Indiana died in numbers and the survivors fought "like things 
inhuman." Now and then a vendor was caught and " fined or caged," 
but another filled his place and the trade proceeded. At times the 
camp was " so completely saturated with this stuff that a sober Indian 
was a rare exception." The women were worse than the men, and 
girls from ten to fourteen little better than their elder sisters. The 
Uiscion comprised a small resident tribe (about 200j of " Songes or 
Tsau-miss, belonging to the great family of the Cowitchins." These 

■ Mow Bishop ol K otthem Tuxia, D.8. [Sea p, SilUj 


Indians were a ** most besotted, wretched race." Their language was 
soon acquired, but besides these there were ** Bill Bellas/' " Cogholds," 
" Hydahs,*' ** Tsimsheans," and **Stickeens" constantly coming and 
going for the purposes of trade and work ; and as six different languages 
were spoken the Missionary was obliged to use Ghinhook, into which he 
translated portions of the Liturgy. Mr. Garret's labours at this 
station were successful beyond expectation. In one year nearly 600 
Indians, men and children, received some instruction in his school [16]. 
He also founded a Mission in the Cowichan district both among the 
whites and Indians. The Indians there were ready to receive the 
Church " with open arms.** ** They prayed, they entreated " Mr. Garret 
** to come at once . . . and build a house on their land.** But while 
having confidence in the Missionary they were cautious in welcoming 
the white settlers. 

"If we go and take your blankets or your cows," they said, ''yon will look 
us up in gaol ; why then, do you come and take our land and our deer ? Don*t 
steal our land ; buy it, and then come and our hearts will be very happy. But do 
not think us fools. We are not very poor. See, we have plenty of boxes filled with 
blankets. Hence if you want our land, give us a ' little big price * for it. We 
will not steal your pigs or your asses, but don't you steal our land " [17]. 

The Church at least dealt honestly with the natives. Land was pur- 
chased and a Misfton organised with a resident Missionary (the Bev. 
W. S. Beece) in 1866 [18]. 

Of Nanaimo (also on Vancouver's Island), where the Bev. J. B. 
Good was stationed in 1861, the Bishop reported in January 1863 : 
*' There is now a church, parsonage and school for the whole 
population and a school -chapel for the Indians, through his zealous 
exertions. I have, several times heen present at interesting services 
at the latter, and have reason to think that a deep impression has been 
made upon the Indian mind'' [19]. But so great were the de- 
moralising influences produced by contact with Uie Europeans that 
the Indians were *' apt to suppose the white men are all alike children 
of the devil in morals, however great they may be in other respects." 
It was therefore *' something to be instrumental, under God, in 
pointing out to them a better way ... to afford this ill-fated race 
examples of sober and godly living," which might " atone in their 
eyes to some extent for the bad and evil lives of those who call them- 
selves a superior people." Mr. Good visited the Indians from house 
to house, worked for days in the Reserve, cutting roads and encouraging 
them to improve their dwellings and mode of living. He instructed 
their children, and every Sunday preached to the adults — at first in one 
of the Chiefs houses and afterwards in a beautiful Mission chapel — to 
crowded congregations. The sick and dying were also cared for, and 
in one year he vaccinated hundreds of the natives : his treatment 
having ** surprisingly good effects in the majority of instances " [20], 

In 1866 Mr. Good was transferred to the mainland at Yale (on the 
Fraser River), where he had the care of a small English congregation 
and the neignbouring Indians. In 1867 he received an invitation from 
the Thompson River Indians, a tribe numbering 1,500. They had, 
after applying in vain for teachers of our Church, received occasional 
visits from Romish Missionaries. But '* though they conformed 
outwardly to some of the rites of Roman Christianity," they ** had a 


fluperstitioua dread " of the Prioats, and " were, for the most part, 
heathens at heart, " Many of them bad visited Yale and had become 
interested in the Society's Mission there. One afternoon in the winter 
of 1807 a lajrpfi body of them was seen approaching from tha Lytton 
Hoad. " On they came, walking in single file, according to their 
custom, and headed by Sashiatan, a chief of f reat reniite and influence 
^once a warrior noted for his prowess and cruelty. ■ Uathering round 
the Church steps with heads uncovered, they stated their desire 
to be taught a better way than they had yet knoivn. The deputation 
was followed by two others of similar character. Mr. Good thus gained 
some acquaintance with their language, and with the aid of an inter- 
preter he translated a portion of the Litany into Kitlakapamuk and 
chanted it to ibem, telhng them also of the love of God to man. 
While Mr. Good was awaiting the arrival of on assistant, Mr. Holmes, 
to leave at Yale, the Indiana sent him a message by telegraph lU'ging 
him to " make haste and come," A few days after he met tiOO of 
them at Lytton, who besought him " to come amongst them and to be 
their &ther, teacher and guide." 

Pledges " to be true and obedient " were given on behalf of them- 
selves and absent friends, who outnumbered those present. As tlie 
Missionary passed the encampments along the Thompson Biver, 
occasionaUy the aged and blind Indians were led otii to him, so that 
be might give them his hand [21j. 

In May 1868 the llishop visited the Indiana. At Y'ale be 
preafibed to 380, under the care of Mr. Holmes, who already bod 
obtained a Burpriaing influence over them. On the way to Lytton, 
where Mr. Good bad removed, the Bishop was met by the Missionary 
and sixty mounted Indians, "' represontativea of many tribes and all 
catechumens in the Mission. . . . The chiefs were decked in every 
coloar and gi'otesqne array." To some of them the Bishop had often 
in former times spoken about God and the 8aviaur ; but he " never 
hoped to behold this scene, for its remarkable feature was that they 
hwl all now accepted the teaching of the Minister of Christ and had 
put away the prominent sins of heathenism. Men whose histories 
were written in blood and sorceries bad become humble and teach- 
able disciples of the Lord Jesus." On entering Lytton the Bishop 
bad to shake hands with 700 Indians, " who were all adherents of the 
Mission and many bad come . . . even 100 miles " to meet bim. The 
Church was thronged by hundreds, old and young. After one of the 
Horvicea four catechumens were received, one of whom had been "a no- 
torious sorcerer steeped in crimes. He was grey-headed, and on his knees, 
in the presence of the people," be " confessed his deeds, renounced his 
errors and expressed penitence." As each catechumen was received 
the whole congregation rose and sang in their own tongue the Gloria 
Patri. At an evening meeting of catechumens there were 260 present, 
mostly men. The subject of the Misaionary's instruction was duty to 
God. AAer the Bishop had finished eKaniining some of the catechn- 
mens, Spintlura, the chief, rose to speak. 

" He said tbe people Lad not answeiod wet). Thej knew niaoh more. He 
nonld Bpeak (or them and tell . . . what the; knew. He tlien. wilh real eloquence 
an>i eipreesive and graceful gesture, told tlio nacred ator? ol religion. He began 
with tbe Pull, mentioned some leading taots of the Old Testament ; tpoke ol th* 



great love of Qod lu sending His only Son, and then gave a doBcriplion oE the 1U» 
□( Chckt, vho luul seat His apoBtles to preach the Oospcl to all nations. Xhen 
addressing ths Missionaries, he said : ' Yon all are coiue to na because Ood haa 
gent ;oii. You have brought ua the knowledge ot the trutli. We have bad others 
among ns, and listened to them, but we cannot follow Ibem. (or the; do not teaoh 
us right. Tbej' only brought ns Uttle croBSas, bat yoa havo brought us the Hoi; 
Bible, the Word of God. We earnestl; pray joa continue to leach at. We ghall 
never be weary of hearing God's Word. " 

During his vixitatiou the Bishop met tweuty-two chiefs, nearly all of 
whom were catecliumecs. In oil there were S60 accepted catechuuienn 
at Lytton, and 180 at Yale — "representing . , . about 1,500 declared 
adherents of tlie Church of England." Baptism was preceded by 
probations varying " from two years and upwards." "Magistrates, 
Hudson's Bay Company ofliciali;, settlers and traders," as well as the 
Clergy, bore testimony to the beneficial influence of the Missions, 
under which " whole tribes and families " were seen " giving up eril 
practices and heathen customs . . . and seeking instruction in the Will 
of God." Many of the converts regularly attended Sunday aen'ice 
from distances extending from ten to fifty miles; and gambling, " an 
inveterate practice, in which relatives have been deliberately sold into 
slavery, . , . almost ceased " [22]. 

In 1871 the Bishop laid the foundation of a new chnrch at Lytton, 
dedicated to St. Paffl (by which name the Mispion has since been known), 
and in the next year be baptized twenty-six Indians, after " a search- 
ing examination and investigation of character." A proof of the 
sincerity of the tribe was that whereas in times past they had '' lived 
wild, lawless lives, and were continually being brought before the 
magistratsB for wrong doing," in 1872 there was " a total absunce of 
crime amongst them " [23]. The Indian converts indeed, by their 
consistent Christian lives, were frequently a rebuke to the Europeans. 
Thus from Yale Mr. Holmes reported in 1871 " that while Good Friday 
was religiously observed by the Indians," who crowded the church, 
" the Christian whites . . . seemed too eager after the things of this 
life to cast a look toward the great event of that day " [24]. 

During two episcopal visits to Lytton in 1873-4, 245 Indians (of 
whom 206 were adults) received baptism, most of them at the banc's of 
the Bishop. On the second occasion 116 were confirmed. Meanwhile 
(in 1873) Mr. Holmes was transferred to Cowicban and Yale was united 
to St. Paul's Mission [25]. This addition to a district already extend- 
ing over 100 square miles ['25(1] added greatly to the taskof seeking out 
the remaining heathen, but the pastoral work itself proved a powerful 
evangelising agency, and many who at first held aloof were by it 
drawn into the fold. At Lytton in 1877, after an address by the Bishop, 
" two sorcerers . . . came forward confessing their sins and desiring baptism. Oneof 
them declared that . . . during the past 13 years be had seen iirst tlie Clergy, then the 
Word of Ood, then the House of Prayer, then Sacraments and ho could no longer 
resist; he had long been oonTtnced of the wealuiessandlafeciority of beatheniBm.Bud 
now ho declared bis convictioa before his assombled brethren" [26J . 

In 1879 the mainland of British Columbia was formed into two 
new dioceses — New Westminster in the south and Caledonia in tlie 
north — and the original See of British Columbia limited to Van- 
couver's Island and the adjacent isles. As far back as 1867 Bishop 
Bii^B testified that the Society's aid hod "been productive of vast 


benefits to the inhabitants " of the colony, and without it, ** humanly 
speaking, we conld have accomplished but little indeed " [27]. 
Qn the division of the diocese it was thonght wise — considering the 
more pressing calls from other quarters — to withdraw assistance from 
Vancouver's Island, where for more than twenty years the Society had 
laboured to plant Missions amongst the natives and settlers. Since 
December 1881 the Diocese of British Columbia has therefore not 
received any financial help from the Society other than that afforded 
by two grants of £300 each in 1889 and 1891 towards a Clergy 
Endowment Fund* [28]. In the Diocese of New Westminster, 
which the Society assisted to establish by guaranteeing the main- 
tenance of the Bishop until an endowment had been provided,t Bishop 
SiUitoe found, as '* the fruits of the Society's work,'' that the Church 
had been " planted," and had *' taken root, in four districts, each of 
them as extensive as an English diocese, and in every instance " he 
believed the plant was "aheidthy one," which with cultivation would 
"grow into a productive tree." The Indian Mission at Lytton and 
Tale numbered a " Church body " of " 600 souls and 136 communi- 
cants." [29]. The reorganisation of the Mission under two Mission- 
aries in 1884 led to corresponding results, and by 1889 the number 
of Christians had more than doubled. Much of this progress is due to 
the labours of the Rev. B. Small [30]. 

Besides its work among the Indians and the colonists the Society 
sought to estabhsh a Mission specially for the Chinese in British 
Columbia, but the difficulty of obtaining Chinese-speaking teachers 
prevented much being done for these people previous to the appoint 
ment of the Rev. H. H. Gowen in 1892 [31]. 

An instance of the respect with which the Church of England is 
r^arded was afforded by the arrival at Yale in 1880 of a Chinese 
family, who "brought with them strict injunctions from the Chief 
Pastor of a German Mission " in Hong Eong, *' to ally themselves 
with no Christian body but that of the Church of England. This 
injunction they faithfully observed by putting themselves under the 
charge of the Church Mission " [32]. 

To the Diocese of Caledonia the Society, on the invitation of 
Bishop Ridley, extended its aid in 1880 by providing funds for the 
support of a Missionary to work among the gold miners [33]. But 
the grant was not made use of until 1884, when a beginning was made 
(by the Rev. H. Sheldon) at Cassiar, the headquarters of the Mission 
being soon removed to Port Essington [34]. Mr. Sheldon's duties often 
took him into danger, and his self-denial kept him '* as bare of any- 
thing approaching a home, or the comforts of a home, as gold fever can 
the most enterprising of miners" [35]. 

In his first year Mr. Sheldon secured the building of a church, 
** the first place of worship of any kind ever erected for the white men 
on the coast." They had " now got into the way of attending church 
most regularly," on Saints' Days as well as Sundays. The district 
under his charge embraced '* tne whole of that part of the diocese 
situated on the mainland of British Columbia." He found the mining 

* See addition on p. 1910. 

t For the first nine yean Bishop SiUitoe was partly supported by an annual grant 
Crom the Society, which has also contribnted £1,082 to the episcopal endowment l^9a], 


camps '' more or less, a scene of wickedness • . . gambling, blasphemy, 
drinking and prostitution*' being carried on ''to a fearful extent." 
Such was the state of Lome on his visiting it in 1885; but his '* own 
people *' rallied round him, '* and by the second Sunday the place 
was reduced to something like order, and on an average twenty men 
attended the services " [36J. 

No wonder the Missionary had to contend with infidelity and in- 
difference, when, ''from the first establishment of the Missions on 
this coast in 1859, the white people ** had been " carefully left to 
themselves and until the £ishop*s arrival ... in 1879 there had 
never been a service held for them by any Missionary on the coast " [37]. 

On this subject the Bishop added in 1886 that "this summer, 
for the first time, a clergyman of our Church*' (Mr. Sheldon) "has 
ministered to the scattered groups of our countrymen from the coast 
to the Kocky Mountains." An idea of the travel involved could only 
be formed by sending a Missioner from London to Durham, thence to 
Garhsle, Inverness, and Aberdeen. '*He must go on foot, avoid 
roads, bridges, everything of human construction, see no living soul 
between the points " named, "carry his own kit, have a foreigner to 
carry his food for the way and be pestered by mosquitoes night and 
day "[381. 

Mr. Sheldon appears to have been the only qualified medical man 
available for most of the population, and the knowledge of medicine 
was " a great power " for doing good. Besides his ministrations to 
the whites he had " a considerable amount of Indian work," conducted 
in the Zimshean language ; and in the services held by him were to 
be seen the whites and Indians kneehng " side by side at Ood's altar." 
This union in worship is great gain to the Indians, because " the 
example of the whites is a power among them " [39]. The Missionary's 
sojourn in the mining camps proved a great check to wicked practices. 
Marriage began to take the place of concubinage, and sobriety to gain 
ground among those whose drinking habits formerly knew " no re- 
straint." " I rejoice to see this improvement among these early 
settlers" (wrote the Bishop from Metlakatlain 1886), " for it is laying 
a good foimdation for the future. Among the white population the 
Society's grant is proving a potent factor in promoting their well being 
and religious Hfe " [40]. 

After two more years of zealous and faithful labour Mr. Sheldon 
was called to lay down his life. On February 20, 1888, he embarked 
at PortEssington in a canoe, intending to minister to the sick settlers 
some 40 miles distant. With him were four Indians. When nearly 
half way to Fort Simpson the canoe was struck, split, and capsized by 
a squall. All were drowned except an Indian lad. He says that though 
Mr. Sheldon's flesh was torn from his fingers (while chnging to the 
canoe), he " did not cry out. He only prayed for us bovs. He asked 
the God of heaven to save us " [41]. 

His successor, the Bev. M. Bbowne, reported in 1889 that Mr. 
Sheldon " began a work which is to day a star of grandeur always 
assuming larger dimensions as we travel for thousands of miles 
through Cassiar and Babin regions. No pen can describe his matchless 
worth, and no tongue tell the tale of woe which his death effected. As 
a parish priest his walk of life was a silent sermon daily to his people, 


and Ills medical ability bestowed consolation and heaUli wbere for 
years no one appeared to protect either body or aoul." The work of 
(he Mission is "grand, noble and dungeroQE," BJid Mr. Browne 
had nan-ow escapes on the water, and on two occasions " had to remain 
for three days and two cold nights without food or shelter under heavy 
rain." In answer to appeals from bim and the Bishop for a, aoitable 
boat, which would prevent "unnecessary aacrilice of life," and for 
additional workera, a lady in England hae aapptied the means (i,'60) 
for meeting the former want, and the Society has provided for the 
employment of a second Missionary [42], 

Already (in 1S8D| the church and parsonage at Port Essington 
have been enlarged, and a school-bouse and teachers' residence have 
been provided ; and there are " overflowing cougi'egationa " and " good 
Sunday schools and day school well attended." Many of the poor 
people " sold their triniets to contribute to . . . Church expenses." One 
old woman offered a ring, and on Indian " hia betit blanket " [43]. 

Caledonia Diooebe (If 


Kotwitb standing frequent interruptions from changes in the ataCf 
(1890-9-1), the work in the Port Esaington Mission has continued to 
grow. In 1692 thore were six hrancbes besides a new centre at 
Gardner'a Inlet, some 120 miles distant; while at Port Essington 
itself every white man, excepting two, had by 1894 been brought to 
attend church [44-47]. 

By the labours of the Bev. B. Appleyard and his wife the work has 
since been greatly atrengthoned and extended. The former at once 
won the respect of the whiter and Indiana, while Mra. Appleyard, a 
trained nurse, and acijuainted with the native language, is to the 
Indians his " interpreter and curate " ; to the Chinaman and .Tapanese, 
while attending to their bodies, a messenger of God ; to the wliite 
people she is rector'a wife; to the sick, often doctor and nurse; and 
friend to all," In the winter the population is small, hut in the 
summer Port Essington becomes the centre for a conglomeration of 
races engaged in the salmon fishery business — Europeans, Indiana, 
Chinese, Japanese, half-breeds, &,e. " Spiritually the Indians are the 
life of thi'^ country" (wrote Mr. Appleyard in 1897), "the whites, as a 
class, are lukewarm " [48]*, 

Wliile Mr. Apployai'd was acquiring the language of the Indians, he 
seldom road the lesions or preached to them in church, having native 
lay-helpers for this work. The preacher was instructed in a sermon 
which be presented in Indian style. As a proof of the abiding effect 
of the teaching given in tbe Mission, the Bishop of Caledonia related 

• A Biulot who liiul " tuBtecl ol every eenaiml vine, nud who liod a 
klmcst t^errelefla and dead,'* wont to the nuuiioiiary for instruction i 
lobuplisui. When nakoil nbere bo tutd dtuiied Uiesa desires for ai 
that tlie; bad come from the evuigelittia work of Iba Indians [<SJ, 

id he]p w 

le rcadsred 


in 1896 how three Indians sought his sanction and advioe for the 
formation of a branch of the Diocesan Ghurch Army, an institution 
which has done much good in reviving the hearts of the slow and 
reclaiming the backsliders. In their interview they thus introduced 
their subject : — 

*' Chief, Biahop, the work of God is no light thing. All parts are weighty. SmaU 
th ng8 aie parts of great things. Little things differ not from large in things of Ood. 
He makes no distinction ; therefore we may not. If otherwise, thon wilt explain. In 
onr ignorance so we think, and therefore so we speak. But if we err, thon nast seen 
more winters than we have, and knowest all the wisdom of the ancients, and wilt 
instruct us. Whatever thou sayest we will do. Now Chief ! Bishop ! listen ! 

" Why should souls die ? Why should they be shut out from God ? He opens the 
door — why should the devil close it ? We will go against him ; we will cry out to souls ; 
we will weep ; we will fall low for them to walk over us. Why should walls shut in good 
news? fila^ not men standing on the streets hear it ? Where Jesus walked let us walk. 
He spoke with the son looking down, with the gale roaring, when the stars gave their 
brightness, when His disciples saw the waves filling their canoe " [50]. 

It is questionable whether any Bishop mixes with the Indians more, 
with a view to raising them, than Bishop Ridley does. He tells of a 
wonderful transformation wrought at one place in his diocese where 
^* a missionary fresh from an English parish asked in plaintive tones if 
those were the people he had to work among," and on being told that 
the^ were ''the raw material," added, '* then I may as well go home 

Another noteworthy transformation occurred in 1898, when hearing 
that an Indian lad was to be killed by a tribe of heathen Tahltans, for 
supposed witchcraft, Mr. Appleyard, taking a British flag, went boldly 
to the encampment, and for an hour pleaded for the life of the lad. 
On the one side hung the ingrained superstition of generations, inten- 
sified, if not justified, by the right of revenge ; on the other side the 
law of the intruding white man, and of an almost unknown God. In 
the end, after all had spoken, the chief addressed the council, and then 
turning to the missionary he said : ** Your words are good, take him 
away, he is yours." The lad was placed under Christian training, 
and it is hoped that he will some day become a missionary to his 
countrymen [51]. 

The Bishop asserted, in 1897, that '' the Christian Indians " in his 
diocese are " morally better than the gold miners." He has spoken 
this repeatedly without reproach* or contradiction before men who 
once held the opinion that **only dead Indians are good." The most 
reasonable objection the working white man can bring against the 
Christian Indian is that the once despised savage is now his equal in 
the chief industry in the diocese. The Bishop adds : ** As the power 
of Christ's story arrested the minds of these interesting people, crime 
diminished ; instead of a race hatred that threatened the civil power, 

* The Bishop's regard for, and labours among, the wliite miners prove that he is far 
from being prejudiced against them, and he urges *'the weight of responsibility of 
English men abroad among subject and inferior races in trying to be their true friends in 
all peace and purity " [62a}. 

BBiTisn ooLrusu. 181ft ' 

unfeigned loyalty has sprung up, so tlmt the Cbtistiun Indian may be 
relied on sbould public peril arise " [5^]. 

Besides the permanent Mission stations in Caledonia Diocese, there 
are districts which are viaited by the missionaries in the sanuner for 
the purpose of ministering to the miners. At Deaae Lake, in the 
Glenora district, a log church was built by the Bev. H. Sheldon, 
probably about 1866. Glenora, which is on the titickiue river, some 
150 miles from the coast, was formerly an Indian trading post. 

In 1698, when the Stickine river was becoming the favourite route 
to Klondyke, the Rev. B. Appleyard and the Bishop of Caledonia spent 
some months in ministeriug to the miners at Glenora. For the lack 
of such work, Wrangel, an American town on the route, had become 
" quite unfit for a lady to enter," though before the white man came a 
woman could have walked unprotected through " heathen " Wrangel 
without being insulted. In thecase of Glenora the Church was first in 
the field, with nothing lacking to meet all the religions needs of the 
floating population, and the work rallied the Church people, and drew 
the majority of the other religiously-disposed persons to the services. 
One man, who, believing " the Church of England was dead in this 
country," had gone for a walk, was surprised half an hour later to find 
"a Bishop and a priest holding church in our midst." Another, 
seeing the same, immediately ran to his friends, calling them to come 
quickly. A third, an African mineowner, said, " Well I well 1 how is 
it we cannot get away from the old Church ? " and two young men, 
nearmtt oi a ceiecranon for the Sunday morning, walked thirteen 
a order to be present at Holy Cbmrnuniop . Ho 
r forty n 

miles on the hatarday ii 

bigbly VM. Mr. Applejard's services appreciAHfl. Ihat o 

from various parta of the world, joined in sending an address of 

thanks to the Society for the privileges which they had enjoyed [63]. 

Similar work was begun in 1699 on the new goldfields in the Lake 
Atlin and Lake Bennett districts, by the Bev. B. Appleyard and the 
Bev. F. Stephenson. A part of the Lake Bennett field is in the Diocese 
of Selkirk, but for the sake of convenience the whole of the work is 
under the superiatendcnce of the Bishop of Caledonia, who celebrated 
his sixty-fifth birthday by taking part in opening the Mission. 

The cost of living at Atlin is groat, and in order to maintain himself 
and family Mr. Stepheniion, who had kept his difBculties to himself, was 
driven in 1900 to work as a carpenter three days a week, at ;Ji6 a day, for 
about a month, when his congregation reheved him of further necessity 

Fort Bimpson (formerly visited by the Bev. II. Sheldon) received a 
resident misaionary in 1892, the Rev. T. C. P. Pyemont. Under the 
Bev. F. Stephenson (1894-99) and the Rev. W. Hogan (1899-1900) the 
work has been greatly strengthened and extended, the district includ- 
ing representatives of many nations, oven Bussians, Fataganians, 
Japanese, and negroes [55]. 

The native Indian members of the congregation have at times been 
" disturbed by the Salvation Army work " [5f>J. 

In Ib'Jl the Sucioly coutributed J.'iOO from the Marriott bequest 


towards tho erection of a hospital at OLaxton for thu reception of the 
Rick from among the Indian, Japanese, Chinese, and whiU popula- 
tion. [67]. The institution was erected as a memorial to Mrs. Hidley, 
the Bishop's wife, who died on December 6, 1896, leaving a record of 
missionary spirit and devotion rarel/ equitUed. On one occasion a 
clergyman and hi;; wife, placed in a remote Mission on the Skeena 
river, recoiled from the horrors of savage life and suddenly left for 
England. To save the work from collapsing (no one else being avail- 
able) Mrs. Ridley, taking a year's provisions, went herself— a dismal 
journey of lifteen A^ya, camping and sleeping on the snow being but 
the least of the discomforts— and for a year dwelt among the Indians 
and miners, the only white woman withm 170 miles, her entire house- 
hold consisting of two Indian schoolboys. Such was her isolation 
that the Bishop visited England and returned — tni veiling 14,000 miles 
without h'er knowing it. When she left, " the miners aaid i<he was the 
best parson they ever had," and the Indians called hei " mother " to 
the day of her death" [58j. 

The only eHorts for the evangelisation of the Japanese in British 
Columbia as yet reported to the Society are (1) visits to a Japanese 
aettlement about nine miles from Fort Simpson (begun by the Rov. F. 
Staphenson about 1894) ; (2) the teaching of a young Japanese named 
" Ennyu," employed aa cook by the Bev. B. Appleyard, of EBshigton, 
Ennyu's conversion, in May 1898, was reported by Mr. Appleyard as 
the " first fruits in the diocese " (Caledonia) from among the Japanese, 
and it is hoped that he will become a misBionary to his countrj-men ; 

gi) classes held for the Japanese at Bapperton, in New Westminster 
iocese, hy the Rev. J. H. Davis, 1899-1900 [59]. 

Nkw Wkbtminsteh Diooese (1892-1900). 

After helping the diocese tht'ough a financial crisis by accepting (in 
1896) the Archdeaconry of " Columbia," in New Westminster Diocese, 
the Ven. B. Small resigned that position in 1897, in onler to again 
devote himself exclusively to the Indian work, and was appointed 
Arohdeacon of Yale, with jurisdiction over the Indian Missions generally 
in the diocese. The Indians under his care occupy both banks (1) of 
the Fraser river from ChiUiwhack to Lillooet (140 miles), and (2) of the 
Thompson river from Lyttou to Aehcroft (48 miles), and (8) of the 

• In msnuitj of Mrs. BiilUy B Misuaii to tliB IndinaB Iub heea etarled >t Tahltnii, on 
the Stiakiae river ; at pruMiit it ii not nuiatained br fuijSodet;. bub Huaafripnila of tlio 
Bishop ooBlribiiM to it, kDil the But. F. H. T, PiJgrava haa Horked [or over two jean 
ftt hia own cix>cnae [6Sti]. 

In80[iporto( thoTiow lh«t " MissionH ure tlic mirw^lc of Ihoconturj." Bishop Bidlpy 
■tntoB Ih&t in plikm in hia diotsewi where M one pariod misHionuy lubour apuMin-il 
lo bp (rulttoiB Iboro arc hot do hfiLtliuii. Not Inng ago wkh witueased the " niiriuile " i>I 
converted heiithou Bt&nding nnnd uid [imjing while tliuic unMni-orlod brethren du- 
Btrojed their cliotch by fire. Tha oonduet of iJia DonTOrts had a trenioiidouii iiiBuouua 

"-'---"---, and Cho vary mui v/bo filed the chatch wu led to join tha Bishop in 
k tits (or a new ohnioh [66by 


Nicola river from Speuce's Bridge to Nicola (00 mileH), making in all 
a distance of 248 miles to be %-isited. Lytton remains the central 
station, and the eBtabliahment there of a Cottage Hospital and a Boys' 
Indtistnal School, and of a Girls' School at Yale (which is under the 
" Sisters of All Hallows "), completed the orgauiaations so far as insti- 
tutions are concerned. 

The influence of thoughtless and vicious whites has bad a lowering 
effect on the Indians, but tlie native Church members famish examples 
of devotion and reverence, and they will atill travel long distances in 
order to be present at the services. In August 1898 the Indiana who 
were fishing on the coast were gathered together by Archdeacon Small 
for a Sunday morning service and celebration of the Holy Communion 
in the Cathedral at New Westminster [60]. 

■' Foreign Missions " have been brought to the very door of tha . 
Church in British Columbia by the immigration of Chinese, who are , 
scattered all over the Province. They come from the southern part 
of China, chiefly Canton Province, and most of them speak Pim-ti, 
and a few Hak-ka. They belong generally to tbe low coolie class. 
In the winter most of them arc in tbe towns ; in the summer they will ] 
be at the canneries, or the mines, or the sawmills. In religion, from 
estemal signs, they seem to worship Mammon and little besides ; to i 
quote from a report in 1B03: — 

'■ For Ihe moHt part, with macli supcrstitioii, tlio Chinnmon has little religion, ' 
Be leara derila. tosMs hia hicksticlis, bams red paper to scare the evil spiritd nwaj, 
Iroals nt the graves ot hia friends, but he eneke DO bond o[ fellowship with anj 
hiRhfr Fowci aa a roliel to the grinding toil of this eajthly life. Thus Ihs call ^ 
Cfariat, ' Come unto Me, nil ya that are wearj and lieuv; laden,' comes, when it li 
hearf], cs a new and tvinitctful revelation " (Glj. 

How to bring home to them effectively this loving invitation was 
a problem which bad engaged the Society's attention for some time, 
but until m92 the efforts made in the Diocese of New Westminster 
bad been confined to somewhat spasmodic exertion in the parishes of 
Christ Church, Vancouver, and Holy Trinity, New Westminster, where 
night classes for secular instniction were held, those under the Rev. 
H. B, Hobson (Vancouver) being specially successful [02], 

In 1892 the work was orgauised as a Diocesan Mission to the 
Chinese, and placed under the charge of the Bev. H, H. Gowen, an 
experienced and zealous Missionary from Honolulu. To assist unity of 
feeling, and unity and economy of effort, a Diocesan Chinese Mission Aid 
Association was formed for promoting fellowship of prayer, almsgiving, 
and work among all interested in the evangelisation of the Chinese, and 
it is hoped tbat the work begun in New Westminster and Vancouver 
may spread throughout the diocese, which, in 1900, container! about 
9,000 Chinamen. The formation of properly organised congregations 
will bs a work of time, not ordy on account ot the slow firuition 
expected, but also because the migratory habits of the Chinese scatter 
the converts almost as soon as they are ms^e. Out of five Chinamen 
baptized in one year, four soon moved to other parts of the world, of 
course taking with them strength for other Mission fields, but delaying 
the building up of a congregation in the place they had left [63], 


While the Indian and Ohinese* work was being developed, the 
Church under Bishop Sillitoe's rule was making great efforts to 
provide also for the spiritual needs of the white settlers attracted by 
the mines and various industries opening up in the Colony. The 
severity of the work at length proved too much for one who was 
zealous and unsparing in his labours, and the Bishop died at his post 
on June 9, 1894, after fifteen years' devoted service, the immediate 
cause of death being pneumonia [64]. 

His successor, the Bev. J. Dart, D.CJj., was consecrated in 
St. Paul's Cathedral, on St. Peter's Day, 1896 [66]. He arrived 
in his diocese at a time when the Episcopal income was practically 
nil, and the nineteen clergy were dispirited and divided. The 
Bidiop (who brought with him experience gained in Colombo and 
Nova Scotia as well as in England) met all his difficulties with 
unflinching courage and unceasing work. He could not, however, 
have retained his position but for the Society's help given to tide over 
the period of non-productiveness of the Bishopric endowment, a period 
shortened by a fire in the city of New Westminster in September 
1898, by which some improfitable house property, representing a 
portion of the endowment, was exchanged for insurance money [66J. 

The first four years of Bishop Dart's episcopate witnessed a great 
extension of the Church among the settlers, and in 1899 East and 
West Kootenay and the Okanagan Valley were formed into a separate 
diocese, called Kootenay, which is to remain under the Bishop of New 
Westminster until provision has been made for a second Bishop. The 
new diocese, the See city of which is Nelson (with St. Saviour's 
Church as pro- Cathedral), began with seventeen clergy and sixty-four 
congregations, and its first Synod met on May 81, 1900 [67]. 

A most satisfactory feature of this progress has been the growth in 
self-support. In 1893 it was found that the Society's grant to 
Eamloops could secure the maintenance of four clergymen instead of 
one, and the policy of stimulating local efforts has been continued by 
Bishop Dart with excellent results, there being nine self-supporting 
churches in the diocese in 1898 [68]. 

. . fj One of these — Rossland—is mainly due to the self-denying labours 

^**" ^' of the Re v. H. Irwin , who gave up his living in Ireland in order to 
plant tlie'ciiurch among the rough miners there [69]. 

The diocese owes much also to the great energies and capacity 
of Archdeacon Pentreath, who succeeded to the Archdeaconry of 
" Columbia" in 1897, and in 1899 (during the absence of the Bishop 
for the purpose of raising funds for Missions) took charge of the 
diocese as Gommissary-Oeneral [70]. 

* Although the Chinese work in the city of New Westminster had to be disoon- 
tinned for some years through stress of circumstances (the departure of Mr. Gk)wen, &c.)i 
it lias been lately revived by Bishop Dart with encouraging prospects. The Bishop says 
fhat it would be difficult to find in the whole field of Heathen Missions a more f^YOur- 
able opportunity than is to be found among (he Chinese of British Columbia. 

british columbia. 191/ 

Bbitish Columbia Diocese (1892-1900). 

The Society's aid to this diocese, which had been discontinued in 
1891, was renewed in 1898 in the form of a grant for the establishment 
of a Mission to the Chinese, of whom there are some 5,000 in the 
diocese. Under the Rev. J. Grundy (of 17 years' experience in China), 
the Mission has been well begun, and it is hoped to connect it with 
the Diocese of New Westminster and Caledonia, with a view to the 
organisation of the Chinese work in the whole Province of British 
Columbia [71]. 

Bishop Hills,* the pioneer of British Columbia, who resigned in 1892, 
was succeeded by Dr. W. W. Perrin (consecrated in Westminster Abbey 
on the Feast of the Annunciation, 1893). The diocese still retains its 
original name of ** British Columbia," legal difficulties standing in the 
way of a change of a title which is now a misnomer [72]. 

* Bishop Hills died in England iu 1896i 
{For Statistical Summary seep. 192.) 



a) Tbo Field and Pwrlod 



1703-5, 1726 1900 ( 


• * * * J 

rOVA SCOTIA, 1728-43, 
1749-1900; OAPEBRE- 
•ion. 1786 1900; ASB 
LAND, 1819 1900 



1769 64. 1777-1900 

CO Bmm and TrlbM mtnlrtwd to 






1860 1900 


1859 1900 


Colonists (Obristian and Non-CniriBtian) 
Ksquinianz (Christian and Heathen) 

Negroes (Heathen and Ohristian) 

Mixed or oolonred raoes (Heathen and Ohristian) 
Ckdonistfl (Ohristian) 

»: _ _ 

wad by the 





Colonists (Ohristian and Non-Christian) 

Indians : 

Miokmacks, &c. (Heathen and CTbristian) 
Negrocj (Cliristian and Heathen) . . .. 

■• 1 

Colonists (Ohristian and Non-Christian) . . 

Indians : Miokmacks ) /nK,i«*{o« ««^ 
Marashites r^^i"*!^ ?°^ 

Carabous, &o. ) Heathen) 

Negroes and Half-castes (Cliristian Mid Heathen) 

English dc Danish 



Colonists (Christian and Non-Ohrfstian) 

Indians : \ 

Esquimanx I- Heathen and Christian . . 
Abenagnls | 

Colonists (Christian and Ncn-Clirlstian) . . . . 

Iroquois or Six Nation Indiana : ) ,nu.i^n a x 

M^wk^ Tu«.r.r«, Oo.„- 1 ("if^f,- -"> } 

?itu:i;^tf«™'"' [ (H»thonan.. Cristian) 
Negroes (Christian and Heat lien) 

English, German, 

Frenoh, Erse, 




Colonists : 
British (Christian) 

BassoGkrmans „ 

Germans and Hungarians „ 

Danes and Swedes «, 

Frenoh „ 

Poles „ 

Bohemians „ 

Icelanders „ 

Ghilioians „ 
Half-breeds (Ohristian and Heathen) 
Indians : Plain Orees, Swampy 
Crees, Sioux, Blackfoot, Pei- 

(Htiitben and 


ColonisU (Christian) 

Indians (Heathen and Christian) : 
Thompson and Spuzzum 

Oowiohan (or Oowitchen) 

Songes (or Tsau-miss) 

Bill Bellas, Cogholds, Hydahs, Stlckocns 
Shee Shats (or Shec Shaks) 





Chinese (Heathen and Ohristian) .. .. 
Japanese (Heathen and Ohristian) •• 



12 European Oolonial race^ 31 Indian tribes, also 
Negroes, mixed races, Chinese, and Japanese 



Russian and 


Cree, English, 



and Chinhook* 


and Ohinhook* 


8hee Shak 

and Chlnhook* 






(4) No. of 
arias Mn- 










* Cblnhook Is a jargon used as a common mediom of commnni(»tion among the Indians. 
/ After Rllowing tor repetitions and transfers. 



ee6,i78i8iO(iaeapa.) tai 





The Society found the West Indies generally in possession of a Church 
Establishment which, though insufficient, yet for a long period afforded 
better provision for the ordinances of religion than existed in other 
parts of the Mission field. There were, however, certain calls and 
claims from this quarter which could not be disregarded. Beginning 
by aiding clergymen with books or passage money, between 1708 and 
1710, the Society in the latter year became permanently connected 
with the West Indies by accepting the Trusteeship of the Codrington 
Estates in Barbados. The exercise of this trust was quoted by the 
Bishop of Barbados in 1861 as " a noble exception " at a time (ex- 
tending over a century) " when the African race *' (in the West Indies) 
" were even by members of the Church, almost entirely neglected ** [1], 
Extensions were made by the Society to the Bahamas in 1781 and to 
the Mosquito Shore in 1748. As early as 1715 the Society also sought 
to establish two Bishoprics in the West Indies, but its representations 
(Hi the subject were not successful until 1824, when the Sees of Jamaica 
and Barbados were founded. [See pp. 201, 229, 744, 762.] 

In urging this measure and the appointment of two Archdeacons 
in the previous year the Society laid stress on the claims of the slaves, 
which were obtaining some recognition in the House of Commons, and 
at the invitation of the Government it recommended ''a further supply 
of not less than forty Clergymen . . . with an adequate body of 
Catechists and Schoolmasters," as " the smallest number that might 
produce any beneficial results *' among '' the negro population of more 
than 800,000 souls " [2]. 

By the abolition of slavery, which was accomphshed during the 
next ten years, an immense field for Missions was opened in the West 
Indies and Guiana. Statements received by the Society in the autumn 
of 1884 showed '*that an increased desire for religious instruction 
had been manifested by the emancipated negroes ; that additional 
facilities for satisfying that desire were loudly called for; that the 
spiritual necessities of the people were already pressing heavily upon 
the means which the Clergy had at their command, and that those 
means were utterly insufficient to enable them to take advantage of 
the disposition which existed both among the proprietors and the 
working people, to receive from them the benefit of a Christian 
education for their children." 

Under these circumstances, " a great and immediate efifort " was 
made in behalf of the coloured population in the West Indies, &c. A 
negro education fund was opened, and between 1885-50 the Socisty, 
aided by a King's Letter, Parliamentary granti^ the S.P.G.K., the 



Bocieiy for the OonversioD of the Negroes [or the Christian Faith 
Society], and liberal contributions from persons connected with the West 
Indies, expended £171,777 on the erection of churches and schools, and 





i 1 





ondRchoolB Teachen 



k t.d. 

£ t.d. 

£ «. 


£ t,d. 

£ «. d. £ «. d.; £ «. d. £ «. d. 

18Sft 19,684 6 


20,184 6 

532 3 11 

672 10 


963 5,195 13 11 

1846 . 6.043 1 11 


13,902 1 11 

66 11 6 

2.359 14 4 

5.651 5 9 

2,096 18 3 

10,967 9 10: 


736 16 


6,736 16 

• • 

8,704 7 1 

0,079 7 

9,440 8 8 

15,2M 9 4 


• • 



• • 

3,974 16 8 

18,890 8 

3.194 8 4 

91,059 13 0| 


• • 



• • 

8,941 2 

7,588 11 11 

4.828 18 1 

16,308 19 : 


• • 



• • 

3,453 5 9 

5,685 19 9 

7,216 14 11 16,854 19 10 

1841 ; 5flO0 



• • 

3.795 19 8 

5.699 18 4 

8,814 9 4 17.700 8 41 




• • 

3,577 19 1 

4,228 6 8 

9.291 1 

17,091 18 10 


4,1 Sfi 


• • 

3.671 11 10 

1,626 13 1 

7,096 8 7 

13,994 13 6 


2.736 14 

9,736 14 

• • 

4,079 18 9 

1.916 18 4 

5.701 16 1 

11,691 8 9 


Ue-i 7 

1,363 7 

• • 

4,0f»2 11 

316 13 4 

4,746 8 4 

9,155 19 8 


• • 

3.738 7 6 


1,787 n I 

5,805 18 7 


• • 

8.763 14 6 


• • 

8.019 14 5 


• • 



• • 

3,092 10 


9,909 8 7 

• • 

919 10 

8.121 18 7 


• • 

2,348 16 

• • 

519 10 

2,861 5 

•6^463 8 11 

69,886 1 

86,848 4 


698 16 S 

53,019 9 8 

60.006 11 r 58,152 14 4 

171,777 14 

Add Oimnto firam OmmdU) 
Pond ; 

84,999 9 


Onud Total . 

in,777 14 

With the exception of £7,282 allotted to Mauritius and the Sey- 
ohelles, this sum of £111,171 (less £598 expenses) was applied for the 
benefit of the coloured population in the West Indies,* Guiana,* and 

The assistance thus rendered drew out a vast amount of local 
support, it being a condition that at least one-half of the salaries of 
the Missionaries and lay teachers should from the first be provided 
from other sources, and that eventually the entire charge should be 
undertaken b^ the Colonies [8]. 

Few Missionary efforts have produced such great results in so short 
a time as were effected by tins movement. From some of the 
Colonies it was possible for the Society to withdraw all assistance at 
an early date, without injury to the work ; in others it has been 
necessary to continue and renew aid from time to time, both in order 
to sustain Churches which otherwise must have sunk under disendow- 

* EzclnuTe of Godrington Estates (£61,624) the total expenditure of the Society in 
Ihese fields doring the years 1B85-60 was £172,058, which was distribated as follows : — 
Windward IdaDdJB (Barbados, £29,291 ; Tobago, £4,925 ; the other islands, £9,889) » 
£49,606; Leeward Islands, £20,262; Jamaica, £49,918; Bahamas, £8,168; Trinidad, 
£9,100; Brittah Qniana, £88,609 ; Bermuda, £7,411. [For details iee B. 1886-61, State- 

ita of Account.] 


ment,"* or rather the witbdrnwal of State aid, and to estend Missions 
among the native raoee, including the oooHe imoiigranta from China 
and India [41. The dioceses referred to in this seclion were in 1683 
formed into the ecclesiastical " Province o£ the West Indies " [5]. 

Though the work of the Church of England in these iBlands and 
continents began before the formation of the several Sees— the local 
legislatures helping in some cases, but " the main and most con tinnous 
assistance" coming from the S.P.G. and the 8.P.C.K.— yet, speak- 
ing generally, the period of organisation and development of the 
Church commenced with the establishment and later extension of the 
episcopate, and with the abolition of the slave trade and slavery. 
The last sisty years (1840-1900) aa regards the work of the Church in 
this Province have been "a period of extension, crisis, anxiety, change, 
reorganisation, and then further growth under new conditions " [fi]. 



Thb WnrowuiD Islincs embrace tha aonthorn fctoup of tlio Wffst Inilioe, via., 
Burbodoi (whioh was mido a distinct Go7emnieiit in 1S85), St. Lnoin, St. Vincent, tho 
GrenAdiiif^H, unci Qrenada- Tobago, (iniQerlj reckoned as ons of tba group, boa gincd 
Jnnuu? IBSO been united with tlio OaTOtmnfliit of Trinidad. 

BiHBADOS (ue&, lOO eqtiare milciH). — Some dnnbt exists ru to wbnn tliis island ma 
diacoyocoi Tba Portaguuea are imJiled with being tba flrat Tinitorii, bnl their oonnoo- 
tion with "Lob Barbados" oh tbey oikUed it (from its bearded fi^-treea) vaa little more 
than Dominul. In lODS the ccen o! the Oh'n* took poBBOBsion of it in the name of " June* 
Kinn of England " ; but the ieluid amtinued, nu they taand it, sbaoet uninhabited nnCil 
IKaii, when a Bettlemcot wan formed by Sir W. Conrteen, o. IJoadon toorohant, acting 
under tha Earl of Hariboraitgh. to whom James had granteil it. Tha first obapliun waa 
the HeT. Micbohu I«vcrto>>, ol Etelfr College, Oxford, but the discord and protligaoj of 
the BSttlera moved him to throw up hie charge in do^pftir. The granting of ^l the 
Caribbee IsIandH tothe Earl of Carlisle by Charlea L in 1697 led to tbe Earl of Marl- 
boTongh leUnquinhin}; his claims (or s. consideration, and in Ifl'JS a soconil party of 
colonists settled in Barbados. In tha patent to the Earl o( Caihsle the first gTOtmd 
nqsigned for the grant is " a laudable and piona desigu " on his part " of propii^aling 
tli[i Chrisllan religion" as wall as "of enlarging his UajeHty's cSominions. By 1S29 
sii parishes had been established ; five more wera added in 1II45 ; and strict oonformity 
rith tha Ohnri'h of England was enjoined, neglect of fnmily prayer or of nttendanoe at 
charch being mods punishable b^ fines. Agnin, in 16fll on Act was passed "(or tha 
enconmgetnent of all faithful ministers in the Pastoral Charge within the Island." All 
these ^Tiaions were to K great oilonb neutralised by tiui misgoveminent of the 
I'aroohial Veslries. So tyrannical wu their cnnlnil that in 1080 only five olergymen 
rcTnAiued in the island. Baptianis, marriages, cbnicliinge. and burinle were " either 
totally omitted or else porforiaed brthe overseers, in a kind of prophane merriment, and 
derision , , , ot tbe ordinances." By eiidenTouriiig to instruct tha negroes tha Clergy 
tliomBalres were exposed to " most barbarous nanaga " and the slaves to worse treat- 
ment than before.t 

St. Luou (area, a<8 squats miles) waa discorered by Colunibiiq in 1502. when it wae 
inhabited by Caribe, in whose possession it continued till 16^6, when the King of Franca 
granted it to two of bis aubjects. The first English settlement, formed iu ISBfl, was 
totally dsatroyed by the Cnribs In 1S40 ; the second lasted from IQBl-T. Since that date, 
excepting for Ita neutrality 1728-41 and 171B-5D, the island reiKBtedly changed hands 
between tha French and EDglish— the hitter holding it for abort periods onlj (1733-8, 
17fl9-e, 17B3-a, 1791-1801} until Jane 93, ISOS, when it became pennnueutly a British 

* The policy ol diBcntablisluaeat and dlsendowmont was introduced into the West 
Indies nttlxeoudof ISflO; but it baa not extended to the inland of Barbndos. 

t See Tha NetjTo't and Itidian't Advocate jiiJTiff for their Admiuien into tht 
Church, £o. by the Iter. Morgan Qodwyn, lOSO 

THB in!n>WABD JSLMSOm. 197 

m the kftBdi o< tbe aazre =^Vaifr;Aif;* — te« C*r£btt — «£I1 tbe :xjn c«r.i=rr. f«.-iart£=aei b; 
am^geflMBS vilL the FKaec. I: ra uczne^ to tt^Dsks c/ Mccite^ Ij G«acs» L 

1768^ nd a^Bai a 173L l^arfs^ been s;^rrt;^r«d tc :Le Fr&=db im ITT?. Dcu; t^ 
PreDdL BcnlBtiaB tibe Cuil^. cxdi«d by ile F?fOfh. »-r:!':«dL &=./ *f:<£r r.rr ziag ux 
eoloBT wn mtwwl in 1797, 10 ta« ngrrhg ci 5.*Js«, v> iLe Tt'»n3 if E^z^ ^'xbe B«t 
of HoodaxML 

Gmnfuu (area. 133 «?=»« :^ILm tm diiccTer«d br C:l1^=siccs fi: l4Ji&. h bcsng xLe^ 
inhahiwd bj Cusfaft. Ibe Frpr^-* v^ ti>s-^»z. ic ^-.V*"-*^ is abed 1650. «xxir;ifcu«i 
the oatiTna. Ihe iiiftad ««« scrrs^dcTM lo tLe Ez^l&h in 17&2,Kc&Tued It ihe Fk-.^ 
1779, and remand to Gz««2 Brli^fs in I7SS. 

Ihk Gkzscasozs sk g-^" itLkz.^ '.jtz^ betrc^n Gren^lfc *=.4 St. Yiaecnt, the 
being CmaiMecn lA Be*^:dft. 

WiTHiK two Tears of us esiablisiiment the ScM!iet7 was uominallj 
broaght into coimection with Barbados bj the will of General 
CodriDgton, dated Feb. 22. 1703, of which the following is a Terbatini 
extract, now published lor the drst time bj the Society : — 

** I Cliri£«cph«r Coiri^iricn cf D:*i ii=^.>:-:: in the CoTinty of Gloaotsux Esq. 
and Chief GoTexcor cf hex )£&;«£ .7* £ Ltt^s^ri li'^nrtf in Amchca do make nod 
dednie this to be mj last Will uii T^siATTte-rx. I reocmmend mj Sool to the good 
God vho gATe it. Lcj •eing for SAlration ihzo' his ZKrcj, and the meritf of his San ; 
mj vorldiT EsSAie I ui:is diipose of. . . . 

**I give and ht^iz^AxL cij ;y: rl&i:i&uona in *the lilnnd of Barbadoes to the 
SocieiT for the Prup^fcrilion cf the CLr^fiLan B^lizion in Foreign Pans erected and 
established by mj late good Mif^er Ki^y W:l.iazn the tlird and mj desire is to 
hare the plactaiicr^ c<*i iniirf; ana 3'» z:^;n':<^ &: least afvajs k^ri-t thereon, 
and a co n icpient niz2C«r cf Prcfessors and =cL-. Ikrs rr^aintained there all of them 
to be under tots of porenr «ni cLa^thj kii-i •.•beiiieace vho shall be obliged to 
study and practise Phisick a&i Chir^rrr as v*:ll as I^lTinitj. that bj the apparent 
osefalneM of the ^^ all rra^V:^ i ir.*:j zL.ikj boih eztdear theciselves to the 
people and hare th« beT^er op p oit .^ tir-. :-f doin^ g<xd to men's aools vhxist thev 
are taking care of their CK*i js. bd the (arri<^'urs of the eonstitctions I leave to the 
Socicij eomposc«i of wise ini foc-i zn«rs '' [1\ 

In addition to the% two estates, called ** Consett's and Codring- 
ton's," a part of his estate in the Island of Barbuda was bequeathed 
to the SocietT. [See p. 212*2 General Codrington died in Barbados on 
Good Friday, April 7, 1710. His body rested in St. Michaers Church 
in that island until 1716, when it was remoTed to liie Chapel of All 
Souls College, Oxford, of which college he had beeu Fellow, and to 
which he bequeathed his books and a considerable sum of money [2'. 
According to the BeT. W. Gordon of Barbados, who was selected to 
preach the funeral sennon, which was dedicated to the Society, 

"The Design of the B^zeH 'Si£ the rrair.T^r.ance of Monks ani Misrlcnarys 
to be emplo3F«d in the GcinTerEion cf Ne^oes and Indians, vLich d^i^-n Lr t-x^k 
from his conTenation vith a Learned J^^ive of St. ChrisiopLers. between vhczn 
and him, these passed sevcfal L^'i'.eri ab:-;*. the antlqiltv. wsrfiln-rss izid 
excellency of a monastic lile: Let :he&e ->.h r^.iLe other hzle -z.i I>::rc:. .ns -:f 
his vhich he oommunie^'ed to z^e -rrhll.-: Ali*>e are not no-r ;o .t *jzi.I. Oi ih« 
Missioiiarys he proposed that there sh-.u'd t^ ccnstani'j kept air. a. i iLr-.-e Vifivir?. 
who shooed be ob.i?ed to trarel from O/.iz.j to Cclonj, and izizn cv'^nirj :o 
ooontiy, to traniz:.:; to the Socieij a l^r/t Uifv^rical Ax-'Co:^: of the b;a:e cf 
CHuistianity, in eacL co'-ntr<:v- cf the ,;*:-: :ii of ;:.*: pecple. ani "=^ha: mr^na w^re 
most probable to advance rell;r:on anj pletj" 'Ji\ [L., Bev. W. Gcrdon, z5 JjIt 

The will was aiknounoed on Aug. IS, 1710. but the Socien' 
"Iftbonicd under some uncommon di£ctilues in obtaining possessiGnof 


their right in the iwo Plantations/' the value of Tirhich, or of the yearly 
crops, was then estimated "to amount to upwards of £2,000 per 
annum dear of all charges " [4]. 

The ** difficulties," which arose from the claims of the executor, 
Lieut.-Oolonel William Godrington, were aggravated by the injudicious 
zeal of the Governor of Barbados. The Society's attorneys had been 
in treaty with Golonel Godrington, and were in hopes of getting 
possession of the estates, but in August 1711, on waiting on him, 

" they found him in custody by a writ of Ne exeat Insulam, contrary to their or any 
of their Ck>uncirB knowledge ; which greatly exasperated the Golonel : upon which 
they applyed to the Governor who told 'em tiiat he had heard the Society's 
pretensions slighted and ridiculed before his face by some of the Colonel's friends 
and that he look't on all his offers to be meer amusements and therefore he had 
taken that method and would answer the same to the Society." 

In 80 doing (Aug. 20, 1711), Governor Lowther stated that but for 
the writ the Golonel would *' have gone off the Island and kept the 
Society long out of possession," a statement not borne out by subse- 
quent events. While complaining to the Society, Goloncd Godrington 
promised not to retahate, but to "contribute everytliing towards the 
preservation of" the estate [5]. 

An amicable settlement was effected by which the Society obtained 
actual possession of the estates on Feb. 22, 1712, and Golonel 
Godrington was afterwards described by the Society as, next to his 
kinsman, ''our prime benefactor" [6]. 

It is due to Uovemor Lowther to say that in 1711 Queen Anne had 
been moved to send him a letter in the Society's interests. 
It is no less due to Golonel Godrington to record that in 1720 the 

'* order'd that Bobert Lowther Esq. late Govemour of Barbados be dismist from 
being a Member of the Society upon the Account of his having in a most notorious 
manner vilified the Society, and having never paid any part of his annual 
subscription to the Society, and being under censure of the Qovemment for great 
misbehaviours in his late publick station of Gk)vemoar of Barbados " [7]. 

In 1718 the Society " resolved forthwith to begin the building a 
Gollege in Barbados pursuant to the directions and for the purposes 
mentioned " by General Godrington, but owing to the lack of requisite 
funds it was not possible to complete and open a building for educational 
purposes until 1745 [8]. An account of the institution is given on p. 782. 

A " dreadful hurricane " in 1780 did so much damage in the 
island that it was judged '* proper to assist the Barbados Estates in 
their . . . distress from the General Fund of the Society." This 
help proved insufficient, and *' as the best measure " that could be 
adopted " to prevent an absolute bankruptcv *' a lease was granted in 
1788 to Mr. John Brathwaite, who undertook '' the care of the Estates 
upon the most hberal and disinterested principle, at a certain rent of 
£500 a year, but with a design to expend whatever further produce " 
might arise " by a more successful management, to the discharge of 
the debts," and to the benefit of the trust property [9]. 

By the new management the Society benefited in the next ten 
years' to the amount of j^l2,769, 19^. S^dx currency, exclusive of the 
annual rent, amounting to jS5,000 sterhng. " Bound in the strongest 
sense of gratitude to express their obligations " for this " large sum," 
which they regarded " in the light of a benefaction/' Mr. Brathwaite 


was " desired to accept a. piece of plate of odg himdred guineas value, 
as a more permanent and public mark of the Society's gratitude mid 
esteem " [10]. Sabsequentlj through Mr. Forater ClB,rke, to whom was 
"consigned, for many years the direction of the plantations," the 
Society became " indebted for the continued improvement, not only of 
the reuourcet) of the trust, but of the condition and increase of the negro 
population" [11]. 

The estates being prosperous and the College expenditure being 
then on a small stale, the trust funds by 18'20 were increased to 
£34,000 Three per Cent. Conaole ; but the cost of preparing the College 
for the reception of academical students and repairing damage caused 
by a hurricane in 1881 reduced this sum to i.'19.(HK) in 1833 and 
£17.000 in 1836. On the abolition of slavery £8,823. 8s. 9d. was 
received in 1836 as compensation money for the slaves on the 
estates [12] ; but in the nest few years eipenditure so excoedud income 
that the funded ca^iital in 1840 amoimted to only £14,725 [13]. The 
experiment of leasmg the estates, again tried for certain periods [14], 
proved 30 unsatisfactory that in March 1876 negotiations for their 
sale were authorised ; but a few months later the " unsettled state of 
the island " induced the Society to retain the estates " for the present," 
and work Ihem by means of an agent [16]. Since 1876, under the 
management of an able attorney, Mr. G. A. Sealy, the property has 
been considerably improved, in spite of periods of great commercial 
deprossion in the ^^'est Indies [15a]. Although the erection of the 
collegiate buildings was long delayed, the Society had no sooner 
obtained possession of tlie estates than it began a Mission to the 
negroes thereon. The Report for 1712 says : — 

" The Sooietj, io discharKc of tins trust, have sought out this jeax for a anitabU 
MisBJonar;, and made choice, o( tha Bevereud Mr. Jairjih HoU. who being welt 
approv'd of, us to life and morals, and appearing with dae testiuionials of his skill 
iu PkyHc and Surgery, has boen diapatch'd to Barhados as Chaplain and 
CaUckigt ; under which dencmiuatinna, bc^dea the ordinsr; duties of a 
Miswonar;, he is to instruct in the Christian reliKion, the Negrois, and their 
obildran, within tbe Society's Plantations in Barbadoi. and to supervise the sick 
and maimed Negroes and Servants, . , . aobest of medicines ... to tbe value of 
f 30 " being supplied him [IC]. 

TLl' preacher of the Anniversary Sennon In 1711, Bishop Fleet- 
wood of St. Asaph, laid it down " that tf all the slaves in America, and 
every Island in those seas, were to continue infidels for ever, yet ours 
alone must needs be Christiana"; and the Society acted on this 
principle by directing the agents in Barbados that the negroes should 
" particularly have a liberty on Saturdays in the afternoon to work for 
themselves ; and that they may Lave time to attend instructions on 
the Lord's Pay " [17]. Mr. Holt returned to England in 1714, but a 
succession of Missionaries* was maintained, and the Report for 1740 
records that through their labours "some hundreds of negroes have 
been brought to our Holy Religion ; and there are now not less than 
seventy Christian negroes on those Plantations." Li that year tbe 
training of some of them as schoolmasters was ordered [18]. It was 

the " earnest desire" of tbe Society "that iwrticular care" should 
be taken " in the management and treatmGnt of the Negroes, hoth 
adult and children, and more especially with regard to their religious 
instruction " ; and it gave the Society " very great satisfaction " to be 
assured, as it was repeatedly, that the slaves were " treated with the 
greatest bumaoity and tenderness in all respects " [19]. 

In 1797 directions were also given " that two white women should 
be hired, and maintained in the College to talie care of and to teach 
the young negroes to read ag preparatory to, and essentially connected 
with, religious instruction " [20], 

The appointment of the Rev. J. H. Finder as Estates Chaplain in 
1818 led to a reorganisation of tbe Mission. His reception by the 
negroes and the subsequent progress of tbe work be thus deaoribed : — 

" There was a, veij uumeronB osEemblaga of tham in tbo College liatl, vhlch 
was prepared tor dirioe service, the obapel being under lepsir, and the Bcboiaria do 
tbe foundation be-in); nbsent for the Obriatmos vacation. Thej were ver; attentive 
during the prajere and sermon. After service thej collected around me on the 
Ijreen iu front, mid bade me welcome amongst them as their luiuisler in a warm 
and encouraging manner. . . . The progreftB of the Bcboola gave me great cause 
for tTi nnlffiiln wB and the Mod disposition manifested towards me bj all the negroes 
was Irulj eratifjing." [In Julj 1610 a wooden chapel erected epeciallj for tbe 
negroes, was opened, but] "on the ISth of OcloboT the island was viaitod b; a 
(lestmotiva hurricane, and the chapel perished among the awful eflcote ol the gale. 
... It was truly gratihdng to mark the oontented manuerin which the people bore 
their severe losses. Their own houaea were materially injured in almost every 
instance, andin some ntteil; destroyed. But the remark of one tomewaa, — 'It was 
God's doiog ; and il the bouse ol God was not spared, how could they eipect 
theirs ? ' " 

The building was replaced by a stone structure in 1821, capable of 
i;o»taining 800 persons. At the opening on .lune 3tbe school children 
had been so instructed " as to render the psalmody a very gratifying 
part of pubb'c worship." 

Mr. Pinder's report continues : — 

" 1823. The power ot roligioua inBtniclion began now to be Bcuaibly diffused 
(through llio medium of the tjooiety's negroes.) among those of tbe neighbouring 
estates ; and eeveral cuoe to be regularly eianiined and prepared for BdnttBEJon 
to baptum, who have since been found taitbful to their solemn ongageinrats. I 
bod tbe satisfaction also this year of establishing it as a rule for the women to 
return public tbanlis to Almighty God for their safe deliveraDce in child-birth. 

" In December the oommunicaotB were, white fifteen, and coloured twenty- 
two; and tbe Snnday school, independeutly ot those receiving daily education, 
tweaty-one. At tbe request of some ol tbe coloured communicanlii, a collection 
at the sacrament began this year to be made, and with so willing a heart was tbe 
appeal answered, tbat from tbe joint offerinije of white and coloured persons there 
was always at ChriEtmas a little sum varying from Gve to seven pounds. This 
was distributed amoug tbe aged, tbe infirm, and tbe orpbane, who were observers 
of the Lord's day, and in other respects worthy." Tbe " behaviour " of the slates 
" at public worship is revorezit and in many coses devout. Their desire for in- 
etructioD is manifest. ... In seasons of illness or distreea, tbey are visited by tbe 
Chaplain, at the hoEpital or at their own houses. . . . Tbe Hosi'ilal is a new and 
very commodious building. . . . The visits ot the Aputhecaiy are daily, and a 
nurse ulteudK constantly on the sick. In cases of dangcrooH illness the very best 
medioal or surgical aid is called in, without boeitation and witbont regard (o 
expense. . . . They seem to feel great confidence in tbeir Minister, and often seize 
oppoitnnities of having interounise with him ; and their nuiucrous little presents 
and Borrow at parting with him showed tbeir attachment in a moat affeuliiig 
;. . . . The portion of food allotted to them ... is so abundant, that they 

Z*yj6 ^jCiLlX iOIi ii££ rr. j« A^» i . 10..' OF IKL 

Alii- 'J .-r. r-i-. 

*re itrjA-'/.*'! It ihe s.i^.ziL:i:j xo y. v f-.r in&kin^ :L*:r •.l::;.rf. io nL:a« stock 

■• l-'J*. A.:h':-rL tLt Liitrr'o^T f ^l^iv.ii t^s a pir.: -l:.*: I r.ii at heart 
fr^rr. :.-^ ti-.l ct. \ f'..T:.e-i ':r.-: of :Lr ^irly :►.: /.:.•: :r.= ^r^ z.r.r : : ul ": k prevaile^i 
uyjr, Vj inikXTj ooco? i::.y lo :L- :!*.c^ of :":-r C:.-: . . X j srj ;:r.-.a:. m* indac«> 
iy.*-r.; »«- >ft aiisri^'i. In nij sem-.TiS, ar-i in fr-e .:•::.: >:iLniiir.:catJoxis, 
th« it-ibj'.ct "sras solenmly set before '.hein : bi: ^^r^i rr ir. 'i cb;«Fc::?r.< on their part 
•txii eziEt«4. vhicb no exhc:t^tioii5 or remor.5tracces of mine coTiid remore " [21^. 

The offer of spocial privileges to married folk led to a mitigation of 
this evil, and hy 1>:51 "nearly one half of the head^ of families " had 
been united in marriage ^22\ In the meantime, viz. in 1824, the 
Society had succeeded in accomplishing an object to which its energies 
had been directed as early as 1718 — the foundation of a Bishopric in 
Barbados. See pp. 744-752.] To the charge of this diocese, which 
then included all tiie Caribbee Islands belonging to Great Britain, and 
afterwards the Co!onv of British Guiana,* on the mainland of Bouth 
America, the Rev. \^*illiam Hart Coleridge was consecrated in 1824."^ 

His arrii-al in Barbados in January lb25 is thus described by 
an eve -witness : — 

** Xhe iiiii<iiri}( was a spectacle which I ^hall not ea:^ily forget. The ships of 
war were dnrssed. and their yards manned and salutes fired. This was pretty mud 
common ; but euoh a siffht as was presented on shore very few have ever witnessed. 
On the quay, on the wail, on boat«>. on po.-ts. on the housettp-^. through doors and 
throuffli windowA, wherever a human foot could >tand, was one ai palling mass of 
black face". As the barge paaS4-d slowly aloi:j the emotions of the multitude wece 
absolutely tremendous. They threw up their arms and waved their handkerchiefs. 
Thrry danced, and jumped, and rolled on the ground : thpy saii^. and screamed, 
and shouted, and roared, till the whole surface of the place se^-meil to be one huge 
(frin of delight. Then they brr»ke out into a thousand wild esclunui lions of joy and 
[Minbionate congratulations, uttered with such \ehemence that, new as it was then 
to me, it made me tremble, and gave me a deep sense of the nckvous irritability 
and nolent feeKngs of a people with whom I was becoming for the first time 

The 1 Sis hop set out on his first visitation on March 22, 1825, and 
visited in succession the Islands of Triiiidail, Grenada. St. Vincent, and 
St. Lucia. The Rector of St. George's, Grtimda. at that time was 
Mr. Macniuhon, a good and interesting old man. In the slave insur- 
rection of 1795 he, with miiny others, was placed in a room, previously 
to bcin<^ suiiinioned by the slaves to execution. lie saw all his com- 
panioiis taken out and shot ( iie by rne : but, having had the fortune to 
stand Li^t, ho determin<:d to Luake a bold pubh for his life. As soon 
as lie was brought out, b( inu: a tall and uncommonly strong man, he 
leaped i prm tlio Slave -General and clung round his neck so tightly 
tbat they could not force liim away for a long time. The struggle 
produced a f.ause and an enquiry as to who he was ; and when he 
was known to be the parson there was a common cry for saving his 

* IlrifiVh Guiana wtiii Aiiuoxed to the Dii>«-r-'-.o of Barbsulu'^ h\ Tetters Patent in ISSC. 

f Till' r-oiiB^fration t«'K>k place at I.uiiil>oth «>ii July i.'i. iS'Ji. 

\viiiii, rill thf I'isliop'H resiKiitituiii in 1m 11, tliu L>iiH« • nr Burbadoa was, bj his 
advic*-, rhvidi-d into tlirt'i', hr Imd tli<^ sa*<^fi(i'li<'ii <>f assifitii.;.' Innisclf, on Allgastl4, 1S49, 
in th<* (:oiib«MT<i:i<)ii iji WiiblniinHUT AM cy of liis throe Art-liilracotis: lltomoM Parryf for 
Jiarbufios ; J)auitl fiott iiard Doiia, «ir Aniiiiua; ftnd William Piereff Austin^ for 


lifp, a.a he had aJwaya been a kind and charitable man to everyone 
connected with hi» cure. 

The presence of Bishop Coleridj^e brought a blessing to the whole 
diocese. To the negroes in particular he proved a wi^e shepherd and 
true friend I22a]. Respecting those on the Codrington Estatea he 
r<'ported in 1830 that marriages were " becoming more frequent.'' 
The people appeared " healthy and cheerful, and especially in the 
newly-built atone houses " were " very comfortably provided for," and 
he added : 

" II the Society nnd their npponenls in the mother eoaotr; oould moat on 
the Fstntos ftnd witneaa the scene . . . thej would leBni on enquin/, thai the 
fHHiple were alaveB and beloneing to the Society, bat they would behold an 
indostrions and healthy body of labourers, supporlcd entirely by the Eslates, bom 
almost to a man on it, neier sold from it, but virliiatlf) attached to the soil ; with 
their village, chapel, hoiipital, iLnd school —with an excellent miniflter moving 
abuut amouf; them, and ready to inetrutt their ignorance, and roiiilort (hem in 
Bictness; under discipline, but without severity— with many enoouragemciitB to 
do what is right -with the Sundaja wholly onbroken in upon by (be master at 
their ueceaaities — with other days wholly at their own disposal— and with macb, 
which, it they availed themselveB of uieii special piivilegeB, voald place ver? 
great comfort within their power. I think the Society may and onghl to do still 
more with a view to their moral improTement ; and I [eel very strongly that the 
power of mannmitting themaehes under certain circumstances would teud very 
powerfully to promote this object. 1 do not see whnt other Uiiijiornl sliinulus you 
can apiily to the slaBt so well provided tor in every oth?r bodily respect as is the 
CortriDgton Negro" [38]. 

Previously to the receipt of this letter the Society, with a view to 
confirm and perpetuate the improvements already made in the civil 
and religious condition of the negroes, had taken measures "for the 
gradual emancipation of the slaves." In publinhiug them in 1830 its 
position and conduct as trustees were justified in a report, of which 
the following is an estrEtot : — 

" The Society . . . who feel as deeply as any part of the oommunityi the 
ditty incumbent open a ChriBtian people, to put an end not only to the odious 
traffic in slaves, by which this country was so long disgraced, but aliio to the 
great evil of slavery itself ; have of late been exposed to some obloijiiy as holders 
of West India Slaves ; and it cannot be denied that the Society ate Ti iif feti tor 
the Codrington EsiateB in Bnrlindue ; that those estates are cultivated by slaves, 
and that their produce is received by the Society for (he pnrposes of such trust, and 
expended, according to the provieions of Qeneial Godrington's will, in the support 
of Codnnglon College in that island. But surely the acceptonoe ol a trust, which 
took place more than a centuiy H«n, when the great question of Negro Hlavery 
had excited but little attention oven in the more religious part of the community, 
Is hardly to be brunj-ht forward as a charge against the present conductors of ilie 
Institution, wlio landing themselves in the character of Trustees ol West Indian 
property for n speniflc object, and that a highly beneficial one to the interests ol 
Christianity and the V.\^l India Colonies, cannot feel theniselvea al liberty to 
abandon (hat (rust, but are bonnd (o make the wisest, best, and moat Christian 
ui:e of it. 

"Throe different plans of proceeding suggest (heniselves lo persons in such a 


,t OHM enfCBiioliiw the elavea;— a step whieh 
. more eulTcriiig and crime than hava ever ;et 
been wi(neB»ed uuder the moal galling bouclii^e. 

" Ud. Or ImII;, the; ma; make provision tor their gruduBil emanaipatlan ; and 
bj Iho iatrodnction of free labour into llie ooloniea, aRord an example which 
may lead to the abolition of glaverr witbont danger to life or property. 

J* Tha Booietj have adopted the laat o( theso conracB, and notwithstanding the 
odium whioh it bus been attempted to cast upon them, thoy firmly believe that 
the circomstanco of slave-property beinR held in trust by a great religious cor- 
poration may be taade the means of conferring the most e^aential benefits npon 
the Negro population of the West Indies, and of prouioting their ultimate en- 
franc hiaemeot. 

"For wliat ia the true view ol the cwo? A very large body ol our follow 
creatureg are in a st.ite of Hlavery. To emancipate them suddenly and indiseri- 
uiinately would only be to injm* the objetls of onr just anil charitable solicitude. 
The possesBion therefore of a trust which enables the Society to take the lead in 
a BysteniKtic emaneijiation, and .sliew nlinl preparatory steps ought to be taken, 
and may be safely taken, is surely nothing of which, as men or aa Christians, 
the Society need be ashamed. If this estate had never been enlniated to their 
oare. they might, as a religioos body, have declared their opinion upon the dnty of 
IV Christian nation towards its enslaved and unenlightened subjects ; but now tbey 
have it in their power to testify that opinion by their actions. They can shew 
that the Negro is capable of instraction, for they have Instructed bini. Tbey can 
shew that be la snsoepMble of the same devotional feeling as ourselves, and ma; 
be brought under the controlling inHnenoe of the same divine laws. Again, on 
the important subject of marriage the Society might bave felt and erpressed them- 
selvea strongly withont any immediate conueiion with the slave population ; but 
the; are now able (o eombat the prejndicee of the Negro on the spot, and are 
gradually overcoming them by the arauinentB of religion and the inflnenoe of 
temporal adiantage. On the qnestiun of emancipation also the Society, aa 
Truateea of the Codrington Estates, are able not only to suKgeiit a conrse, but to 
make the trial themselves, for the satisf.iction of others : and to shew the planters 
how they may gradually enfranchise their Slaves without destruction to their pro- 
After detsiliug tbe chief provisions for the moral and religious 
iiii|irovemeDt and Ibr tbe eiouucipEition of the slaves, the report 
continues : — 

" Man; of them, it should be remembered, are now in opeiation, and the 
Society are fully pledged to oarrj the whole of them into efleot, and to adopt, 
froiu time to Liniei such farther meaanres aa may be lilcely to accelerate the com- 
plete emancipation of the Slaves. Tbey are willing to hope, that the; ma; thus 
be made an instrument of oltenBi\'e BTid permanent benelit to all classes of their 
Weat Indian fellow subjects, both by the measures nhioh the; themaolvea adopt, 
and by the exiunple afforded to utbera, of an honest endeavour to satisfy tbe 
oluinis of hunianity and religion, and to qualify tbe Slave for tbe great hlceaing 
ol freedoitl, by lessons wbleb may also prepare him for everlasting happiness in 
heaven. The Society are resolved to proceed in the discharge of their duty npon 
these principles and with these intentions, and look with humble conddence tor 
the Divine blessing upon their honest endeavours " [34J. 

The enfranchisenieiit of the Codrin^laii negroes lima already 
being accomplished when the Act of Parliament for the Abolition of 
Slavery in the West Indies was passed— a measure which relieved tbe 
Society from much iinsiety and responsibility. Allotments of land 
had been given to tbe more deserving of the negroes, on condition 
that they should provide for tbemaelves and their families out ol tlie 
produce of thi> allotment, and labour on tbe eKiate during four days 
in eauh week, by way of rent for the land. "This was in fact iin 
anticipation of the apprantlclng system, and tbe Society's terms were 
more favourable to the negroes Uian those wlucb wore settled by 
pATl/anjent •■ [2S]. 



The conversion of the West Indian slave inlo a free and industilous 
Christiftn peasant was quickly effected on the Codrington Estates, and 
the Society was enabled to set an example with respect to the 
enfianchi semen t of the negroes not nnworthy of what it had done for 
their inteUectoal, moral, and reUgioas inBtruction. It was reported in 
IS'IO " that while the labouring population on u great many estates " 
had "been waj-ward and refractory the people on tlie Society's 
estates" had been "steady manageable cheerCul and indnatriouB." 
The increasing numbers which filled the chapel, both for religious 
worship and instruction in the Sunday Schools, marked an increasing 
de&ire for moral improvement, and in the opinion of the Estates 
Manager the poputiition clearly showed "the benefit which they have 
derived from the long care and attention of the Society to their moral 
and religious wants." The Codrinyton negroes now also "came for- 
wai'd willingly and cJieerfully to assist their minister in the great work 
of religiouB instruction." 

"' They ue bnptizeJ " (ndded the Biabi)]i), " tliry livf I'lgetber iti mnrriage, they 
attend their Gli arch and SacnUDenta, thej Mnd Iheit childieii to S<:hool> the; 
coodaol tbemijelves well in their Bevi<ral relationE in lile, tliej are iodiutrioai. 
honest, ooDteiitod, and peaceable, useful In their generation, with hope through 
Christ of heaven : and toiling while on earth tor ku objeet n-hieb ia EO^ntimataly 
connected in its elTects even witli lliat ^ erj heuven to which they are looking ; for 
thej know, tliiit though the produce uF Uieir labour be seat to Knglond, it Ib not 
spcrl or squandered there, but rrtoroed to them for tho high, and holy, andbleseed 
purpose of training up in these lands, a tsitbfnl, InliorioTin, and able ministry " [3G]. 
Up to 1881 the Society's connection with the Windward Islands 
had been confined to the discbarge of its responsibilities us trnstee 
of the Codrington Estates, but a hurricane in that year led to a grant of 
£2,000 from its general fund towards the rebnilding of the chapels 
destroyed in Barbados — " an instance of timely succour never to be 
forgotten" [27]. 

With the alfolition of slavery commenced " a series of benefits of 
which it pleased God to make the Society an instrument " to the West 
Indies generally. The ^Vindwards wore among the first to share in the 
Negro InBtruction Fund [28] [pp. 194-G], with results which were 
strikingly manifest when the dav of emancipation (August 1, ISliM) 
arrived. How that day was observed in Barbados has thus been told 
by Bishop Coleridge : — 

" In uijH day — in ooe moment— was thig great measure OLiritd into eiecution. 
Eight bandied thonasnd hiuiian beings lar duwu at night as alavvs, and rose in 
the morniDg aa free as ouiselvee. It might have been expected that on snuh an 
ocoaEion there would havt^ been »ome outburst of public feeling. I was present but 
there was no gathering thiil aSeuted the public peane. There joai a gatheijng : 
but it was u gathering ol young and old together, in tlie house of the oommou 
I'nther of all. It was my peculiar happiness on that ever luemoiable day. to 
addrGEB a cougregation of nearly 4,000 persons, of whom more than 3,00(1 were 
negroes, just emaneipated. And nuch was the order, sacli the deep atleotion and 
perfect aileuce, that . . . you might hsx-e heard a pin drop. Among this mass 
o( people, of all colours, were thousands of my Mriean bretbrou, joining with 
tbeir European brother, in offering up their prayeia and thnnksgivings to the 
Father. liedeemer, and Sanutitier ol all. To prepare the minds of a ma^s o{ 
persons, BO peculiarly sitnated, for a uhange such as this, was a work requiring llie 
cietcise of great patience and altogether of a most arduous nature. And it v, ,.s 
chiefly owing to the Society tor the Piopagalion of the Gospel that that day nut 
only passed in peace, bnt was distinguished fur the proper fLtliiiu that prevaileJ 
aud its pvtfi'ct order " [S^j. 


During the first five years of tlie opemtion of tlie Negro Ii'stmction 
Fond the sittings in churches and chapels in Barbados were increased 
from 9,250 to over 21,000. Much of the good effected in this and 
other ways was due to the wise Buperintendence exercised by Bishop 
Coleridge. [See Address of Barbados Clergy on his resignation [80].] 

The Bishop's "own grateful sense of the important aid afforded 
by the Society to a Colonial Church and through the example and 
operation of such a Chiuch to the heathen around" was thus stated 
after his return to England :^ 

" There ii no Colonial Bifihop, — I eaa sjieuk for nt} srlf, after an eipertenoo 
ubrood of auLOy ji'ars.— wbo does not feel that the Bociel; is bat the almoner ol 
the Church ; that she acts, aod ctaimH bat to act in this capacitj ; that his 
aatliorit; ig gafe ia her Iiaiids ; and that there is no want of hia diocese which he 
maj not laj before the Soaiety, in the full and comfortable aesurance that it iriU 
receive every consideration, and bo relieved to the ntmost extent of Ibe Sociely's 
pecnniary resources. The iocrense of thosp resonrces— such is the position which 
the Society holds within the Church, and such its mode of operation— is but 
another word tor the eiteuHion, under the Divine blessing, of Beli(;ion itself " [31]. 

On Bishop Colekidok's resignation (1841) the Diocese of Barbados 
wae reduced by the formation of Antigua and Guiana into separate 
Bees. His successor, Bishop T. Pabby, reported in 1845 "a daily 
increasmg value of the Society generally in all its operations, as weU 
as of gratitude for the almost incalculable benefits of which it has been 
made the favoured instrument, to ourselves in particular " [32]. 

Proof of this was seen in tlie ready efforts made by the people of 
Barbados both to support the Church in their midst and to extend it 
in foreign lands- A local association was formed in connection with 
the Society in 1844, and in its first year it contributed it'lOO to the 
Society in England and £1S0 to the erection of three places of worship 
in Barbados [33]. Already in 1840 the three branches of the island 
Legislature had passed an Act in one day making provision for the 
better maintenance of the Clergy, and when it was announced that 
the Society's aid in this abject would cease, another Act was passed 
assi^ng ;£150 per annum to each of six island curates from the 
Public Treasury [84]. The Society's grant for schoolmasters in the 
diocese (at one period nearly £3,000 per annum) had been gradually 
reduced, and ceased altogether in 1846. In Grenada and St. Vincent, 
in Trinidad and in Barbados the respective Legislatures promptly pro- 
vided funds to meet the withdrawal [85]. 

On the value of the Society's help during and after negro emanci- 
pation it may be well to recall Bishop Parry's words in 1846 : — 

"It may justly he said that the praise of tliie Society 'is inall the Churohes' ol 
all the ColoDlsa of the West Indies. . . . We have many debts . . - to the Imperial 
Government ... the different Colonial LsRislaturea — to private liberality and 
volnntary aBBOoiationa in the Colonics ... to various other Fiaoletiea . . . bnt tbe 
great channel throngh which we have received voluntary aid from England sinoo 
the eKlirpatioD of slavery has been that opened np lo us by this eicellent Society. 
This institution has been to us, indeed, not one Society, but many : it has been to 
ua a Church MisHionary Society, by extendinf; the limits ot our Church ; a Ohoroh 
Bailding Society, by enlarging and multiplying onr plooea of worship; an 
Eduoation Sooidy. by adding to and supporting oar Schools ; a Pastoral-Aid 
Sooiolj, by aajjplying us with oatechiats oad readers ; an Additional Coratet 
Society, by adding lo the number of our Clergy. In every i!»j that we needed its 
help, in every way. at Ipiint. Ihat was practicable, it has come forwnrd lo our 
----■ ?. with a liheralitj limited only by the extent of ila meiins. . . . Since 



1831 . . . wiltiiD the iliocese ol BarbFWliM alone thenamWotalenijhuinoreaEed 
troui 42 to 1)7 ; of ceciorita eiiJonud bj Ibe dillereat Cotoaial LegiHlsturea from 20 
to2'J; of curacies lacall; provided tor [rom 6 lo 31. ■ . . There h&B been also ... a 
pruportioDitleiDcieafte in the numbHr of Schools and Sohuolhouses. . . . The great 
and charocteriBtic beneilt ot this Society's co-operation is thai it has been 
in^omental in BCimulnlmg the Colonists to make this proTision " [itfij. 

The general Misaionary opertttiona of the Society in tlie Windwunl 
latuTide were auspended in 1849. At that time the Diocese of Barbados, 
wliiuli then included Triniditd and Tobago, waa more or less indebted 
to the Society for 45 of its 73 clergymen [87], As a " suitable com- 
momoratioti of the Society's benefits" and in comiection witli its 
jubilee of ItSfll an aaaociation waa organiaed in Barbados! for the 
iliffusion of C'bi'Jslianity in West Africa, through the agency of native 
Afrioana, with the declared purpose of making aome amends to that 
country for the wj'ongs inflicted upon it by England and her Colonies. 
The Aseooiation has since been adopted generally in the Weat Indies, 
and au account of its operationa ia given on pages 260-7 [88]. 

In 1854 Biahop Parry reported that 
" Chuwhra, Cliupela, aud Bohoolhoiises. erected or enlarged thronehout Iha 
Diocese, with . ■ . paisonagea . ■ . the number ot Clergj considerablj' increased, 
oongregatiiins augmented and DiQltiphod, schools in many cases founded, id 
□the rs improved, are the Tieible memorials of the Society's inunifioeni^e during a 
lime uf great urgenoy and import-tiice, aud ot almost equal diOlcultj . . . whilst in 
the management ot the Codriiigton Tcuat, it has oontinacd all aloof;, only with 
increasing effect, to assist in the work of education and in the supply of cundidatoB 
(or Holy Orders to an extent and in a manner which othenvlne, Ju all human 
l>robability, would have been found altogether impraeticable " [^-t'.lj. 

It waa not anticipated that the Sodety would again be called upon 
to conLriljLiiu tiiwarda the support of the Church in tlie Windward 
lalanda otherwiae than through Codrington College and the Estates 
Chaplaincy. But wliile State aid has been continued to Barbados, ia 
[he other islands the Chuiuh haa been disestablished and partially 
or wholly disendowed. For these, under their changed circumstances 
[which neceidsitated their organisation into a separate Diocese [named 
" the Windward Islands") in 1878], the Society since 1884 has made 
such provision as haa served to prevent the abandonment of much 
good work [1(1]. 

1888 1900. 

The witbdniwa! of Slatti aid from the diocese of " the Windward 
Islands " elicited considerable self-support, but with the depression of 
the sugar industry the people became unequal to tlie maintenance of 
Iheir Church and pastors. One clergj-man in IStXi more than onoe 
found himself, pending the arrival of the Society's aid, "without a 
penny for a wcek't subsistence beyond the Sunday offertory of an 
average of less than tour ahiliings " [41]. 

By the huniLune whifh visited the Windwai-da in Stptember 1898 
Ihe Colony of St. Vincent was reduced to a stale of indescribable 
panperitm— 80,000 of the population were left sick and dcstitate liiie 
helpless children, some beii g diiven to living in cellars, eaves, and 
empty barrels, and Ihe loss to Churcli of F.nglund property amounted 
to £-20,000. St. Lucia and Grenada also sufiered severely. 

For the rebuilding of churches and schools, aud the relief of diatresa 
generally, the Society opened a special fund (which realised £600) 
and contributed £750 for the ruatoration of buildings in St. Vincent 
and St, Lucia, but the poverty of the people in St. Vincent is still 
deplorable [12]. 

The illnesa of Bishop Bree and his death (at Brighton) on Feb- 
ruary 2(), 1899, added to the troubles of the Church at this period. 
Like bis predecessor, Rishop Mitchinson,* Dr, Bree (who was con- 
secrated at Lambeth May 1, 1882) had clmrye of the diocese of the 
^\'indwai:d Islands also —a, charge which he resigned iu 1897, but 
resumed in the same year on being encouraged by additional aid (for 
Clergy) from the Society, which also gave £500 (in 1900) towards 
endowing that Bishopric [43], 

During Bishop Bree's episcopate three important measures. 
initiated m the Dioce'^an Church Council of Barbados, were made 
law by the Legislature : (1) making better provision for the diocipliiie 
of the clergy of the island ; (2) declaring the statuij of the curates, 
designating vicars, and defining their distnots ; (U| establishing a dean 
and chapter for the Cathedral Church of St. Michael. In 1891 
provision was made under the Pension Act for the retirement of 
incapacitated cleric, and the salary of future rectors of Bt, Michael's 
was fixed at £500. In the same year St, Uiohael's was the scene of 
the consecration of Bishop Hohnc, of Honduras, this boing the 
ilrst instance of the consecration of an Anglican Bishop in the 
West Indies. 

About three years earlier, for the fii'.st tinn^ in the history of 
Barbados, a coloated curate was presented to one of the rectories. 
This drew forth a protest, but Bishop Bree, who presented, remaining 
firm, opposition soon ceased, and the parish found that it had been 
given an able priest. The "colour prejudice," however, diminishes 
but slowly in the island, and tt may be long before a parish ceases to 
prefer having a white clergyman aud to regard it as an indignity if 
one is not secured. Happily in Codrington College coloured students 
find an institution iu which it has been an honourable distinction that 
they should not be placed at any disadvantage. 

The College has been the central point round which all the Society's 
efi'orts for the evangelisution of the West Indian islands — by raising 
up a native ministry— have for so many years revolved. The variations 
of trade and the depreciation of the sugar industry have seriously im- 
paired the usefulnesij of this noble Institution ; and although the BtaS 
was reduced and the remainlngt members loyally accepted a reduction 
of stipends, the Society, in 1898, was driven to take steps for the closing 
of the College until a sufficient annual income could again be aisBurcd 
from the Trust Estates [44] , Happily such a calamity was averted by 
" the West Indian Committee "—an influential body in London repre- 
sentative of the interetits of the West Indies— which raised £1,940, a 
sum suflicieut to enable the College to be continued [45]. Under the 

* ConMciuted in CanterbiUT C&thednl in 167S. resigned 1( 

t A retired [irincinftl of tbe Collegia, Uie Ren. W. f. Webb (whu diet] in ISSO), Tnlan 

t A retired [irinciiiU ol tbe CoUegi^, Uie Ken. W. T. Webb (whu died in I8S 
tririly inrrsodered ft fifth of Ub penaiou from the ColWe limdB,iii conMquen 
icpreued eUM of the tanSa d1 tne iottitiitiou liia,]. 


! the I 


managtmtnt of a new aUumey (Mr. E. L. HoUinsed), the estatp-a in , 
1900, for the first time for eeveraJ years, iDstead of being worked at a 
loBs, showed a handsome profit [46a]. 

Whatever might have been the (ate of the College during the hard 
times, the Society had resolved to tuaiiitain tfae Estates' Chaplaincy. 
Since 1891 the post has been filled by the Rev. V. Oilbertson, to the 
great spirilual advantage of the coloured population living on the 
estates and of many others who atteii'l the services at the College 
chapel. It was due to his re pre dentations, in the first instance, that 
the Society in 1891-92 took measures for enlarging and improving the 
dwellings of the labourers on tiie estates. For lack of this a system 
of overcrowding had grown up and produced serious evils, of which 
the Society had been kept in ignorance. Whatever may be the difii- 
colties in introducing the necessary reforms in the island generally, 
the Society is determined to perform its duty as landlord, and in this 
respect, as In the emancipation of the negro, it is taking the lead ia 
" a more excellent way " [46]. 

It may be added here that tbe trust property ia situated in St. 
■lohn's parish, about fourteen miles from Bridgetown. " Codring- ] 
ton's," now known as " the Society liatate," comprises 
3.45a. 3r. Up." on high land, and "'Conaett's," now called the 
"College Estate," 438a. 2r. 35p.t below the cliff, and running 
down to the sea, with some rich land and valuable pasture, but much 
that is rocky and comparatively unproductive [see p. ^<i'2a]. 

In 1896 the Society appointed Commissioners to inquire into the 
existing and future financial prospects of the estwtea. Their report j 
showed that " the Society Estale" of 244 acres of arable land wat.f 
"in a high state of cultivation," the buildings, machinery, and live i 
stock were in "good condition," showing great care taken of them, I 
and the continuance of cultivation was recommended. The " College ' 
Estale" is a most laborious one to cultivate, having but little fiat ' 
land— here tbe oane cultivation had been reduced to tl3 acrep. For- i 
tunately this estate has other resources, noiably " muujak," a kind of j 
pitch which is used for fuel, and the development of which was 
undertaken by Mr. W. Merivale under an agreemeut( and a lease ' 
from the Society. Considering the financial results for the twenty' 
years IHIG-QQ the Commissioners were of opinion that " the estates 
have done remarkably well, and show great care and skill in conduct- 
ing them." 

Since 1804 cattle -rearing on tbe estates has been adopted as an 
auxiliftry source of profit, and the cuUivatioQ of cocoanuts, aloes, and 
fibres has been introduced. Sugnr-growing, however, -s said to be 
the only industry which can be pursued with a chance of profit, and at 
the same time furnish employment for the lajge population located on 

* 4a. at. U3p. IHB used m plajEioniidg lot the school tad the clmjut burial ground 
uid 4a, li. BTp. are rented with "tbe Lodge School," "The Lodiio School " niu leuedto 
the BarbadoB EduuitioD Board in 18B1, (or 60 jean, at a nominal cexxl. 

i OEthis estalfl l»a. Sr. Sip. are the Culteg" gmandg, I3a, Or. Sip, ue glebe mid 
banal ground of St. Miirk'i Church, Hnd laia. 8r. 31]', niv »b hind, lomo of w" ' '" ' 

I AgHcmeutin IBS? andleate ia lalH). Tlie leaee was asi<ij{aed iby Mr. Merivkle > to 
■ coiuuony in lEO'J, Under its tenni the Sooietj rcceivei ane leiitb ol tb« giou oJ tb 



the estates, who are in fact renters of the land on the condition that 
the Society givr s them regular work to do [47]. 

The trust funds for the endowment of the Finder and Gheadle 
Scholarships, at Codrington Ck)llege, having been lost by investment 
in the ** Guinea" Plantation, Barbados, the Society replaced the 
amounts (;^1,400 Finder Scholarships and £850 Gheadle Scholar- 
ship) by an endowment grant from the Marriott bequest in 1900, the 
capital to be held by the Society in England [48]. 

The successor of Bishop Bree is Bishop Swaby, translated from 
Guiana in 1900 [49]. 

(For Statistical Summary see p. ^X) 



Tobago (area, 114 saaare mileB) was discovered by Colnmbns in 1498, claimed by the 
Britiah in 1580, visited in 1625 by adventurers from Barbados (whose attempts at 
settlement were defeated by the natives — Caribs), granted to the Earl of Pembroke by 
Charles I. in 1628, but first settled in 1632 by the Dutch, who about 1684 were destroyed 
or expelled by the Indiana and Spaniards from Trinidad. A second settlement was 
formed in 1642, under the Duke of Courland (the ruler of an independent State in the 
Baltic, to whom the island was assigned by Charles I. in 1641) ; a third in 1654 by the 
Dutch, who overpowered the Courlanders in 1658. In 1662 Louis XIV granted it to 
Cornelius Lampsis ; but the Courland title was renewed by Charles II. in 1664 and by 
Louis about 1677, various changes of ownership having taken place meanwhile 
(1664-77) between the Dutch, English, and French. In 1681 the Duke assigned his 
title to a Company of London Merchants. By the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle the island 
was declared neutral in 1684 ; and by the Treaty of Paris in 1763 it was ceded to 
England ; but tlie French regained possession by coiKiuest in 1781 and by treaty in 1788. 
Re^ptured by the British in 1798, restored to the French by treaty in 1802, and re- 
taken in 1808, eventually " the land had rest " by formal cession in perpetuity to the 
British Crown in 1814. Tobaj^o was formerly reckoned as one of the Windward Islands; 
but in January ]H89 it was united with the colonv of Trinidad. 

In common with the other islands formerly included in the Diocese 
of Barbados, Tobago began in 1835-6 to receive assistance from the 
Society's Negro Instruction Fund [1]. [See pp. 194-5.] The first clergy- 
man aided from this source in the island was the Bev. G. Morbibon, 
and here as elsewhere the benefits of the fund were soon apparent. 

The Bishop of Barbados reported in 1848 that ** the bounty of the 
Society expended in Tobago " had ** produced an abundant harvest." 
As an instance a grant of £^483 towards the erection of St. Patrick's 
School Chapel drew from the Legislature of the island over £2,200 for 
the same object in 1848, and in the next year the island, which had 
formed one cure only, was divided into three parishes, of which 
St. Patrick's was constituted one [2]. Beside? making provision from 

TOBAGO. 207 

the Colonial Treasury for a rector (£820 per annum) and curate (£176 
per annum), the Legislature assisted in maintaining the schools, and 
** otherwise aided Uberally in extending the Church Establishment 
to meet the demands of advancing civilisation " [8]. 

The people showed tbeir appreciation of the provision thus made 
by flocking to the churches and joining ''with great decorum and solem- 
nity" in the services [4], 

The population of Tobago, though neither numerous nor wealthy, 
were in the habit of contributing '* to the maintenance of its Cburch 
more in proportion than any other part of the Diocese *' of Barbados, 
Trinidad excepted; and this fact, coupled with the distress caused 
by a hurricane which dismantled half of the sugar estates on the 
island in 1848, was recognised by a continuance of the Society's aid 
to 1858 [6]. 

The withdrawal of State aid constituted a fresh claim on the Society, 
and from 1886 to the present time assistance has been renewed from 
year to year. Without this help the Church in Tobago must have 
collapsed ; and even with it, *' the whole island with its twelve 
churches*' remained for some time under the care of only three 
clergymen [6]. 


The failure of the sugar industry has rendered necessary a con- 
tinuance of the Society's nid. The poverty and misery of the people 
has been extreme; numbers, owing to poor and ^insufficient food, 
having become afflicted with *' yaws,'' a horrible skin disease which is 
worse than leprosy. The Bishop of Trinidad, to whose charge Tobago 
was transferred in 1889, reported in 1894-95 that without the Society's 
aid the Anglican Church in the island *'must have perished," or 
" been absorbed in other religious bodies, especially the Roman 
Church, which, owing to our desperate straits, has been making 
strenuous efforts at }>roselytising, often in an unworthy manner, and 
by means of falsehood, which often makes way with simple people. 
You [the Society] and you alone have delivered the Church from this 
catastrophe, and, after God, to you all thanks are due." 

The population of Tobago (20,000) includes representatives of 
many races — Chinese, East Indians, French- Creoles, Spaniards, 
Venezuelans, &c. — but the bulk of the people are West Indians, who 
are deeply attached to the Anglican Church. Though unable to pay 
Church dues to any appreciable extent, many of them bring eggs, 
vegetables, and now and then a chicken by way of payment. About 
one-half of the whole population are members of the Church of 
England* [71 

{Fur StatUticcU Summary see p. 269.) 

* From the recent introdnction of the cultivation of cocao and CastiUon elastica into 
ttie island a return to moderate prosperity may be expected in a few years. 




TBanjiiB wne aincovared by oii Trinity aiiurUy 1<98— hsnne it> aams. 
Its talonlsntion by Spiiiu begtin about tSJ3. but little progreaii vaa mule until 178S), fflivn 

they professed the Roaua Catholio roligiou. Tha result nu a largo iocroiue of popula- 
tion, incluiiing many refogees from Ibe Fren.'h Rerolation, driven (rom 3t, Domingo 
nnd other pnia. During the wu with Spain in 17S7 Trimilad wu tuken by the British 
nod held m o. militut? oouqai'gt until lao:!, vhen it via ceded to England by the Tieuty 
of Amlena. 

Tkihidad began to receive aid from the Society's Negro Instrootion 
Fond [sea pp. 194-5] in 1886. At that time there was " only one 
clergyman besides the Garrison Chaplain for the whole ialnnd " [1]. 
In addition to grants for chnroh and i^chool buildings and lay teachers, 
clergymen" were assis^led by the Society from time to time [2] until by 
1856 it was possible to leave the work to be L'arried on by local effort. 
The beneficent results of this expenditure are to a great extent indi- 
cated ill the general descriptioii given under the Diocese of Barbados, 
of which until 1872 Trinidad formed a part. 

Beyond what is stated on pages 203-6 there is nut much to record 
on this head. Mr. La Trobe, the Government Inspector, reported 
111 183li that nearly all " that had been " effected hitherto towards the 
diffusion of religious ednoation among the labouring population of 
" Trinidad" was to be " attributed to the labours of the clergy and Mis- 
sionaries in connection with the Church of England and to tlie agency 
of the Mioo Charity" [8]. 

The Bishop of Barbados in 1848 " was forcibly struck with the 
great results which had sprung from the comparatively small seeds sown 
by the Society." To four cburcheH consecrated in that year the Society 
had contributed i.'200 in each instance, which had been met by nearly 
i'T.OOO from other sources [4]. " I expected much from Trinidad " 
(the Bishop added in 1844), " and have not been disappointed ; there is 
a noble spirit throughout all classes connected with oar Charch, from 
the Governor downwards, and a great desire ... to make the country 
. , . what it should be in a social point of view " [5]. 

In 1843 an ordinance was passed by tlie " Comicil of Government " 
for dividing the island into seventeen parishes, securing a. stated provi- 
sion for the clergy already appointed, and for others as parishes were 
formed [6]. While this provision was being mads a fresh call arose, 
on behalf of the cooties who were being introduced from India and 
(.^liina. The local Association of tha 8ociety in Triuiilad led the way 
by appeaUng tirst to the inhabitants. 

migration propaily couduoleil." thej smA, " that is to Bay on Christiiiu 
a Cbriatiiui spirit— Trinidnd may lio a Miisionari/ cou; 
to muUitudsB from the darknosa and misery ol heathen 

1 theiu and rram tham perhaps b 

By 1862 there were about 15.000 natives of India and 1,000 
Chinese in the ialaud. The Bishop of Barbados joined in moving the 
cleri;y and laity to " regard the conversion of these heathen within 
their several parishes as part »( the work which Divine Providence has 
given them to do." With this ohjeot a local " Missionary Association " 
was established, and the Society showed its " sympathy and good will " 
... by a grant of £100 m 1862 [8]. The formation of Trinidad into a 
separate diocese in 1872 (towards the episcopal endowment of which 
the Society gave £500 in 1876 [9] |, and the appointment of the Rev. R. 
Rawle, an old Missionary of the Hociety, as its first Bishop, led to in- 
creased exertions on behalf of the coolies. FhmdH for extL-nding the 
work were offered by the Society in 1873 [lOJ, but there was some delay 
in obtaining a Missionary acquainted with the native languages [11}. 
lii 1878 baptisms of coolies were taking plai'e " almost weekly." and 
the last month of tint vear showed a total of 6(1, including 18 adult 
Chinfti^e and »9 adult Hindus [12]. 

The Rev. 0. Flex of Chola Nai^'pore joijied the Mission in 18H4, 
and with his Indian experience did miich to further the work [18]. " In 
rapid succession one plaut; after another was occupied." On visiting 
a depot for Hindu convicts at Carreras (a separate island), to s^e an 
inquirer for baptism, the chief warder brought fifteen men " who all 
gave in their names for baptism," and it was soon understood that 
every Hindu convict who came there joined the Missionary's class. 
The Carreras movbmenc was instrumental in opening the doors of the 
central jail in Trinidad to Mr. Fles, and in a short time he had a class 
of from forty to fifty there. So far as it was not occupied by the Pres- 
byterians "the whole island " indeed was open to the Church for coolie 
work [14]. 

In IfiHQ Mr. Flex and in 1888 Bishop Eawle retired from biling 
health [15], but under the pres?nt Bishop (Dr. Hayes, cons. 188fl) the 
work has been revived and extended with increased aid from the 
Society [161. 


The chief Mission centre.s established are at Pott of Spain, Tuna- 
puna, Savana tirande, and C'edros. In Port of Spain the presence of 
considerable numbers of East Indiana (Hindus and Mohammedans), in 
the Colonial Hospital, Royal Gaol. Carreras Convict Depot, House of 
Hefuge, Leper Asylum, and a Convalescent Home, affords an oppor- 
tunity fur evangelisation which is being made the most of. In Savuiia 
Grande, a district containing a large East Indian population, by the 
great and devoted labours of Archdeacon Trotter schools and Mis- 
sion stations have been established over more than one hundred sijuare 
miles of country. In season and out of season he lives and works 
among the heathen, and even where he has not yet succeeded in con- 
verting he is admired and respected. The tendency of the East 
Indians in Trinidad is to remain there instead of returning to India. 
They have their own temples, and some worship trees and five. 
Already their number has increased to 90,000, and the conversion uE 

209a dooiETY fob thb pbopagation of thb gospel. 

those previously in the island is temporarily checked by the infusion 
of a fresh heathen and Mohammedan element in the population, 
about 2,000 immigrants arriving annually. The good effect of the 
Mission schools is seen in the fact that parents are being led by their 
children to receive Christian teaching [17]. 

With a view to obtaining a supply of agents acquainted with the 
languages of the coolies, a Hindi Readership (since suspended) was 
established at Codrington College, Barbados, in 1891 [18], and by this 
and by other means adopted in Trinidad a native ministry has been 
begun, the first fruits being the Rev. C. Ragbir, ** a polished Hindoo," 
who is ^'winning many to Christ," and building up a great centre 
of Mission work among his fellow-countrymen [19], and the Rev. 
Edward Ramprasad Dube. The latter is the son of a Brahmin 
priest, and had been under training to succeed his father in that 
occupation when he came under the influence of the Mission [20]. 
[See p. 600A;.] 

Without the Society's help the Coolie Mission, Bishop Hayes says, 
" could never even have attempted anything more than the feeblest 
efforts,*' and "it is to S.P.G. all thanks and credit are due for what- 
ever under God we are doing " [21]. 

The island at this period (1894-5) suffered terribly from a visitation 
of yellow fever. For some time not a smile was to be seen on any face, 
and each man greeted his friend as if it were the last time they would 
meet. Four devoted English clergymen were among the victims, but 
the Bishop found no difi&culty in filling the vacant places, the very 
perils of the climate having moved several men to offer their services 
in the emergency [22]. 

The work of the Church in Trinidad is specially difficult, the 
people being scattered in almost inaccessible villages, and the Bishop 
expressed himself in 1897 as lost in admiration of his clergy and 
thankful for such workers. 

Their difficulties are increased by " the most bitter and vulgar 
animosity " evinced against them by many of the Roman Catholic 
clergy. Nevertheless, the Anglican Church is daily taking stronger 
hold on the affections of the people [23]. 

The Anglican Church in Trinidad, although disestablished, has 
the financial advantage, under a system of concurrent endowment, of 
receiving considerable contributions from the revenue of the island 
towards its maintenance. By this means the work among the Creoles 
has been carried on in recent years without the Society^s aid, with the 
exception of a new Mission on the north coast (comprising Toco, Trois 
Roches, and Grand Riviere, for which assistance was granted in 1897), 
and where maby of the people are Church immigrants from Tobago. 
This little *'out-of- the- world Mission can show solid and happy 
results" [24]. 

TllINIDAD. 2096 

During his visits to England Bishop Hayes has placed the Society 
under the deepest obligations, by advocating its claims and, at the 
same time, refusing to accede to a proposal that he should establish a 
special Association, or to accept contributions for his diocesCi unless 
they were sent to the Society for the pnrpose [25]. 

{Far SttUiMtical Summary tee p. 369l) 



ioQere in 1705, and £10 for a Mission Library at St. Christopher's in 
1714 [5]. 

By the will of General Oodringtoa the Society became entitled to 
a part of tlio island of Barbuda,* hut the elaima of the executor, 
Lieut, -Gol. William Codrington, led to a " dispute and trouble," anil 
while the matter was being considered " the French made a descent " 
on the island in 1711. "took off all the Negroes, being 164. most of the 
Stock, and demoliaheil the Castle "t [7]. 

For several years subsequent to 1711 the Society used ita efforts to 
obtain from the Crown a grant of the Charch Lands which had hoeii 
taken from the French in the island of St. Christopher, the proposal 
being "that the said lands and poBsessiona be vested in the said 
Society and that so much of the revenues thereof as shall remain after 
the provision made for licens'd and approved Ministers in that Islaiui, 
be applied for or towards the maintenance of two Bishops, one to be 
settled in the Islands and the other on the Continent of His Majesty's 
Dominions in America." Qaeen Anne stated that she " would be very 
glad to do anything " that might " be of advantage to the Society " in 
regard to the lands ; but in her successor's time the matter came to be 
dealt with by the " Lords of the Treasury," ;md from their dealings 
the Society derived no benefit [8], 

It was not till 1821 that the Society was enabled to socurt) the 
estahhshment of the Episcopate in the ^^'l:st Indies. The Leeward 
Islands were then included in the Sob of Barbados. Up to 1834 little 
had been done for the evangelisation of the slaves. The Bev. James 
Cnrtin had been sent to Antigua by the Society for the Conversion of 
the Negroes in 1817-16, hut the parochial Clergy supported by the 
eolonisls wei-e few in immber, and their ministrations " were almost 
nxcIuBively confined to the white population " [9]. The people of 
Antigua, however, led the way in freeing the slaves. The Eman- 
cipation Act passed in England in 18S4 allowed an " apprenticeship " 
to precede the complete freedom of the slaves, but the Antigua 
Assembly had decreed six months before (i.e. on Feb. 18,1834) that 
" Fi:om and after the first day of August i8B4 slavery shall be and is 
hereby utterly and for ever aboUshed and declared unlawful, within 
this colony and its dependencies " [Da]. Grants were made from the 
S.P.G. Ne^ro Instruction Fund for Church and School Buildings to the 
amomit of ii:'3,210 in 183-5 [10], and within two years seven clergymenj 
were being supported bv the Society in the Leeward Islands. Those 
islands continued to enjoy their " fair share " of the Negro Instnictinn 

* Eit»ct fnim Oeiisml Codiint.'toa'fl Will (duted Psiiniuy 33. ITOS^udmade knoMU 
iiilTIl):— "leiTBtuiilhuqooath to nij said kLonman" [Li.!Ut-Colooel Willjwn Codrins- 
loii] . . . "luUf toy EatntB of Bai'budn. . . . I gire and bMooath unto my Friends 
ColoDel Mlchuil Liuabert uid Win. Human, one eighth part ol tny iMlnnd Bnrbnda tli« 
remaining port of my Estate in the said Iiland Igiv-etotfaei afarernenlian'd Socit 


" [BJ In JTIfl the inland i 

ui'tuullT obtained poeMSeioD ot its ahate ie 
would Wo bean of little Ta1u<^ [inil IImk 

d have be«u ijikiin 

lu CodringtoQ. 
imb, Domioioa, 1S81I ; T. Ctarku, Ajitieu, ISSO ; J. Ujtht.u, Vic^lr 
SU; J.H.NnrK. St. Chnatophei'B (or at. Killa), ISSti : H. N. Pbillipa, Moiit 
' ' " ' «, UontBenat. IBBT ; F. B. Ctruit, Antigua, 188T. 


Fund while it lasted [11], and gradually from 18-10 the Bnpport of the 
work thuB created waa readily undertaken by the local Legislatures, Id 
1842 the Islands were formed into a separate diocese under the name 
of Antigua. The first BiBliop. Dr. Davis, arrived in 1848 to find his 
people suffering from the effects of an "awful earthquake" which bad 
caused great destruction to Church property. Notwithstanding this 
calamity one of the firet acts of the Biabop was to commence an 
organised system of contributions to the Society — by forming district 
Associations — " not alone on the ground of the wide spread good the 
Society had done and waa doing, out on the duty of evincing grati- 
tude for what it had done within the . . . diocese in increasing the 
accommodation iu cburclies, in building sohoolhoiises and ohapel- 
flchools in furnishing ministers, catechists, schoolmasters and mis- 
tresses " [12]. In the midst of the efforts to repair its own lossei! the 
diocese remitted nearly £50 to the Society in 1845 [13j. 

In 1846 Bishop I>aviB, who had ministered in the West Indies 
since his ordination in 1812, declared that the change which he had 
seen daring that time was " as light from darloiess." He remembered 
" a condition of tlie grossest ignorance and deepest moral degradation. 
. The slaves were, for the most part, left in a slate of practical heathen- 
ism i^the baptism of their children was neglected, and marriage was 
actually forbidden among them." He, when a simple presbyter, waa 
the first who dared to piibhsh tfaehanus of marriage between two negro 
bond-sei'vants. Such was the state of public feeling at tiiat time, " that 
indignation and alarm were almost universal," the authorities inter- 
fered, and "the marriage was prohibited." Mr. Davis appealed to Eng- 
land, the local decision was reversed, and just a year alter the original 
publication of the banna he " had the happiness to perform the first 
marriage ever solemniitcd between slaves " there [14]. 

Satisfactory too was the progress made in the Danish Islands of St. 
Croix and St. Thomas. At his first visit there in 1844 the Diahop 
confirmed over 700 persons, and iu the church there were 896 com- 
niuuicants. The members of the Engliali Church iu the Danish 
Islands then numbered 7,9S8^" a fuU third of the entire population " 
— and this, coupled with the fact that the English language was 
"exclusively taught in the schools," hastened the emancipation of the 
slaves [14ol By an Ordinance of the King of Denmark about lWi8 
the English Church iu these two islands was formally placed under 
the judsdiction of the Bishop of Antigua, and at his visitation in 
that year— the first since the total abolition of slavery— the Bishop 
consecrated the Church of All Saints in St. Thomas. Few instaucea 
can be shown of a deeper interest in the cause of religion than 
was manifested in the erection of this ohui'ch. In 1847 thr oim- 
gregfttioD, mostly poor people, united in laying by each a sum of 
not less than .W. and not exceeding Is. a week. In about a. year's 
time iS2,000 were thus collected. A general appeal throughout the 
island brought ,§4, 500 more. The building wiis then begun. One of 
the vestrymen superintended its erection. Another friend furnished tlie 
stone at a cheap rate. It was brought down from the quarry upon Ihe 
heads and shoulders of tlie negroes, " who to the niunber of 800 or 400 
worked during the moonlight of the fine months." The ma!=on8 and 
carpenters gave up a portion of their weekly wages, and " the womiu 




added their mite in oairryiiig stone and mortar." The planters lent 
stock for the purpose of carting. In addition to other kinds of aid 
;^8,000 were raised and expended [15]. 

The death of Bishop Davis on Oct. 25, 1857 [16] was soon followed 
by that of his successor, Dr. S. J. Bigaud (cons. 1858), who was carried 
off by yellow fever in 1859 [17] ; but the next Bishop, Dr. W. W. 
Jackson (cons. 1860) held office thirty-five years. Up to 1868 the 
Diocese of Antigua enjoyed " all the privileges of a &irly endowed 
Church ** [18], the Society *s aid having been so managed as to draw out 
increased local support. As an instance of this, a grant of £100 per 
annum to Montserrat in 1860 was met by a vote of £180 per annum 
from the Legislature, " and when three years and a half afterwards the 
Society's allowance was reduced to £50 they had learned to feel the 
value " of the Missionary, "and the vote was raised to £180 " [19]. 

** The people of the island '* (wrote the Bev. J. Shervington in 1864) '*more 
than of any other that I know of entertain for the Church of England a deep- 
rooted afifection, and, in the majority of cases, this is of an intelligent type. They 
are members of our Church, not heoause they are brought up in her communion 
BO much as because they believe they are likely to receive more good from her 
ministrations than those of any other. 

" The negroes, in fact, often give this as a reason for their preference and 
attachment for our diurch. There is, therefore, much to encourage a minister 
labouring among Uiem ; but there is also, from the nature of the case, much to 
discourage. It is quite true, as we often hear, that the negro is impulsive. They 
are easily affected by a sermon, and I have seen many of them in tears as they 
approach the altar on our Conmiunion Sundays. Hence, I think, the large 
number of our communicants. One is thus tempted to hope that the good work is 
going on among them ; but there is the old truth, ' the devil cometh and taketh 
away the word out of their hearts. . . .* The negro is also said to be superstitious ; 
and this, too, is in the main correct. The hold which the old superstitions of their 
fathers has opon them can only be discovered by acquaintance with their character, 
and by great watchfulness on the part of their minister. The belief in charms and 
spsUs, and in the power of their enemies to injure, still influences them.'* 

This waa written at a time of extreme distress in the island, yet 
" notwithstanding the general depression the weekly offertory was still 
continued," and it does not appear to have *' ever occurred to them 
that the offertory ought to be discontinued " [20]. 

In the previous year the claims of the West Indian Mission to West 
Africa had been brought before them, and from distances of several 
mQes, and under unfavourable circumstances, the people flocked to the 
liissionaiy meeting. Not a single white person was present, and 
£6 was collected from those who during their period of slavery " were 
almost as badly off as their African brethren in respect of tlie means 
of grace " [21]. 

The same laudable spirit has been generally shown throughout the 
diocese. Poor at all times, the poverty of the people has been fre- 
quently intensified by earthquake and hurricane, and in 1868 they were 
called to make further sacrifices on behalf of their Church, then 
brought face to fB.ce with " disendowment," or, more strictly speak- 
ing, the withdrawal of State aid. In that year the Imperial Act, 
authorising the grant from the Consolidated Fund, which had been 
in operation for forty-four years, was repealed, allowances being 
reserved only to then existing incumbents during their tenure of 
office. Under instructions from the Colonial Office, the Acts by 


which the onraoiee had beeu endowed by the looal legislatures 

were not suffered to be renewed as, one by one, they expired ; and 
finally, in 1874, in the several islands. Acts were passed nnder com- 
pulsion to disestablish the Chnroh, vested interests being respected only 
so far as the stipends of the Glei^were concerned, and all allowances 
for the expenses of public worship, the payment of the subordinate 
officers of the Church, and the maintenftnoe of the fabrics being at 
once swept away. The diocese nobly responded to the call made upon 
it. Nevertheless, "in the first instance " (to quote Bishop Jackson's 
words) " it would have been impossible, in the impoverished condition 
of the Leeward Islands, to supply vacancies ... if the Society, to 
whose bounty some of these cases owed their original formation, had 
not stepped in and saved them from collapse " [22]. 

The value of the Society's help during the critical trial of the 
withdrawal of State aid is well illustrated in the case of the united 
parishes of St. Philip and St. Stephen, Antigua. When Archdeacon 
Clark' went there in 1876 the income received by his predecessor was 
withdrawn. Dissent was rife, and Dissenters wore tlie only people who 
hadbeen trained to give. The Wesleyansbadpredioted.on tfaedisestab- 
Ushment of the Church, that they would live to see St. Philip's used 
as a yam-store. Everyone expected the overthrow of the Church in 
the country districts. But gradually tbe annual vohmtary oontribu- 
tiouB were increased from £16 (in 1875) to over £°204 in 1892, fully 
two-thirds of these contributions coming from the labouring classes.t 
" Bat this fight could never have even been attempted apart from the 
help derived from the S.P.G., and were that help withdrawn the work 
would suffer a total collapse, and all the results of these years of 
vexing toil would be thrown away." 

Id 1894 it was recorded that " since disondownient there has not 
been given up a single parish that we had when it took place " [28]. 

Of the Clergy in the English islands all except one have now, 
from deaths or resignations on pension, been thrown on the voluntary 
contributions of their flocks, assisted by umual grants from the 
Society. In the foreign islands the churches have always been sus- 
tained on the voluntary system, escepting in St. Thomas, which, being 
a consular station, the Hector of All Saints' receives from tlie Foreign 
Office a small allowance as British chaplain; and in Saba and 
St. Barts, which receive £100 and £88 per annum from the Dutch 
and the French Governments respectively [21]. 

The permanence of the Bishopric was secured by the wisdom and 
self-denial of Bishop Jackson, who, when obhged by failing health to 
retire from active work, obtained the services of a coadjutor.^ and 
devoted his remaining energies chiefly to raising an endowment fond 

* A msD ol unQBUnl erudition. He djcil J 
denth [23u]. 

t Sfrp. aiBe. 

I Biahop Mitdiinuiii, of Burbndin, gor 
Diocme of AuUj^l^ na c'E>ndjutor to Bj^hop Jo- 
187B), withont ftnj roinuii oration, thu" on. 
legululf paid uito the Bieliopric Endownieiit 

ISeS-when Bisbop Mitehi '—' 

- ^- ■ Bbhop or Anlii 

n ton Sitja ot B 

ilj luirlortook the ■aperriaton of 

I tnnder a commiBsioti dAt«d Autcnal 
g tinM ol tbe epiiu»iM] mIu; to 
id, Tlil> unngement cunlinued n... 
>P Bnnoh vh crniworiLtoil (on Jul; SE 


to be available when, on hie death, the episcopal atipend provideil 
from the Conaolidatetl Fund would cease. It aeomed a Qiiisolic 
notioD, but he went on in faith, and with the aid of the Church 
Sooietiea— the S.P.G, alone giving i'2,()00— he lived to accompliab the 
proposed fund of J.'20,000, and to see it invested for the support of 
ilia xuccesaora [25]. 

The life of such a benefactor to the Church deserves some further 
notice here. William Walrond .laokson was horn in Barbados an 
January 9, iHll, three weeks after the death of lii.s father. EJucnted 
at the best sohoola in Barbados, he made such progress that he could 
read Greek playa at the ago of fifteen, and became headmaster of Us 
old school at eighteen. He was one of the ficut candidates, 500 in 
number, confirmed by the firMt Bishop of Barbados {Dt. Coleridge), 
and was licensed as catechist at the age of seventeen. When 
Codrington College, Barbados, was opened as a College such aa its 
founder contemplated, Mr. .Tackson was the tirst to enter it aa a 
student. Winning the first scholarship, he became the iSenior Theo- 
logical Scholar, and waw then, and ever remained, a scholar of whom 
CodriogtonianB were justly proud. From the beginning o[ his 
ministry (to which he was ordained dear.on in 1HS4 and priest in 
1885) be was in charge of large and important parishes in Barbados, 
Trinidad, St. Vincunt, and Barliados again, consecutively, for a short 
time in connection with the Society. Much of his work waa of a 
genuine missionary character. In Trinidad, when he was a young 
man, be frequently travelled through tbo forests on horseback or on 
foot, visiting small stations, and in Bt. Vincent bia chief work was 
among the Cariba and negroes. Iti Antigua all the smaller ialands 
which be visitfd every other year were accessible only in small trading 
vessels, and he was often in some danger on Ina voyages. He alit >, 
as member of the Governor's Council in Antigua, had a voice in 
legislation, and it was entirely through his efforts that the mode of 
payment of the labourers— a mischievous form of truck system— was 
ehaoged. His action made him extremely unpopular with the planters, 
but only for a few months. His organisatioiL of the voluntary con- 
tributions of the poor when " disendowment " came waa wonderfully 
Buccesaful until the agricultural depression of the last three years of 
his life. 

The universal esteem with which the Bishop was regarded found 
expression on his departure from thu diocese in 1879, when a testi- 
monial was presented to him with a farewell address on behalf of 
Eeople of all classes and of all creeds in the fourteen islands tinder 
ia episcopal supervision. Varied aa are the interests, tJie manners 
and customs, the very nationalitii'S of the congregations in the islands, 
they were all one in their attachment to tbo Bishop and in their 
appreciation of his laboura, and of his wisdom, aympatby, toleration, 
and charity which characterised bis administration. The address 
concluded with asking the Bishop's acceptance of a purse of Hioi 
(or the purchase of a piece of piate presented " in grateful testi- 
mony of the love felt for him by the people " of his diocese. 
Though obliged by failing health to resign the active administra- 
tion lit the diocese Bishop Jackson always remained in touch with his 



cliiirge, helping it acil guiding hiacoailjotoi by wise and loving couasel. 
Uf bis charitica Bome are knows, but many will never bu known unlil 
He Whom be set'ved sball say that id ministeriug to some of the Icttat 
of His people he did it uoto Himself. After bis retitni to England he 
was, up to within a short time of bJB death, a regular attendant at the 
meetings held at the Society's bouse, where his saintly character, his 
wise counsel, and ever ready sympathy endeared him to all. 

Bishop Jackson died at Ealing on November 25, 1605, bis wife, to 
whom he was married in 1894, having predeceased him by nearly a 
year. To many places in the diocese his death was, hoBDcially apeak- 
ing, "almost another disendowment " [26]. 

His death was followed in 1^1)6 by that of his successor. Bishop 
Branch, who, from 1882-95, bad been Coadjutor Bishop of Antigua ■ 
Like Bishop Jackson he had been a wtudont of Codrington College, 
and bad devoted the whole of bis life to the West ludian Church* [27 J. 

The choice of his successor was delegated by the Diocesan Synod 
to the Bishop of Jamaica, Bishop Mitchinson (formerlyof Barlrados), 
the Earl of Stamford, and the Secretary of the Society, The Very 
Kev. Herbert Mather, Provost of Inverness Cathedral, accepted the 
office, and bis consecration took place in Lmnbeth Palace Chapel on 
July 1, 1H07. The new Bishop had bad varied experiences, having 
laboured for some yeitrs in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, and held 
two livings in England. The reports of the Clergy testified to the 
good which his arrival effected, and the great enconragtimeni to them- 
selves which bis sympulhetic presence has given. 

In his first impressions of his diocese, speaking of the people, he 
said "they are intensely impulsive . . . easily moved by religious 
emotions . . . devoted to sinking hymns . . . but deficient in their 
senae of the meaning of morally, of truth, of honesty. 

" This is only whuL tlitir hialorjlenJe us lo expect. .Some forty yearii Bgo they 
vers all Blaves. and the beriU^e and tunt □( alavery will not be eradicated for 
mariy a gern'rutioQ yet to ouuie. Marriage aa a rale was forbidden to the stave; 
what woDdcr, then, that Mb graiidcljildren think lightly of tbat holy ordinance ? t 
DowntroddoD and oppressed, any nay, liowever untrvthful, by which he could 
eacape the lash or cireamvent the hard taskmaster was to be embraced ; and when 
he belonged to the eelale ol bis owner, like any other chaltet, bow could it be 
diiJumtaty if he iinpruved hia nuwtu'a estate in his ovn person by taking soma 
other portion vl 1o<h1, or clothing, or money, belonging to the same estate ? 

" It is a Eail thought for Engtiebnipn to remember that the vices and faults of 
the negro btd tltc direct product of the slave trade, by whieh so many Englishmen 
•eeamnlaled so much money. We brought the n^ro to the West Indies, we 111- 
treated him, and ground him down. Surely we have a long debt to make up Ui 
him it we do not wish him to rise up in the judgment s^ainet us. Nowadays, in 
■ddition to other things, poverty is presxing him harder than ever. The dcprcii- 
sion in the sugar trade has been so great that many a sugar estate which had sunk 
back a little into the hands of monejtendera has been unable to pay its annual 
iDterest charges, and baa gone oat at cultivation." 

Of the oleigy tlie Bishop eaid : "They arc beyond praise. Not brilliant 
perhaps in oratory or power, but what is of far greater importauce, to their flocks 

* Two olUer oletgymBa of Antigua Djcmbbo lie 

chitdceo ol illegitimate birth. 

lo diiweHi nombai aboot 3,S(H1 yearly, 


and to themselves— self-denying, hardworking, and patient, while poor in this 
world's goods. A horse of some sort is an absolute necessity to anyone in the 
tropics who moves about much in the open air, for walking long distances in the 
san is fatal to Europeans. The clergyman's horse partakes in one respect of its 
owner's character, for it is much on its knees, and usually shows by its ribs that 
too much attention is not spent upon its food. The clerical stipend in this diocese 
is of the smallest even with the liberal help of the S.P.G. The grant the Society 
places at my disposal enables me to give most of the Clergy a bare sufficiency to 
keep the wolf from the door. In each case they are obliged to raise a certain pro- 
portion from their people, who are usually labourers or holders of about half an 
acre of land, and can contribute perhaps a penny a week, with frequent intervals 
of non-payment. The labour and worry of getting in * the collection ' is intense, 
and as humiliating often as it is wearisome. Nu wonder that the overworked and 
underpaid Clergy often break down in the tropical climate, and are ordered as a last 
resort for health and life to go to England. The advice seems almost a mockery, 
for where Is the wherewithal for the passage and for the locum-tenens to carry on 
the work 7 . . . 

" If I had the means to pay them, and had a supply of the proper men, I 
could at once find more than sufficient work for fifteen more clergy. I do not 
attempt to express gratitude to the Society for its grant. It is beyond words" 

At Ibis tiuio the Bishop had at his disposal a grant of £750 
from the Marriott bequest, for the erection and enlargement of 
churches and school-chapels [29]. During 1898-99 the Society made 
provision for the support of additional clergy, and for the training 
of candidates for the ministry, the aid given including j£500 towards 
the raising of a Clergy Sustentation Fund for the diocese [80]. 

The building grant was all the more welcome as, owing to the 
mischief wrought by wood-ants, tropical sun and rain, hurricanes and 
earthquakes, the churches, rectories, and schools " require the most 
constant care to replenish and renew." In some parts the Clergy, 
in 1897, were reduced to putting up umbrellas in their houses when 
it rained, and to placing their books under their beds, which they 
moved about the room according as the wind and rain drove from 
one quarter or another [81]. 

The terrible hurricanes* of August 7 and September 8, 1899, 
brought fresh distress on the diocese, causing a great loss of life, 
including one of the Montserrat clergy, and a loss of over £7,000 
on church, school, and rectory buildings alone, and depriving the 
people of the ability to contribute to clerical salaries. t The Society 
again came to the rescue, with special aid amounting to j£800, 
£300 being towards the relief of the Clergy, some of whom were on 
the verge of starvation. At the present time (1900) want of clothes 
keeps the schools but half filled and accounts for scanty attendances 
inside the churcheF. But such is the devotion of the poor black 
people that after sunset crowds of them gather outside the large open 
windows of the churches during evening service, their scanty cover- 
ings of rags being insufficient to satisfy the requirements of decency 

* MontBOrrat and Nevis saffered most. In the latter island churches were damaged, 
including St. John's, the one in which Nelson was married to Mrs. Nisbett (formerly 
Miss Frances Herbert). The marriage certificate is: " 1787. March 11, Horatio Nelson, 
Esq., Captain of His Majesty's ship the ' Boreas,' to S'rances Nisbett, widow " [82a]. 

J e.g. The parish of St. Philip and St. Stephen, Anti^^ua [see p. 215] coald barely raise 
£50 in 1900. 


in the liglit of day. Tliey do not kneel, but they join heartily in the 
responsea and singing [t)2]. 


Ill ad'litiua to the Biitiili Isluiidii enuniented on p. 910, tlie diooese inc1nde» churohw 
in the rrimgn islands oF Bt. Buthnlntnow (FrmtcA); B&bft mid St. Enslatiui iDulch); 
at. Murtin XhalffreiKh and half Dutch) ; SLa. Cm* md 8t, ThomiB iDimithj ; it ilio 
incladed Porto Rico uid ViJipHs (A^uriiiA) nntil thoae two isliitids wars ceded to the 
Cnited SUtes. 

Id the Iilaud of St. Butholouuw, whioh <riu tonnerl; Swedish bat ww ra-tnmfeiK«d 
to the Frenoh in 1878, the GoTernmoab >lloir £38 per onniuD towards the itipend of a 
r^iideiil Church ot Engliod clergviaiLn. The Dime; tuniljhate done long And voloable 
work (or the Churoh in this i-lniid, aad Sir H. B. DinMy. Knight ol the Ordsr o( Vmh, 
?4wedea, ia n lioenoed reikder, Thuro is a ^oiion^l For nix children in the pmrifih tfltftbliHiied 
bj Bome ladies oE Swedi^n aad siippnrLeil Ij]- HnbHriptioim Imm '.but cuimtrj, LhoDgh the 
iilud turn ceiuvd to belong to it. Tlie uhildroii ue fed, clotlicd, uid educiited without 
chkige [113]. 

In tke lahinda of St. Eaitatina and B(. Uartin Uiuiona were eatabliBhed m 1900, 
and » confirmation held in St. EnitAtJni bj Bishop Mather in that year was " the Srat 
occuion when a Bishop hnn ever Tiaitiid the island " [SOii.]. 

Porto Rioo conturiB 1,0(10,000 iohabitantg. Of theie tho bulk are Roniiui Oatholioa, 
of tbe nanal 8p«nJBb tf pe (nith a latge mixture of AtbeistH|. In Ponce, howevet, a oon- 
engation of non-Bomsntiitii united themgeliciH with the Diuceve u[ Antigua in 187S, their 
Bsolor rooaiying institation and indootion from Buhop Jackuin. Thorn norainnlly 
bejonging to tho Anglican Choroh there now namber some hnndreda, besidei Bereru 
'- u ulted ProteatantB," who aocept the Anglionn form of wonliip. In April 181X4, darinB 
the mi between Anwricn and Spain, Bishop Matbet le-opened a ohnioh at Ponce which 
had b^n olosod loi Bomu yerirs. Over lUO Bpaoiiirds were in the congrvSHliuii oF about 
BOO. aud flo far from the BtHhon being hounded ont of the r»lai« by a tni^nlent mob, as 
was report4)d in the paperE, " the peojdo there, as at 9an Jnan, were niofit coi 
pleas^mt apokon." The Anglican Misaion at Vi^ueB de Porto Rioo was 
Djdertnhen in 1880 by Mr. Bean, a negro, who nocked •» a lajman lor some yean 
htirdly any stipend, and sooeeeded in gathering a congrpgiUion and buildin;; a chnroh. 
Ho then went to an American college, and after being ordained by the Hiehop ot 
North Oaroliua in 1B8S retur^ied to Vijqaea, where ha still labanra. The Society's oon- 
nr<!tion with these two islands ceased on October 1, 1800. on which date they wem 
triuislemd, eccleBinstically, to tho care of the Amorican Chnich, hanng already beoi 
Defied by Spain to the Cnited States [94]. 

The Diooesan Synod o! Antigna, (onnded Jnno 1884, meeta regnlarly ovary two yoacs. 

EdncAtion is provided for the labouring clnsaes in the deuouuriatiimal schofils (Chomh 
of EngLuid, Eonum Catholic, Horarian, and Westeyans', which are all subsidised bj 
grants from tb.- Legielnture, where tbey are approred by the OoTemrnent [nspentor. 
The Anglican Chumh has between sijr and seven thousand thildrcn in iIh djiy suhoola, 
and kbout eleven thousand in its Sunday schools. A large majority ot tho labouring 
popBlation can read (of the younger people newly ail), and many can n-rile alio. There 
ue two Hi|;h Schools in tlie diocese— the Antigua tirammar School, begun in 1884. tLod 
the Dominioa Oranun*r i^chool. At Codringtou College, Barbadns, a scholjirship of the 
Tkloe ot £49 per annum, aTailable tor three years, has been founded specially ba the 
diooen by the S.P.O. (£17 par annum) uid S.P.C.K. i£SG per uuiuni). 

An Insnnuioa Society has bean establjsbed in the diooese with the objeat of ucnring 
kpntlsian for the widows and orphans ot the Clergy. Thu mauagemeDl of the (and is in 
Ihe hands of the Diora-asn Finsncinl Boenl -clioBen bj the Synod. 

There are alsn MvenU brniicUefl of the Church of England Temperance flociety in ihe 
dioceWiAo, &a.[8G}. 

It will have been seen that (as stated bj Bishop Branch in IBOS) 
the dioctae has " no tales of fascinating missionary enterpiisit," but 
rather " a continuouB history of good and earnest common parochial 
work, done amid more than common dillicultiea by men who love 

Christ and hum m soah " [36]. 

year? with 

iFor SlalUHeal 8u,<,: 

»p. 363.) 




The Bahamas conBi«t of a chain of small iBlandH lying to the ea^t and sonth-east of 
B*lorida, U.S., some 20 only being inhabited. One of these — St. Salvador — was the first 
land seen by Colnnibus when seeking the " New World " in 1492. Tlic Bahamas were 
then peopled by Indians, bat these were to the nnmber of 50,000 soon transported to the 
Spamsh mines of Mexico and Peru. The islands then abandoned were formally annexed 
io England by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1578. In 1612 they were united to Virginia, 
and about 20 years later some British adventurers formed a settlement on them, which 
was destroyed by the Spaniards in 1641. By Charles II. the island of New Ftovidence 
(the seat of the capital, Nassau) was assigned to an English proprietary body in 1670 ; 
but in 1708 the French and Spaniards obtained possession of it, and for many years it 
was a rendezvous for pirates. The English extiri>ated the pijates in 1718, and the 
Bahamas became subject to a regular colonial administration. This was interrupted by 
a surrender io the Spaniards in 1781, tho war concluding with a re-annexation of the 
islands by Great Britain, which was confirmed in 1798 by t)ie Treaty of Versailles. 

In 1731 Governor Kogers of the Bahamas, being then " in Carolina 
for the recovery of his health." informed the Rev. W. Guy, the 
Society's Missionary at St. Andrew's, ** of the extream want there 
was of a minister '* in the Bahamas, ** which had been without one 
for some years, and pressed Mr. Guy to go over with him and officiate 
there some months.*' Mr. Guy, considering '' the great usefuhiess and 
ahnost the necessity of the thing," embarked on this '' charitable 
undertaking " in April 17B1, and arrived at Providence on the 12th of 
that month. 

He found a people ^^ who had Hved in want of the administration 
of all the Divine ordinances several years." These he endeavoured to 
supply by holding service " in a little neat church built of wood," 
which had been just finished, and by visiting all the parts of the 
island. Notwithstanding the great fatigue of travelling, ** on account of 
the rocks " and " the heat of the day which is always very great," he 
baptized 89 children and 8 adults. In ** the two other inhabited Islands 
in this Government," about 20 leagues from Providence, he baptized 28 
children in Harbour Island and 18 in " Islathera " (Eleuthera). For 
each of the (128) baptized he had ''the proper sureties," and during 
his two months' stay in the three islands, besides marrying, and 
visiting the sick, he aidministered the Blessed Sacrament twice, " but 
had but 10 communicants at each time." The number of families in 
the islands was about 120 in New Providence, 40 in Harbour Island, 
and 40 in Islathera. The people " very thankfully received " copies of 
the Bishop of London's Pastoral Letters for promoting the conversion 
of the negroes. [See p. 8.] They all professed themselves of the 
Church of England, and were "very desirous of having a minister settled 
with them," and Mr. Guy considered that " as they were in general 



very poor it would ... be a very great chaiity to ^end & Misnionary 
to them •■ [1]. 

TLifi repieaentationwiia followed by a Memorial from the Preeiiieut, 
Council, and priiiuipal inbabitantB of New Providence, abowing tliat 
" about seven yeara past " they erected at tlieir own charge " a com- 
modiooB church capable of coDtaining upwards of 3U0 people," and 
provided a convenioDt house for a clergymao of the Churcli of England 
and £40 per tumum towards bis support ; bat that being in auSicieot, tbey 
" became destitute of any Divine to officiate amongst them for upwards 
of five years, till the Rev. Mr. IIoopkb came over, well -recommended, 
and . . . and continued for these twelve montba past." To enable 
them to maintain him or ^ome other worthy Divine, tbey solicited 
osBistance [2]. 

Immediately on receipt of the first communication (April 17i)^J the 
Society offered £60 per annum as a grant-in-aid, which was now i March 
1733) " in consideration of the deameas of prorisiona in Providence " 
increased to £C0, and Mr. Hooper ba\ii>g migrated to Itlaryland, the 
Rev. William Smith was in April ITSSappointed to Providence and ihe 
other inhabited islands [8], 

Mr. Smith aiTived at Nassau on Oct. 20, 1733. " At first be had 
but a tbin congregation" in Nassau, but it was soon increased by 
several familiee residing "outside the town " and by " the soldiei's of 
the garrison, whom the Governor, immtdiately after hip arrival, obliged 
to come constantly to church." Governor Fitzwilliam bad the church 
"put into a toUerable good order," and " with a good deal of difficulty 
and pains, got an Act passed fur erecting the Inhnbitol Islands into one 
pariah an<l . , , £50 sterling p. annum . . . settled on the Minister 
Incumbent thereon " [i]. lie tailed to obtain an allowance from the 
Assembly for a school-master, although there was "no place in his 
Majesty's American Dominions " where one waa more necessary, " by 
want of ivliich their youth " grew up " in such ignorance (even of a 
Deity) and tn such immorality as is most imbecomiaig." On this re- 
pi'esentation the Society at once (1735) provided funds for the opening 
of a school in Nassau, but there was some delay owing to the difficulty 
of liudiiig teachers [5] 

The arrival of Captain Uall of Khode Island in Dec, 17S9 with ■■ a 
Spanish prize of between £3 and £4,000 value " was sufficient to in- 
duce Mr. Mitchel, the then teacher, to quit Hchool and go "a priva- 
teering " with the Captain [6]. 

About 1734 Mr. Smith first visited "lalathera, a long, narrow 
Island inhabited by between 30 and 40 familiea," who were " generally 
very ignorant of their duty to God as having never had a Clergyman 
settled among tbeui." At Harbour Island he found there 25 families 
and a large room for service, in which he ministered one Sunday ; ■• it 
was very full," and the people were " serious and attentive." Otherwise 
Ihey could hardly have been with such a Misaionary. Governor Fitz- 
william wrote of him in 1735 : " The abilities life and good behaviour 
of Mr. Smith . . . justly entitle him to the favour of all good men 
among na " [7]. Illness caused him to desire a noi'tliern Mission, but 
a short visit to England in 173G enabled him to return to New Provi- 
denc« in January 1737 [S]. 

The church at Nassau, a builJiug " in a wooden frame, piaisturtid," 


became so ruinous that it was necessary to remove the pnlpit and 
desk to the Town House in 1741— the erection of a new one having 
been hindered by fear of " an invasion from the Spaniards " [9]. 
Whites, Negroes, and Mulattoes were ministered to by Mr. Smith, but 
the hardships of visiting *' Uuthera " and Harbour Island brought on an 
iUness, and in his last letter, Oct. 26, 1741, after alluding to a fever 
at Providence " which had carried off everyone it had seized on," he 
concluded : " The Lord help us for he only knows where it will ter- 
minate.*' A few days after it pleased God to take *' this diligent and 
worthy Missionary to himself to receive the reward of his labours "[10]. 

His successor, the Eev. N. Hodqes, died in 1748 soon after his 
arrival. During the vacancy caused by these deaths Governor Tinker 
made his Secretary, Mr. J. Snow, " read prayers and a sermon every 
Sunday in the Town House," and in 1746 sent him to England to be 
ordained. Besides officiating " as far as a lavman could " Mr. Snow 
had largely contributed to the building of a church and to the estab- 
lishment of a free school for negroes and whites. Within two years 
of ordination he also died. In the meantime the Rev. B. St. John 
ministered for about a year (1746-7) to a " very ignorant " people, 
" scarce one in fifty being able to read," and baptized over 800 chilGbren 
in the three islands of the Mission [11]. 

The next Missionary, the Bev. R. Garter, was privileged to labour 
16 years (1749-65) in ^e Mission, which he represented as being of 
" greater extent " and having ** more pastoral duties to be performed 
in the several parts of it than any other under the Society's care.'* In 
1768 he reported ** all the natives" of the Bahamas ''profess them- 
selves of the Church of England." About this time iwo Mission Schools 
were established ; that at Nassau was the only school in the island of 
Providence ** except Women's Schools," which were also Church 
Schools. The Harbour Island School was built by the people, of whom 
he wrote in 1764 that they ** pay a strict regard to the Lord's Day, 
and neither work themselves nor suffer their slaves to work on it, but 
allot them another day in every week " " to work for themselves." A 
similar rule was observed at Eleuthera, where his parishioners expressed 
*' so strong a desire of improvement that even adults of both sexes " 
submitted "to be publickly catechized without reluctance." " The 
most sensible slaves in New Providence " expressed " an earnest desire 
of being baptized," a desire which he did his best to gratify [12]. 

The Bev. G. Tizard carried on the work from 1767 to October 17G8, 
when he died. Two years later it was reported that many people had 
been reformed by means of his widow [18]. 

In 1767 the Bev. B. Moss was stationed at Harbour Island, where a 
resident clergyman had long been *' earnestly desired " [14]. He 
had at first *' a cold reception from the people's apprehending that 
they were to contribute to his support "; when they found that not to 
be the case " they became fond of him," and "aU in the island to a 
man " attended public worship on Sundays. 

Indirectly they must have •ontributed, for the Bahamas Assembly 
had enacted a law dividing '' Harbour Island and Eleuthera into a 
distinct parish named St. John's," and allowing "£150 current money 
out of the Harbour Island taxes towards building a Church in that 
Island," and settling £60 sterling per annum " for salary and house- 

•mr. BiHAUA?. 

rent for the Minister." Wliile the chnroh* was bnilding Mr. Mose 
performed service "nnder the branches of some Tamarind trees." 
In 1769 he had thirty-eight communicants, all of whom lived "holy 
lives, unblameable in their conversation " [15]. 

Of Eleuthera he gave this " lamentuble account " in 1700 : " That 
both men, women, and children, magistrates not excepted, are profane in 
their conversation ; even the children learn to carse tlieir own parents 
as soon as they can speak plain, and many other sinful habits and 
heathenish practices are in use among tham." One great obstruction 
to his reformuig iheso people w&a the difficulty of visiting them, 
it being necessary to go first to Providence, where he might have 
to wait two or three weeks for a passage, which " consumed too 
much time " [16]. It was also difficult to lind men of sufficient education 
to act as lay agents. The Rev. W. Oohdon, who visited Eleuthera in 
1796, found tbal " a .Tustice of the Peace " at Wreck's Bound had been 
accustomed to read prayers and a aertoon out of one of the Society's 
hooks to the inhabitants." He had " the most learning in the place," 
yet was in such indifi'erent circumstances as to desire to be appointed 
"an assistant schoolmaster," not being quahhed for the position of 
head schoolmaster [17]- At Savannah Sound only one man could 
read, and the greater part could "scarcely say the Lord's Prayer," 
yet they regarded baptism as " absolutely necessary to salvation." 

In March 1776 New Providence and other of the Bahamas were 
" thrown into a distracted state by being taken by a considerable 
armed force from America" (eight vessels and 550 men), "which after 
dismantling His Majesty's Forts and committing many outrages" — 
taking " all the King's money," opening the prison doors and setting 
the prisoners free — " carried away the Governor, Secretary, and one or 
two other prisoners," and left the rest of the people " in a deplorable 
state. But they were disappointed of their chief aim— a considerable 
quantity of gunpowder, which bad been prudently removed to a place 
of safety." In the midst of all this confusion the Rev. J, Hukt, the 
Society's Missionary at I'rovidence, " continued to do duty in the 
church as usual," and his flock seemed " to make a progress in virtue " 
and generally attended service. 

DiUTUg the American Revolution the inhabitants of the Bahamas 
were for some years " almost reduced to a starving condition," as their 
chief dependence for provisions was on the continent. In 1779 " the 
best bread " that could he obtained in Harbour Island, " even for the 
blessed Sacrament," was " made of Tree Rools." For a long time the 
islands were " i>eBtered with American vessels," the crews of which 
endeavoured to " corrupt the minds of the people, turning tliem from 
King George and all j;ovemment," and passed their life " in dancing 
all night and gaming and drinking all day." Ou one occasion some 
of their captains attended the Harbour Island Church to hear Mr. Moss 
preach. "Hearing him pray for the King, and las discourse not 
favoring their proceeding, they had concluded to take him out of liifl 
own house by night and carry bim away to America. But they were 
disappointed." The cause of their failure was probably owin^ to the 
fact, reported by the Missionary in 1778, that the inhahitanis of 
Harbour Island and Eleuthera, numbering 1,S91, "all professed to be 

* opened tor BStrice on Uaruh IB, 1709 [19]. 


of the Church of England,*' and had " not a single Dissenter amongBl 
them of any denoiniuation." In Providence the loyalists were 
''threatened almost every day and insulted/' and having *' little 
force to defend themselves/' were "in continual danger " [19]. 

During the Spanish occupation [see p. 216] the Bev. J. Babkjsb, 
the only Missionary left in the Bahamas, withdrew (in 1782), and did 
not return [20]. The Rev. J. Seymour of Georgia, who was appointed 
to Providence, died on the voyage [21] ; and the next clergyman sent, 
the Rev. T. Robeutsox, was located at Harhour Island. On his 
arrival in 17Ht; he visited every fiiniily on the island, "a very poor 
hardworking industrious people . . . serious and well dispose^!." Old 
and young to the number of i'tOO attended church regularly, and all 
expressed ** great gratitude to the Society for their kind and generous 
attention " f22J. But in 1789 he reported that the *' leading man " in 
the island was **an utter enemy to all reli<:ion," and would "not 
sutler any of his negroes to receive any instruction whatever "; and it 
was with dilliculty that the Missionary ** prevailed on the people to 
let any of the negroes sit in the area of the church " [28]. 

Kxuma next received a resident Missionary (the Rev. W. Twininq) 
in 1787. The white settlers were mostly American Loyalists — about 
one third were old settlers. All seemed glad of the arrival of a clergy- 
man " and anxious to express their gratitude to the Society." Of the 
700 inhabitants GOO were negroes. Those brought up among the 
Jinglish had been taught ** little or n(.»tliin;,' of religion," but did not 
seem at all ** prepossessed against Cluristianity." Tlie negroes who had 
been " lately imported from Africa " showed ** no signs of religion " [24]. 

Still worse was the state of the white settlers at Long Island, as 
reported by tlie Rev. W. Gordon after visiting it from Exumain 1790. 
" A few poor families from New Providence " began a settlement in 
Long Island in 1773. At the peace in 1782 •* a few loyal Befagees" 
(presumably from the United States) settled tliere, and it proving "a 
good Island for raising cotton," many others followed, *' besides some 
natives of New Providence." In 1790 the population consisted of about 
2,000 people— over 1,500 behig slaves. The negroes were " void of all 
principles of Christian religion owing to their want of instruction." 
Most of the original settlers could scarcely read, and having been for 
11 mny years deprived of Divine worship, they were ** addicted to the 
vices of a seafaring hfe . . . swearing and neglect of religion." The 
refug(;eH, though less ignorant, wore not more attached to the faith. 
They resembled ** very much those who may be seen in London." 

Not even two or three of them could be got together to partake of the 
Holy Communion. The " gentry " of the place employed their leisure 
hours ** in reading the works of Mandeville, Gibbon, Voltaire, Rousseau 
and Hume," by which some of them ** acquu-ed a gi'oat tincture of 
infidelity." Mr. Gordon on his visits held service in six parts of the 
island, and undertook that if a resident Missionary were sent there ho 
would visit those islands which had ** never yet ha:l Christian public 
worship, viz., Turk's, Caicos, Crooked, Watlin's, Abacos and Andros." 
A more favourable account of Long Island was given by the Rt>v. P. 
Fraser. On his arrival there early in 1703 ** he was waited upon by 
the principal Planters," who vied with one another ** in shewing him 
every mark of attention and respect. lubtead of discovering Deisticul 

nre BARAVAs. 931 

ri'lnciples " the people appeared " to be all convinced of the 
grsiit truths of the Christian Bellgioti" and attended Divino Service 
" with a seriousness and regularity truly exemplary." The need of 
additional Missionariea waa further urged by the Hev. J. Riohakds of 
ProTidence, who, within six mouths of his arrival at Niis ^au " baptized 
10)1 persons after exaraination." Nassau at that time (17i)l| con- 
tained between 2,000 and 3,000 iuhahitants, most of the whites bein;; 
of " Scotch extraction and many of them Dissenters, but moderate and 
conformable to the Church," and who treated liini with " great 
civility." Owing, however, to " the political disputes concernijig the 
Hevcune Act iu that country " he suffered from " the stopping of his 
[Government] salary for nearly a twelvemonth " [26]. 

From a report submitted by the Society to the Eti^hsh Goveniment 
at this time (1791-2) we learn that the only islands of the Bahamas 
group which appeared to have any inhabitants at the beginning of 17H4 
were Providence, Long laland, Harbour Island, Exama, Eleuthera, 
Turk's Island, and the Abaoos — the whole not exceeding l,7-'iO whites 
and 2,H0U blacks. Uo the close of the disputes with the " ancient 
colonists on the continent of America" and the evacuation of St. 
AogtiBtine, the Bahamas ■' held out to the Royal Refugee subjects in 
the Southern Colonies a comfortable asylum for the present, and 
prospects of great advantages in future " ; the liberality of the British 
(lovernment met their wishes and gave full scope to their plans of 
settlement. They were for a time supplied with provisions &c. from 
the Public Stores, " all doubtful title to posaession was removed in a 
purchase by the Crown of the ancient claims of the Proprietors of the 
soil of those Islands, and the grants to these adventurers of the lands 
on which they were desirous of settlement, were unaccompanied with 
any illiberal or discouraging restrictions." Under these favourable 
cirouia stances settlement was considerably extended, " every cultivable 
spot '■ being " explored with great avidity." By the commencement 
of 179U the white population had been doubled (=^,r>00) and the black 
trebled (=6,500 including coloured), in all 10,000. and about 18,000 
acres of land were under cultivation. Of the whites. 127 were planters, 
29 merchants, and 17 men of learned pnifossions. Of the blacks, some 
500 were free negroes, who by escapes and " other fortuitous cir- 
cumstances " weiL' "disentangled from the disgraceful shackles of 
slavery.' Up to this time there were only three clergymen in the 
Bahamas, but owing to the Society's representations to the English 
Government the Bahamas Assembly (about 1795) established a fund 
" for the building and repairing of OhurcJies, providing Parsonage 
Houses and Glebes and for the better maintenance and support of 
Ministers and School Masters " [26]. 

Inconsequence of political diBputescluring Governor Lord Dunmore'a 
administration tlK> Clergy frequently had dilhculty in realising the 
local provision to which they were entitled. Mr. Rioharde of New 
Providence reported in 1795 IJiat " neither he nor any other person 
who baa a salary has received any for above a year past." About tins 
time Lord Dunmore " possessed himself of the most antient burying 
ground " and a portion of the glebe iu Harbour Island, the former of 
which he desecrated, and it became necessary for the Society to make 
a representation to the Secretary of Ctate for the ifstoration of the 


propertv. There were other oomplaints against the Governor. He 
openly avowed " that the Uws which forhid incestuous marriages in 
England" did "not take place in the Colonies** and he ignored a 
oommnnication from the Bishop of London on the sabject. He farther 
countenanced " one Johnston, a strolling Methodist Preacher from 
America '* who induced the black people at Providence to tarn a negro 
schoolmai^r oat of his house *' and convert it to a Meeting House for 
himself." and obtained from the Governor *' a Licence to preach and 
perform other offices ** This man '* used to marry without licence or 
authority/' but in a short time he was " put in prison for beating his 
wife ... in a merciless manner . . . and so all his followers left him. 
The respectable inhabitants indeed always opposed the progress of 
Methodism and remonstrated to Lord Dunmore against it " [271 

The years 1794 7 proved fatal to the Revs. P. Fraser, P. Dixon, 
and W. H. Moore '2^\ Another Missionary took more than 
two years to reach the station to which he had t)een appointed : the 
Rev. D. W. Rose of Dominica, Antigua, after several disappointments 
in obtaining a passage, left St. Nevis in December 1796, but the ship 
being captured by a French privateer in the next month he was carried 
prisoner to Bochelle, and afterwards removed up the country to 
Angouleme, where he remained till the following July, when he was 
'* exchanged by a cartel ** and came to England. After receiving 
Priest's Orders and being detained six weeks in the Isle of Wight, he 
sailed for the West Indies in November 1797. Arriving at Nevis he 
was miable to get a passage to the Bahamas, though he went to 
Antigua and to St. Eitts several times for the purpose. He therefore 
" took a passage in a schooner bound to Norfolk in Virginia,** whence 
he made his way to Nassau, but did not reach Long Island till 
February 1799:29]. 

The Rev. H. Jenkins experienced a similar difficulty. In his 
voyage from England *' he had the ill fortune to lose all his papers, 
by being obliged to throw them overboard upon coming in sight of a 
vessel, which was supposed to be a French one, but it turned out 
otherwise.'* He took the precaution to show the certificate of his ap- 
pointment (from the Society) to a fellow passenger, desiring him to 
read it with attention, that he might witness the contents of it to the 
Governor, and thereby remove any difficulty that might have arisen 
from his having no credentials.* He reached Nassau safely, but 
within a few days* sail of the Caicos the ship was captured by a 
French privateer and carried '* to Cape St. fVancois, from whence 
they were sent to Mole St. Nicholas to be exchanged." He arrived at 
the Caicos on October 16, 1797, *' in good health and spirits ** [301 

Mr. Jenkins divided his time between the Caicos and Turk's Island, 
about eight leagues distant. On his first visit to the latter he remained 
a fortnight and ministered to " a large congregation at the Barracks,*' 
then " converted into a Church," but which a few years before had 

* The Governor, thoagh satisfied that Mr. Jenkins was " not an impostor/* delayed 
liis indoction till " new credentials " should arrive from England, " and also a Decree 
from one of the Universities of England, Seotlund, or Dublin hs the Parochial Act of 
the Bahamas in this cose directs." As Mr. Jenkins "woold have been entitled to a 
Degree in the University of Cnmbrid^e " the Archbishop of Canterbury conferred on 
him (he degree of M.A. ; but while thu was being done the quidification was rendered 
"unnecessary" t^ "an alU^mtion in the Baliamas Act " [80 n . 

been occupied by tbe mifitary th&t were "stationed there in order to 
check the lawless and ungovernable temper of the people." The few 
gentlemen of Turk's Island had for some time adopted " the laudahic 
plan of assembling there on Sundays when the Liturgy " was " upeil 
and a Sermon read out of Home approved author " [31]. A supply of 
Bibles and Prayer Books from the Society proved very acceptable to 
" the poor people there," who " all faithfully promised to read them 
with attention," and one William Danel, "a very decent and well 
disposed negro " opened a Sunday School and taught bis country- 
men gratis [82]. In his first year's ministry in Long Island Mr. 
Rose baptized 14 Whites and 2i " Blacks, Mulattoes, Mustees and 
Dustees." The negroes there had been " misled by strange doctrines." 
They called themselves " Baptists, the followei-s of St. John," and were 
" not so happy and contented " aa In other parts o'f the West Indies, 
though " every indulgence and humanity " were " exercised towards 
them by their Slaslers." Their preachers, black men, were "artful 
and designing making a merchandize of Religion." One of them was 
"so impious" as to proclaim that he had " had a famihar conversation 
with the Almighty," and to point out the place where he had seen 
Him. At certain times in the year thfe black preachers used to " drive 
numbers of negroes into the sea and dip them by way of baptism," for 
which they extorted a dollar, or stolen goods [3S]. 

Previously to Mr. Rose's arrival an attempt " to check their pro- 
ceedings " occasioned some of the slaves to '' abscond and conceal 
themselves in the woods," and in consequence " many of their masters 
. . . actually counteracted all his diligence and zeal ... for the 
promotion of religion and morals." At the very time that "superstition 
and fanalidam " appeared to be yielding to his teaching the " proceed- 
ings " of the blacks were " more abominable but more secretly con- 
ducted " [Si]. " After various attempts ... to prevail on his 
parishioners to receive the Communion, he at last " on August 23, 1601 , 
" administered to three, exclusive of his own family " [35]. In tlie 
same year he visited Exuma at a time when the planters had assem- 
bled their negroes (about 400) at a pond for the purpose of raking 
salt. " A canopy was erected iindor which tlie gentlemen and ladies 
of the country took their seats and he preached to tbem." " He was 
highly gratified by the chearfalneas with which " the negroes " went 
tlirougb their daily task." " In the celebration of the Sabbath they 
observed the utmost decorum, and seemed to be very pious in their devo- 
tion." " Upon seeing and contemplating their situation both in a tem- 
poral and spiritual light " he ventured the opinion "that he would 
rather be a slave in the Bahamas than a poor free cottager in Eng- 
land •' [36]. 

In 1802 Mr. Rose removed his residence to Exuma, and on Christ- 
mas Day dedicated "the new Church." After having officiated bo 
long " in old, uninhabited houses in Long Island ... he felt, in the 
discharge of his duty under a consecrated honse a renovation, as it 
were, of tbe clergyman." The inhabitants then consisted of 140 
whites, 35 " free people." and 1,078 negro and other slaves. On his 
first coming many of tbe negroes " called themselves the followers of 
Mahomet," but these, with other blacks, he baptized to the number of 
93 adolta and 41 infants in less than a year. He also formed some of 


the beat negzoes into a socieiy, and twice a week many of them used to 
** meet in their hnts to sing psalms and to offer up a few prayers after 
their daily task " [37]. 

On a visit to Crooked Island in 1803 he " baptized without any 
compensation 150 negroes." His practice of refusing fees had the 
effect of opening the eyes of the poor negroes to the extortion of their 
black preachers. "When they saw him standing an hour or two 
exhorting and inviting them to his mode of baptism without any 
charge " they were persuaded " that he had no pecuniary views, but 
was only interested in their welfare, and by such a sacrifice of his 
emoluments even their Bishops submitted to the Bites and Ceremonies 
of the Church of England " [38]. 

" The illiberality of the House of Assembly . . . not only in reduc- 
ing his salary, but in making laws and afterwards violating them, and 
the constant apprehension of piratical invaders " • . . " compelled " 
Mr. Bose to " abandon the Bahamas " in 1804. Spanish Picaroons 
were " infesting their coasts and plundering their vessels," and in ap- 
prehension of '* a visit from the French " most of the women and 
children of New Providence were sent away. On one occasion Mr. 
Bose was ** obhged to ride the whole night with his musket in his 
band and cartouche box on his shoulder " [39]. 

By 1807 the number of the S.P.Gr. Missionaries was reduced* to one — 
the Bev. B. Bobebts of New Providence. After that year [40] none of the 
Bahamas Clergy appear to have been aided by the Society until 1835, 
when, as a part of the Diocese of Jamaica (founded 1824) the Islands 
began to participate in the Negro Education Fund [41]. [See pp. 194-5.1 
The Colonial Legislature co-operated with the Society, but at the end 
of eight yearst the supply of Clergy still remained inadequate. 

Of the fourteen parishes or rectories into which the islands were 
divided, only four were wholly and three partially endowed, and in 
some of the out-islands there was *' not a single religious teacher of 
any class whatever " [42]. 

In New Providence the Bishop of Jamaica confirmed nearly 400 
persons in 1845 [43]. Three years later he held what appears to be 
the first ordination in that part of his diocese, two priests and two 
deacons being ordained, and the number of Clergy thus raised to 
sixteen [44]. The labours of the Missionaries were very arduous, one 
of them having no less than seven islands under his care. To visit 
these and to go from one station to another preaching and baptizing 
the children was '' something like a shepherd setting his mark upon 
his sheep and then letting them go in the wilderness" [45]. In 
some remote districts the people retained a strong attachment to the 
Church of England, notwithstanding her long neglect of them. 
Many natives came forward and offered their services gratuitously 
as catechists [46] ; and in one island an old man of seventy " walked 
fifty miles in order to partake of the holy feast *' [47]. 

The formation of the Bahamas into a separate see in 1861 was 
followed by the death of its first Bishop, Dr. Oaulfield, within a few 

* Mr. Oroombrldge died in 1804 : Mr. Rose in 1804, and Mr. Jenkins in 1806, removed 
to Jamaica, and Mr. Kichards to England about 1805 [40a]. 

t The Clor^o^men aided by the Sooiety daring this period (1886-44) were E. J. Rogera 
And C. Noale, 1830-44; P. S. Aldrioh, 1840; F. T. lodrig, 1841-2; W. Qray, 1844. 


monlhs of his coiigecration [id]. The thirteen years of the episcopate 
of Bishop Venableb (his Bnocessor) were, for the moat part, years of 
disendowment, deatractioii of Church property hy hurricane, paralysis 
of trade, intense poverty, and considerable emigration. Yet the 
Church processed. Between 1867-74 forty-five Churchea were built 
or restored [49], 

At the time of Bishop Venahlos' appointment the Society's Mission.^ 
were all in the out-islanda, which were absolutely onahle to maintain 
their own Clergy. " I think the Society can hardly have reahzed the 
Missionary character of the work done here," wrote the Bishop, " nor 
the inBuffiaiency of our local resources for carrying on that work " [50]. 
Of the Biminia he aaid " the inhabitants seem almost the most de- 
graded people that I have ^et viaited. Xhia perhaps may be accounted 
for by these two ialands being a great rendezvons for wreckers " [51]. 

In Providence itself "an instance of practical heathenism" caine 
under his notice. " Three men were digging on the aolid rock on 
the south side of the iaiand, and had been engaged in this way for 
. . . eight yeara off and on because an Oheah woman had told them 
of a treasure bidden there " [r>2]. 

In the Island of Eleuthera a man once came to the Bishop &oin a 
Baptist village to say that he " had collected forty children and formed 
a Sunday School and alao that there were fifty persons waiting for 
baptism." A Clergyman waa sent who baptized ninety [53]. Some 
of the Missions were brought to a remarkable state of efficiency, the 
poor black and coloared people adopting " one of the surest ways 
ot calhng down God's blessing on ourselves" by oontributiona to 
Foreign Miaaions. Nearly i^SO a year was raised in this way in one 
parish (St. Agnes, New Providence), and the Missionary there waa 
able, " without the slightest discontent," to have " daily morning and 
evening service and weekly offertory and celebration " [54]. In 
1B68 tne Bishop obtained a Church ship,* the Message of Peace. 
Writing of the first visit in her, which was to Androa Island, he 
aaid : " I cannot speak too highly of the labours of Mr. Sweeting 
the coloured catechist of the district. The morality of the people 
here bears a striking contrast to that of other out-island settle- 
ments." One poor girl who heard of the Bialiop's arrival followed 
him from station to station in order to he confirmed, her confirmation 
coating her "a journey of 56 miles, 44 accomplished on foot " over 
rugged roads with two creeks to ford [55]. 

The cyclone of 1866, which overthrew nearly one half of the 
iihurchea in the diocese [50], waa followed by disestablishment and 
diaendowment in 1869, the immediate effect of which waa that in 
one island alone (Eleuthera) five congregations were for a time 
left without a clergyman [56a]. Yet even in the next year a new 
station was opened there Jimong the coloured people, the first aervica' 
being held " in a small hut and in the dark for no candle could be 
procured " [57]. With the death of Bishop Venables in October 1876, 
the episcopal income, hitherto derived from the State, ceased. In 
the opinion of the physicians the Bishop's "illness was the result npon- 
a &ame not naturally robust, of continooua travel, irregular and oftea- 

* Th>; DM nf a Church ship mii adTocated b; ATchdeMOn Trew in IMt u ona 
tnutliinl ol meatiog ttaeluiutaUibleapmtualdostiiutiaa (hcu eiiKtiug lu the BiUiiuniia I A/hi.] 


unwholesome food, constant care and unceasing mental labour." From 
his death-bed he sent a message to the Society to save the diocese 
from ** being blotted out of Christendom " [58]. The Society's response 
was the guarantee of an allowance of £200 per annum, which was 
continued to his successor until 1881, by which time an endowment of 
£10,000 had been provided. Towards raising and increasing this 
fund the Society contributed ^^1,500 (in 1876-82), and for the per- 
manent maintenance of the Clergy £1,000 (in 1873-88) [69]. 


Under Bishops Cramer Roberts (1878-85) and E. T. Churton 
(1886-1900) the diocese has made encouraging progress [60]. 

Bishop Churton, ''owing to the diligence and devotion*' of his 
predecessors, found himself from the beginning responsible for the 
supervision of an extensive Mission-field, in which the strength of 
the Church consisted in its hold upon the coloured people [61]. But 
most of the churches were of the rudest description, and there were 
scarcely any parsonages or lodgings for the Clergy, and only one 
Mission boat; and so throughout all was on the humblest scale. 
This did not afflict the Bishop much, as he had come ''prepared to 
rough it, and to forego stained glass windows and organs" [62]. 
During the next ten years the frail cabin churches were replaced 
by more solid buildings, parsonages and lodges for the Clergy when 
visiting, as well as Mission boats, were provided, many new stations 
were opened, including a special Mission (organised in 1891) for the 
neglected sailors, and the accessions to the Church numbered between 
three and four thousand [68]. But moral and spiritual training is 
of more importance than mere numerical increase, and, '^instead 
of bidding more to the heavenly feast," it was found necessary for the 
Clergy to sift well and to reject some of their registered communicants. 
The firm stand thus made had the effect of checking the evil and 
deepening the life of the communicants [64]. But in reporting this 
the Bishop stated that it is vain almost to hope for a moral reformation 
unless a stop be pat to the building of the hovels in which the poor 
are housed [65]. 

At the present time Nassau may still fairly claim to be regarded 
as a Missionary and not merely as a Colonial diocese. In the city of 
Nassau there is a considerable white population, and the Church 
is able to support herself (except in the parish(>s of St. Mary and 
St. Anne) ; but the greater number of the islands are peopled entirely 
by negroes, who, " though nominally Christians, are to a great extent 
practically heathen." There are great difficulties in the work of 
evangelisation, arising (1) from the population being scattered over 
so wide an area, the distance by sea from one end of the diocese to the 
other being about 650 miles. The people live in small settlements 
separated by great distances, some in huts hidden away in the bush, 
only to be got at by a weary tramp over sharp, honeycombed rock ; 
others in settlements inaccessible except by boat^ and then only in 
certain winds ; others are secluded in the recesses of creeks to which 
the approach is almost blocked by clamps of mangroves [66]. (2) The 
bulk 01 the male population is employed on the sea, sponge gathering 


daring nearly the whole year. (8) Govemment provides schools 
(undenominational) only in the most populous centres. The Church, 
with the aid of grants from Bray's Associates and the Christian Faith 
Society,* does what it can to provide teaching of a very simple and 
elementary character for the children in the more remote places, hut 
numbers are still out of reach of any school. The people generally 
are in a state of extreme ignorance, a large proportion being unable to 
read; witchcraft and other heathen superstitions abound, and immorality 
is everywhere very prevalent. (4) The missionary clergy have to 
spend their time travelling from one station to another, and their 
field of work is so large that it is impossible for them, except at 
their headquarters, to spend more than a few days at a time at one 
place. In their absence the services are conducted by native catechists, 
many of whom are zealous and able to exert a good influence over 
their stations, yet who are for the most part very illiterate men, 
and are incapable of teaching anything more than the simplest religious 
lessons [671. 

In some parts, as at Andros, the largest island in the Bahamas, 
and the only one possessing freshwater lakes, the Clergy, in addition to 
their proper work, fill the ofiQces of parish doctor, visitor of the Board 
schools, justice of the peace, public vaccinator, as well as perform the 
friendly offices of adjuster of private wrangles, writing letters and 
wills, and giving advice on many matters, for, except the magistrate, 
they are the only white persons seen all along the shore [68]. 

The evangelisation of the sponge gatherers forms the most difficult 
branch of the Church's work. There are thousands of these men, 
drawn from many different islands, whom to find at their proper 
homes is well-nigh impossible, as for nearly the whole year they are 
absent on voyages of a few weeks at a time, each lasting long enough 
to secure a ship's cargo. The sponges, however, are commonly brought 
to market at Nassau, and it is then that the sailors' chaplain may 
often get a chance of seizing upon and impressing the men who form 
the crews. Yet it is hard work, both to rescue them from dens of vice 
to which they are led in their simplicity, and to succeed in teaching 
them anything at all during visits to town which are so short. Half 
the baptismal creed will have been gone through when the order 
comes to sail, and the promising catechumen disappears, to return 
only after two or three months' absence with everything lost and 

* Originally " The Society for the Conversion and Religioas Instniction and Edaca- 
cation of the Negroe Slaves in the British West India Isl&nds." This Society had its 
origin in a bequest of the Hon. Robert Boyle {hj will dated July 16, 1691) intended "for 
the advancement or Propagation of the Christian Iieli</ion amongst Infidels" and the 
income from which the Trastees {m. consequence of the American Bevolntionary war of 
the eighteenth century) had ceased to apply to its original object, viz., the education and 
instruction of Indian children in the CoUege of William and Mary in Virginia. The 
Society received its first Royal Charter through the exertions of Bishop Porteous of 
London, on October 80, 1794, and a renewed Carter through those of Bishop Blomfield, 
on January 11, 1886, under the present title, "T^ Incorporated Society for Advancing 
the Christian Faith in the British West Indian Islands and elsewhere^ and in the 
Mauritius.'* The Society derives its income, now about £2,810 per annum, from invest- 
ments, and therefore the excellent work it has been doing quietly for over a century is 
little lieard of. The West Indian Bishops, to whom block grants are annually made, 
repeatedly bear witness to the indispensable benefit their dioceses receive from the 
Society. The Secretary is the Rev. Canon Bailey, D.D., Canterbury. 

227a SOCIETY fob the propagation of the gospel. 

forgotten that he had been learning. Candidates for confirmation are 
sent to the Bishop generally one at a time. Often they are brought up 
to his private chapel at an early hour, having been baptized overnight, 
and then sail later in the same day ; it rarely happens that they can 
remain long enough to make their first Communion. They have a 
special chapel of their own down by the wharf, and a club underneath. 
Occasionally the Clergy visit the sponging grounds and spend a Sunday 
with the spongers, holding Mission services on the beach, attended by 
from 400 to 500 men and boys at a time. 

Prior to the introduction of services for blessing ships and sailors 
by the Bishop in 1893 there was hardly a sailor in the Bahamas who 
went to sea without putting on an obeah- string for his protection 
against malignant evil spuits [69]. 

The time has not yet come for the creation of a native ministry,* 
the difficulties in the way of training candidates for Holy Orders being, 
under present circumstances, insurmountable. Under existing circum- 
stances the present system of work, which was commenced by Bishop 
Yenables, is the best that can be devised. There are more than 
ninety Church stations at which services are held, and about 130 lay 
readers, none of whom are paid anything for their work. 

On the whole, the chief difficulty in negro work is to contend with 
ebbs and tides, to repress vain and foolish excitement one day, and the 
next to shame the people out of the torpor which is sure to succeed 
[70 & 70a]. 

Even with all their love of witchcraft, their riotous wakes and 
dances, and other enormities, the blacks are still a deUghtful people, 
whom to teach and train is as happy an employment as Missionaries 
could desire.t And for the most part the Clergy have quickly learned 
to love the Bahamas, and become acclimatised in every sense of the 
word, and year by year they carry on the work of the Church with 
exemplary devotion and courage under considerable difficulties [71]. 
In the Turk's Island J Mission, which is too far away for the Missionary 
to have the benefit of much support from his brother Clergy and 
Bishop, the Rev. H. F. Crofton laboured faithfully and patiently for 
fourteen years (1886-1899), occasionally extending his ministrations to 
the English residents in the Island of San Domingo. The Society 
made a special grant for this work at Puerto Plata in 1877, but it was 
not used. The services held by Mr. Crofton have been attended by 
Lutherans, Moravians, and Methodists, as well as Anglicans [72]. 

* The Society's list of Missionaries in the diocese has incIadaJ only two coloured 
clergymen {see Missionary Roll). 

t A Missionary of the American Church at Jacksonville, U.S., stated in 1883 that 
those of his flock who had been brought up iii the Church at Nassau were '* the best 
educated black people " he had ever seen [71a]. 

X Tlie Turk's and Caicos Islands were separated from the other Bahamas in 1848, 
and formed into a distinct Presidency under the Governor of Jamaica. 


Towards the building of churches destroyed in the Bahamas by 
the hurricane of August 11 and 12, 1899, the Society voted i;500 in 
1900 [73]. 

After a succession of serious illnesses Bishop E. T. Churton was 
obliged to resign the Bishopric in 1900. His episcopate had been 
one of singular devotion, and in the last year Bishop Hornby rendered 
kind help. Happily the vacancy occurred at a time when the Missions 
were fully manned by an efficient staff of clergy, every post of work 
being occupied and the prospects being in every way brighter than 
they were when Bishop Churton entered upon his episcopate in 1886. 
In place of fourteen clergy, eight of whom were receiving salaries from 
Government, he left a staff of twenty-two, of whom only three were 
paid by Government [74]. 

{For Statistical Summai^ seep. 252.) 




Jamaica, was discovered by Colambos in 1494, and by him called ** St. Ja^o." The 
island was then densely peopled by Indians, and it soon recovered its native name of 
Cha-maika ("island of springs"). The formal occupation of the island by the 
Spanish (Government in 1509 as a "garden" for obtaining provisions, and as a 
'* norsery " for slaves for their mines in America, resolted in the complete extermination 
of the natives, some of whom were " hanged ... by thirteens in honour of the thirteen 
apostles"; and Indian infants were thrown to the dogs to be devoured. Cromwell 
wrested the island from Spain in 1655, and it remained under military jurisdiction 
until 1660, when a regular civil government was established by Charles II. On its cap- 
ture by the British a large body of the Span